Antidiarrheal and antispasmodic activities of Adiantum capillus-veneris are predominantly mediated through ATP-dependent K+ channels activation
The study was tempted to explore the scientific basis for the medicinal use of Adiantum capillus-veneris L. in diarrhea using the in vivo and in vitro assays. The crude extract of dried leaves of A. capillus-veneris exhibited antidiarrheal effect against castor oil-induced diarrhea in mice at 300 and 500 mg/kg, similar to the effect loperamide. It was also found safe up to administered dose of 7 g/kg in mice. In isolated rabbit jejunum, extract of A. capillus-veneris showed a concentration-dependent relaxation of spontaneous and low K+ (25 mM)-induced contractions and had weak inhibitory effect on high K+ (80 mM), similar to the activity pattern of cromakalim, an ATP-dependent K+ channel opener. Interestingly, its inhibitory effect on spontaneous contractions was potentiated in the presence of atropine. These data demonstrates that A. capillus-veneris possesses antidiarrheal and antispasmodic properties mediated possibly through ATP-dependent K+ channels activation, thus providing scientific basis to its folk use in abdominal colic and diarrhea.
Ahmed A, Wadud A, Jahan N, Bilal A, Hajera S. Efficacy of Adiantum capillus veneris Linn in chemically induced urolithiasis in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2013; 146: 411-16.
Brown JH, Taylor P. Muscarinic receptor agonists and antagonists. In: Brunton LL, Lazo JS, Parker KL, editors. Goodman & Gilmans the pharmacological basis of therapeutics. 11th edn. McGraw-Hill., New York, 2006, pp 183200.
Chopra RN, Chopra IC, Handa KL, Kapur LD. Chopras Indigenous drugs of India. Calcutta, India. Dhur UN and Sons, Pvt. Ltd. 1958, pp 647-55.
Croci T, Landi M, Elmonds-Alt X, Le Fur G, Maffrand JP, Manara L. Role of tachykinins in castor oil-induced diarrhea in rats. Br J Pharmacol. 1997;121: 375-80.
Duke JA, Bogenschutz-Godwin MJ, Du Celliar J, Duke PAK. Adiantum capillus-veneris L. In: Handbook of medicinal herbs. 2nd ed. Boca Raton, CRC Press, 2002.
Frank H, Puschmann A, Schusdziarra V, Allescher HD. Functional evidence for a glibenclamide-sensitive K+ channel in rat ileal smooth muscle. Eur J Pharmacol. 1994; 271: 379-86.
Gaginella TS, Phillips SF. Ricinoleic acid: Current view of ancient oil. Dig Dis Sci. 1975; 20: 1171-77.
Gilani AH, Mehmood MH, Janbaz KH, Khan A, Saeed SA. Ethnopharmacological studies on antispasmodic and anti-platelet activities of Ficus carica. J Ethnopharmacol. 2008; 119: 1-5.
Haider S, Kharbanda C, Alam MS, Hamid H, Ali M, Alam M, Nazreen S, Ali Y. Anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities of two new triterpenoids from Adiantum capillus-veneris Linn. Nat Prod Res. 2013; 27: 2304-10.
Hakim SA, Wiqar AU, Ata RU. Pakistan encyclopedia pant medica. 2nd ed. Hamdard, Pakistan. 1996, pp 189-99.
Ibraheim ZZ, Ahmed AS, Gouda YG. Phytochemical and biological studies of Adiantum capillus-veneris L. Saudi Pharm J. 2011; 19: 65-74
Ishaq MS, Hussain MM, Afridi MS, Ali G, Khattak M, Ahmad S, Shakirullah. In vitro phytochemical, antibacterial, and antifungal activities of leaf, stem, and root extracts of Adiantum capillusveneris. Sci World J. 2014; 2014: 269793.
Iwao I, Terada Y. On the mechanism of diarrhea due to castor oil. Japanese J Pharmacol. 1962; 12: 137-45.
Janbaz KH, Shabbir A, Mehmood MH, Gilani AH. Pharmacological basis for the medicinal use of Rhus coriaria in hyperactive gut disorders. Bangladesh J Pharmacol. 2014; 9: 636-44.
