Chemical analysis of phenolic compounds and determination of anti-oxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of organic extracts of Pinus coulteri
New bioactive natural products, the phenolic composition and the biological activities of organic extracts from the needles of the Algerian Pinus coulteri were investigated. The analysis by HPLC-DAD of crude extract revealed the presence of 10 phenolic acids and nine flavonoids. In vitro anti-oxidant activities were performed using four different tests. The greatest antiradical activity was found in the ethyl acetate fraction (IC50 = 3.2 ± 0.3 µg/mL), whereas the diethyl ether fraction had the higher contents of total phenolics and flavonoids and exhibited a highest activity in reducing power and β-carotene–linoleic acid tests with EC50= 67.1 ± 0.4 μg/mL and 71.5 ± 0.2% of inhibition, respectively. Furthermore, a low to moderate antimicrobial activity according to all extracts was revealed against eight bacteria tested. The MIC value of chloroform fraction showed a strong degree of antibacterial activity (<0.09 mg/mL). The crude extract was found toxic with LC50 value of 15.2 μg/mL by brine shrimp toxicity assay. The needle extract of P. coulteri is rich in valuable biologically active compounds and could represent a new resource of anti-oxidant agents for the treatment of diseases.
Video Clip of Methodology:
Abirami P, Gomathinayagam M, Panneerselvam R. Preliminary study on the antimicrobial activity of Enicostemma littorale using different solvents. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2012; 5: 552-55.
Ait Mimoune N, Ait Mimoune D, Yataghene A. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of Pinus pinaster. J Coastal Life Med. 2013; 1: 54-58.
Al-Saikhan MS, Howard LR, Miller Jr. Anti-oxidant activity and total phenolics in different genotypes of potato (Solanum tuberosumL.). J Food Sci. 1995; 60: 341–47.
Amalinei RL, Trifan A, Cioanca O, Miron SD, Mihai CT, Rotinberg P, Miron A. Polyphenol-rich extract from Pinus sylvestris L. bark: Chemical and antitumor studies. Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat lasi. 2014; 118: 551-57.
Bencherchar I, Demirtas I, Altun M, Gûl F, Sarri D, Benayache F, Benayache S, Mekkiou R. HPLC analysi, anti-oxidant activity of Genista ferox and its anti-proliferative effect in Hel cell line. Bangladesh J Pharmacol. 2017; 12: 260-67.
Braca A, Sortino C, Politi M, Morelli I, Mendez J. Anti-oxidant activity of flavonoids from Licania licaniae flora. J Ethnopharmacol. 2002; 79: 379-81.
Cai YZ, Luo Q, Sun M, Corke H. Anti-oxidant activity and phenolic compounds of 112 Chinese medicinal plants associated with anti-cancer. Life Sci. 2004; 74: 2157-84.
Calamassi R. Caractérisation de quelques provenances de Pinus halepensis Mill. Sur la base de la structure anatomique et morphologique des aiguilles. Ann Sci. 1986; 43: 281-98.
Chew AL, Jeyanthi JAJ, Sasidharan S. Anti-oxidant and antibacterial activity of different parts of Leucasaspera. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2012; 2: 176-80.
Cui YY, Xie H, Qi KB, He YM, Wang JF. Effects of Pinus massoniana bark extract on cell proliferation and apoptosis of human hepatoma BEL-7402 cells. World J Gastroenterol. 2005; 11: 5277-82.
Dob T, Berramdane T, Chelghoum C. Essential oil composition of pinus halepensis Mill, from three different regions of Algeria. J Essent Oil Res. 2007; 19: 40-43.
Ebrahimabadi AH, Mazoochi A, Kashi FJ, Djafari-Bidgoli Z, Batooli H. Essential oil composition and anti-oxidant and antimicrobial properties of the aerial parts of Salvia eremophila Boiss. from Iran. Food Chem Toxicol. 2010; 48: 1371-76.
Erkan N, Ayranci G, Ayranci E. Anti-oxidant activities of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) extract, blackseed (Nigella sativa L.) essential oil, carnosic acid, rosmarinic acid and sesamol. Food Chem. 2008; 110: 76-82.
Gernandt DS, López GG, García SO, Liston A. Phylogeny and classification of Pinus. Taxon 2005; 54: 29-42.
Huseini HF, Anvari MS, Tajallizadehkhoob Y, Rabbani S, Sharifi F, Arzaghi SM, Fakhzadeh H. Antihyperlipidemic and anti-atherosclerotic effects of Pinus eldarica Medw. nut in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Daru J Pharm Sci. 2015; 23: 32.
Hanana M, Bejia A, Amri I, Gargouri S, Jamoussi B, Hamrouni L. Activités biologiques des huiles essentielles de pins. J New Sci. 2014; 4: 18-32.
