Computational selections of terpenes present in the plant Calotropis gigantea as mosquito larvicide’s by blocking the sterol carrying protein, AeSCP-2

P. Suresh Kumar, A. Chezhian, P. Senthil Raja, J. Sathiyapriya


The present study reports the phytochemical properties of Calotropis gigantea (Asclepiadaceae) commonly known as milk weed. In addition, in silico docking analysis was also carried out to assess the mosquito larvicidal potential of three terpene compounds isolated from C. gigantea. Considerable amount of primary metabolites, essential macro and micro nutrients were documented in the plant. The GC-MS analysis of the chloroform extract revealed the presence of eight terpenes in the plant. From the docking studies it is evident that α-amyrin has a great potential against AeSCP-2. The phytochemical screening and docking results gives strong baseline information for the posterity.


Calotropis gigantea; Mosquito larvicidal; Phytochemical; Terpenes

Full Text:



Ali M, Gupta J. New pentacyclic triterpenic esters from the roots of Calotropis procera. Indian J Chem. 1999; 38: 877-81.

Allen SE. Chemical analysis of ecological materials. 2nd ed. Blackwell Science Publishers, Oxford, 1989.

Altaf WJ. Effect of motorway traffic emission on roadside wild-plants in Saudi Arabia. Radioanalytical Nuclear Chem. 1997; 217: 91-94.

Baker DE, Suhr NH. Atomic absorption and flame emission spectrometry. In: Methods of soil analysis. USA, American Society of Agronomy, 1982, pp 13-76.

Balasubramanian T, Sadasivam S. Changes in starch, oil, protein and amino acids in developing seeds of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench). Plant Foods Human Nutri. (Formerly Qualitas Plantarum). 1987; 37: 41-46.

Chitme HR, Chandra R, Kaushik S. Studies on anti-diarrhoeal activity of Calotropis gigantea R. Br. in experimental animals. J Pharm Pharmaceut Sci. 2004; 25: 70-75.

CSIR. The wealth of India: Raw materials. Vol: 3. New Delhi, Publication and Information Directorate, 1992, pp 78-84.

Duke JA. Handbook of biologically active phytochemicals and their activities. Florida, CRC Press, 1992, pp 22-25.

Folch J, Lees M, Sloane Stanley GH. A simple method for the isolation and duritication of the total lipids from animal tissues. J Biol Chem. 1957; 226: 497-509.

Habib RM, Nikkon F, Rahaman M. Isolation of β-sitosterol from methanolic extract of root bark of Calotropis gigantea (Linn). Pak J Biol Sci. 2007; 10: 4174-76.

Hedge JE, Hofreiter BT. In: Carbohydrate chemistry. Whistler RL, Be Miller JN (eds). New York, Academic Press, 1962.

Jackson ML. Soil chemical analysis. New Delhi, Prentice Hall of India, 1973, pp 10-144.

Khanzada SK, Shaikh W, Kazi TG, Sofia S, Kabir A, Usmanghani K, Kandhro AA. Analysis of fatty acid, elemental and total protein of Calotropis procera medicinal plant from Sindh, Pakistan. Pak J Bot. 2008; 40: 1913-21.

Kirkpatrick P. Virtual screening: Gliding to success. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2004; 3: 294-99.

Kitamura T, Kobayashi S, Okada M. Regional ezpression of the transcript encoding sterol carrier protein x-related thiolase and its regulation by homeotic genes in the midgut of

Drosophila embryos. Dev Growth Differ. 1996; 38: 373-81.

Kupchan SM, Knox JR, Kelsey JE, Renauld JAS. Calotropin, a cytotoxic principle isolated from Asclepias curassavica L. Science 1964; 146: 1685-86.

Lowry OH, Rosebrough NJ, Fax AL, Randall RJ. Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent. J Biol Chem. 1951; 193: 265.

Mass Spectrometry Data Centre Eight Peak Index of Mass Spectra, (2nd ed., Vols 1 and 2). In collabration with ICI Ltd. (Organic Division), Reading, 1974

Murti PBR, Seshadri TR. Chemical composition of Calotropis gigantean. Part 1. Wax and resin components of the latex. Proc Indian Acad Sci. 1943; 18: 145-59.

Murti PBR, Seshadri TR. Chemical composition of Calotropis gigantean. Part II. Wax and resin components of the stem bark. Proc Indian Acad Sci. 1945a; 21: 8-18.

Murti PBR, Seshadri TR. Chemical composition of Calotropis gigantean: Part VI. Flowers: A comparison of the composition of the various parts of the plant. Proc Indian Acad Sci. 1945b; 21: 304–09.

Renaud SM, Parry DL, Luong-Van T. Microalgae for use in tropical aquaculture I: Gross chemical and fatty acid composition of twelve species of microalgae from the Northern Territory, Australia. J Appl Phycol. 1994; 6: 337-45.

Sastry CST, Kavathekar KY. In: Plants for reclamation of wasteland. New Delhi, Publication and Information Directorate, CSIR, 1990, pp 175-79.

Sen S, Sahu NP, Mahato SB. Flavonol glycosides from Calotropis gigantea. Phytochemistry 1992; 31: 2919-21.

Sharma GK. Calotropis procera and Calotropis gigantea. Indian J Veterinary Sci. 1934; 4: 63-74.

Snow RW, Guerra CA, Noor AM, Myint HY, Hay HI. Nature 2005; 434: 214-17.

Tenpe CR, Upaganlawar AB, Dongre PA, Yeole PG. Screening of methanolic extract of Calotropis gigantea leaves for hepatoprotective activity. Indian Drugs. 2007; 44: 874-75.

Walkley A, Black IA. An examination of the Degtjareff method for determining organic carbon in soils: Effect of variations in digestion conditions and of inorganic soil constituents. Soil Sci. 1934; 63: 251-63.

Wang Z, Wang M, Mei W, Han Z, Dai H. A new cytotoxic pregnanone from Calotropis gigantean. Molecules 2008; 13: 3033-39.


Copyright (c) 2012 P. Suresh Kumar, A. Chezhian, P. Senthil Raja, J. Sathiyapriya

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.