Khan A, Rehman NU, AlKharfy KM, Gilani AH. Antidiarrhoeal and antispasmodic activities of Salvia officinalis are mediated through activation of K+ channels. Bangladesh J Pharmacol. 2011; 6: 110-16.
Khan M, Shah AJ, Gilani AH. Antidiarrheal and antispasmodic activities of Vitex negundo Linn. are mediated through Ca++ channel blockade. Bangladesh J Pharmacol. 2013; 8: 317-22.
Lee CW, Sarna SK, Singaram C, Casper MA. Ca++ channel blockade by verapamil inhibits GMCs and diarrhoea during small intestinal inflammation. Am J Physiol. 1997; 273: 785-94.
Marino A, Elberti MG, Cataldo A. [Phytochemical investigation of Adiantum capillus veneris]. Boll Soc Ital Biol Sper. 1989; 65: 461-63.
Mehmood MH, Gilani AH. Pharmacological basis for the medicinal use of black pepper and piperine in gastrointestinal disorders. J Med Food. 2010; 13: 1086-96.
Mehmood MH, Aziz N, Ghayur MN, Gilani AH. Pharmacological basis for the medicinal use of psyllium husk (Ispaghula) in constipation and diarrhea. Dig Dis Sci. 2011; 56: 1460-67.
Nakane T, Maeda Y, Ebihara H, Arai Y, Masuda K, Takano A, Ageta H, Shiojima K, Cai SQ, Abdel-Halim OB. Fern constituents: Triterpenoids from Adiantum capillus-veneris. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2002; 50: 1273-75.
National Research Council. Guide for the care and use of laboratory animals. National Academy Press, Washington, 1996, pp 1-7.
Nilforoushzadeh MA, Javanmard SH, Ghanadian M, Asghari G, Jaffary F, Yakhdani AF, Dana N, Fatemi SA. The effects of Adiantum capillus-veneris on wound healing: An experimental in vitro evaluation. Int J Prev Med. 2014; 5: 1261-68.
Noubarani M, Rostamkhani H, Erfan M, Kamalinejad M, Eskandari MR, Babaeian M, Salamzadeh J. Effect of Adiantum capillus-veneris Linn on an animal model of testosterone-induced hair loss. Iran J Pharm Res. 2014; 13: 113-18.
Pasricha PJ. Treatment of disorders of bowel motility and water flux In: Brunton LL, Lazo JS, Parker KL, editors. Goodman & Gilmans the pharmacological basis of therapeutics. 11th ed. McGraw-Hill., New York, 2006, pp 983-1008.
Poggioli R, Benelli A, Arletti R, Cavazzuti E, Bertolini A. K+ channel openers delay intestinal transit and have antidiarrhoeal activity. Eur J Pharmacol. 1995; 287: 207-09.
Reynolds IJ, Gould RJ, Snyder, SH. Loperamide: Blockade of calcium channels as a mechanism for antidiarrheal effects. J Pharmacol. 1984; 231: 628-32.
Shah AJ, Begum S, Hassan SI, Ali SN, Siddiqui BS, Gilani AH. Pharmacological basis for the medicinal use of Psidium guajava leave in hyperactive gut disorders. Bangladesh J Pharmacol. 2011; 6: 100-06.
Singh M, Singh N, Khare PB, Rawat AK. Antimicrobial activity of some important Adiantum species used traditionally in indigenous systems of medicine. J Ethnopharmacol. 2008; 115: 327-29.
Usmanghani K, Saeed A, Alam MT. Indusyunic medicine. University of Karachi Press, Karachi, 1997.
Vogalis F. Potassium channels in gastrointestinal smooth muscle. J Auton Pharmacol. 2000; 20: 207-19.
Yuan Q, Zhang X, Liu Z, Song S, Xue P, Wang J, Ruan J. Ethanol extract of Adiantum capillus-veneris L. suppresses the production of inflammatory mediators by inhibiting NF-?B activation. J Ethnopharmacol. 2013; 147: 603-11.
Copyright (c) 2015 Khalid Hussain Janbaz, Waseem Hassan, Malik Hassan Mehmood, Anwarul Hassan Gilani
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).