Diagnosing oral squamous cell carcinoma using salivary biomarkers
Keywords:Biomarker, DNA marker, RNA marker, Protein marker, Saliva, Squamous cell carcinoma
Oral cancer is becoming frightful public health issue because of its raising incidence as well as mortality rates worldwide. Out of all types of oral cancer, the oral squamous cell carcinoma is the most common malignant tumor with an incidence of about 90%. This fatal disease is diagnosed through a comprehensive clinical examination followed by the histological assessments forming the diagnostic gold standard. Although the oral cavity is simply accessible, but maximum oral cancers are usually diagnosed at the late stage. Consequently, it is necessary to implicate newer screening and early diagnosing approaches which will diminish the morbidity as well as mortality related to this disease. Saliva which is a complex biological fluid has a direct relation with the oral cancer lesion and contains abnormal DNA, RNA, protein molecules released by the malignant cells. These can be labelled as neoplastic biomarkers proposed to play an important role in diagnostic, therapeutic and prognostic purposes for oral cancers as well as other diseases. The aim of this review paper is to concisely discuss the different types of potential salivary biomarkers as well as their interaction for screening of oral cancers.