Huang B, Ban X, He JS, Tong J, Tian J, Wang Y. Hepatoprotrective and anti-oxidant activity of ethanolic extracts of edible lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaern.) leaves. Food Chem. 2010; 120: 873–78.
Ioannou E, Koutsaviti A, Tzakou O, Roussis V. The genus Pinus: A comparative study on the needle essential oil composition of 46 pine species. Phytochem Rev. 2014; 13: 741-68.
Kaneria M, Kanari B, Chanda S. Assessment of effect of hydroalcoholic and decoction methods on extraction of anti-oxidants from selected indian medicinal plants. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2012; 2: 195-202.
Kwak CS, Moon SC, Lee MS. Anti-oxidant, antimutagenic, and antitumor effect of pine neddles (Pinus densiflora). Nutr Cancer. 2006; 56(2):162- 171.
Lamaison JL, Carnet A. Teneurs en principaux flavonoides des fleurs de Crataegus monogyna Jacq. Pharm Acta Helv. 1990; 65: 315-20.
Liu RH. Health benefits of fruit and vegetables are from additive and synergistic combinations of phytochemicals. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003; 78: 517-20.
Lucienne A, Les plantes médicinales d’Algérie, Ed. BERTI Alger, 2010, p 200-201.
Meddour R. Régénération naturelle de Cedrusatlantica Man. et de divers pins après incendie dans l’arboretum de Meurdja (Algérie). Foretméditerranéenne 1992; 13: 275-88.
Meyer BN, Ferrign RN, Putnam JE, Jacobson LB, Nicholas D, McLaughlin JL. Brine Shrimp: A convenient general bioassay for active plant constituents. Planta Medica. 1982; 45: 31-34.
Oyaizu M. Studies on product of browning reaction prepared from glucose amine. Jpn J Nutr. 1986; 44: 307-31.
Parejo I, Viladomat F, Bastida J, Rosas-Romero A, Flerlage N, Burillo J, Codina C. Comparison between the radical scavenging activity and anti-oxidant activity of six distilled and non distilled Mediterranean herbs and aromatic plants. J Agric Food Chem. 2002; 50: 6882–90.
Paris R, Moyse H. Précis de matière médicale (Tome 1). Masson, France, 1976.
Prieto P, Pineda M, Aguilar M. Spectrophotometric quantitation of anti-oxidant capacity through the formation of a phosphomolybdenum complex: Specific application to the determination of vitamin E. Anal Biochem. 1999; 269: 337–41.
Raghavendra M, Madhusudhana RA, Raghuveer YP, Sudharshan RA, Siva KL. Comparative studies on the in vitro anti-oxidant properties of methanolic leafy extracts from six edible leafy vegetables of india. Asian J Pharm Clin Res. 2013; 6: 96-99.
Shon MY, Kim TH, Sung NJ. Anti-oxidants and free radical scavenging activity of Phellinus baumii (Phellinus of Hymenochaetaceae) extracts. Food Chem. 2003; 82: 593–97.
Singleton VL, Rossi JA. Colorimetry of total phenolics with phosphomolybdic-phosphotungstic acid reagents. Am J Enol Vitic. 1965; 16: 144-53.
Sun J, Chu YF, Wu X, Liu RH. Anti-oxidant and anti-proliferative activities of common fruits. J Agric Food Chem. 2002; 50: 7449–54.
Turker AU, Camper ND. Biological activity of common mullein, a medicinal plant. J Ethnopharmacol. 2002; 82: 117-25.
Ustun O, Senol FS, Kurkcuoglu M, Orhan I, Kartal M, Husnu Can Baser K. Investigation on chemical composition, anticholinesterase and anti-oxidant activities of extracts and essential oils of Turkish Pinus species and pycnogenol. Ind Crops Prod. 2012; 38: 115-23.
Vaquero MJR, Alberto MR, Manca De Nadra MC. Antibacterial effect of phenolic compounds from different wines. Food Control. 2007; 18: 93-101.
Wong SP, Leong LP, Koh JHW. Anti-oxidant activities of aqueous extracts of selected plants. Food Chem. 2006; 99: 775–83.
Yesil-Celiktas O, Ganzera M, Akgun I, Sevimli C, Korkmaza KS, Bedir E. Determination of polyphenolic constituents and biological activities of bark extracts from different Pinus species. J Sci Food Agric. 2009; 89: 1339-45.
Copyright (c) 2018 Soumia Merah, Dahmane Dahmane, Soumeya Krimat, Hafidha Metidji, Ahmed Nouasri, Lynda Lamari, Tahar Dob
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).