Prevalence of hypertension in people living in coastal areas of Bangladesh
The prevalence of hypertension was reported higher in the coastal areas in different populations of the world. There was no study on the prevalence of hypertension among the coastal people in Bangladesh. This study addressed the prevalence and risk of hypertension among people living in the coastal areas of Bangladesh. Total 32 different coastal communities were selected purposively in the six coastal districts (Barisal, Borguna, Vola, Pirojpur, Potuakhali and Jhalukathi) of Bangladesh. All people over 18 years were considered eligible. Social, clinical and family histories were taken. Height, weight, waist- and hip-girths were measured including systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP). Fasting blood glucose and lipids were also estimated. The accepted cut offs for systolic hypertension (sHTN) was ?135mmHg and diastolic hypertension (dHTN) was ?85 mmHg. Overall, 7058 (m / f = 2631 / 4427) people volunteered to participate in the study. The crude prevalence of sHTN was 17.8% [95% CI, 17.39 18.21] and dHTN was 19.0% [95% CI 18.08 19.92]. Compared to female, the male participants had higher prevalence of both sHTN (16.4 v. 20.2 %, p<0.001) and dHTN (17.4 v. 21.5%, p<0.001). The prevalence rates of sHTN were 14.6, 18.5 and 24.6% in the poor, the middle and in the rich class, respectively (p<0.001). Similar trend was observed with dHTN. Both types of HTN increased with increasing age (p<0.001), BMI (p<0.001), WHR (p<0.001) and WHtR (p<0.001). Logistic regression analyses proved that the participants of higher social class, of advancing age and with higher obesity had excess risk of hypertension. Positive family history of HTN, DM and stroke had also increased risk for HTN. We found higher prevalence of HTN in Bangladeshi coastal population compared to people living in other areas of Bangladesh. Family history of DM, HTN and stroke were significantly related to sHTN and dHTN. Increasing age, higher obesity and higher social class had excess risk for developing HTN. Further study may be undertaken to address other unexplored risks like physical inactivity, unhealthy diet or psychosocial stress affecting the coastal people. Salt content of water and food consumed by these people should also be investigated.
Ibrahim Med. Coll. J. 2015; 9(1): 11-17