Effects of Oral Supplementation of Vitamin E on Fragility of RBC in Hemolytic Anemic Patients with G6PD Deficiency
Keywords:Osmotic fragility, G6PD, hemolytic anemia, vitamin E
Background: Vitamin E has role in maintaining the integrity of red cell membrane by preventing oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids and thereby protects cells from oxidative stress- induced lysis in G6PD deficiency, which can be reflected by changes in osmotic fragility of RBC and some absolute values like MCV, MCH & MCHC.
Objective: To observe the effects of vitamin E supplementation on fragility of RBC in order to evaluate role of this antioxidant vitamin in reducing chronic hemolysis in G6PD deficient patients.
Methods: For this, a total number of 102 subjects with age ranged from 5 to 40 years of both sexes were included in the study. Among them 68 were G6PD enzyme deficient patients, of whom 34 were in supplemented group (study group) and 34 were in non-supplemented group (control group). The supplemented group received vitamin E supplementation for 60 consecutive days at a dose of 800 IU/day for adult and 400 IU/day for children < 12 years (in a divided dose i,e. 4 times daily). Age and sex matched 34 apparently healthy subjects with normal blood G6PD level were taken to observe the base line data (healthy control) and also for comparison. All the G6PD deficient patients were selected from Out Patient Department (OPD) of Hematology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka, Bangladesh during the period of July 2005 to June 2006 and all the healthy subjects were selected from personal contact. Blood G6PD level, osmotic fragility of RBC were measured by standard techniques and MCV, MCH, and MCHC were obtained by calculation. All the parameters were measured on day 1 (one) of their first visit and also were on day 60 in deficient group. Data were compared among the deficient groups, also in supplemented group just before and after supplementation. Analysis of data was done by appropriate statistical method.
Results: Mean starting and completing points of osmotic fragility of RBC were significantly higher but MCV, MCH, MCHC were significantly lower in patients suffering from hemolytic anemia due to G6PD deficiency in comparison to those of the healthy control. After supplementation with vitamin E starting and completing points of osmotic fragility of RBC were significantly decreased whereas, MCV, MCH, MCHC were significantly increased towards those of healthy control in supplemented group of patients in comparison to those of their pre-supplemented (day-1) and non-supplemented groups both on day 1 and day 60.
Conclusion: From this study it may be concluded that, disturbances of some of the hematological parameter like higher osmotic fragility of RBC and lower MCV, MCH, MCHC occur in G6PD deficient hemolytic anemic patients, which returned towards normal after supplementation of vitamin E, which clearly indicates the role of this anti-oxidant vitamin in maintaining red cell membrane integrity and thereby decreases the rate of hemolysis in this group of patients. So, vitamin E can be supplemented along with other drugs for better management of the patients.
Key words: Osmotic fragility, G6PD, hemolytic anemia, vitamin E.
BSMMU J 2008; 1(1): 6-10