Functional nature of the spasmolytic effect, phytochemical composition and acute toxicity studies on Sauromatum guttatum
The aim of the present work was to study the functional nature of the potential spasmolytic effect of the crude extract of Sauromatum guttaum. It was found positive for the presence of alkaloid and tannins. In isolated rabbit jejunum preparation, S. guttaum caused inhibition of spontaneous and high K+ (80 mM)-induced contractions, with respective EC50 values (95% confidence intervals) of 1.50 mg/mL (0.69-3.02) and 1.17 mg/mL (0.81-1.61), similar to verapamil. Inhibition of high K+ -induced contractions suggests Ca++ antagonistic effect. The Ca++channel blocker activity of S. guttaum was confirmed when pre-treatment of the tissues with extract (0.3-3 mg/mL) caused a rightward displacement in the Ca++ concentration-response curves. Moreover, in the acute toxicity test, S. guttaum was found safe up to the dose of 3 g/kg. The findings of the current study suggest that the S. guttaum exhibited spasmolytic activity, possibly mediated through inhibitory effect on Ca++ entry and was found safe and this current study provides first evidence to the potential use of this plant as antispasmodic and can play a possible role as antidiarrheal.
Abouzid S, Elshahaat A, Ali S, Choudhary MI. Anti-oxidant activity of wild plants collected in Beni-Sueif governorate, Upper Egypt. Drug Disc Thera. 2008; 2: 286-88.
Baquar SR. Medicinal and poisonous plants of Pakistan. Karachi, Printas, 1989.
Bolton TB. Mechanisms of action of transmitters and other substances on smooth muscle. Physiol Rev. 1979; 59: 606-718.
Brading AF. How do drugs initiate contraction in smooth muscles? Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2: 161-65.
Brunton LL. Agents affecting gastrointestinal water ﬂux and motility; emesis and antiemetics; bile acids and pancreatic enzymes. In: Goodman and Gillman’s The Pharmacological basis of therapeutics. Hardman JG, Limbird LE, Molinoff PB (eds). New York, McGraw Hill, 1996, pp 917-36.
Edeoga HO, Okwu KE, Mbaebie BO. Phytochemical constituents of some Nigerian medicinal plants. Afr J Biotechnol. 2005; 4: 685-88.
Farre AJ, Columbo M, Fort M, Gutierrez B. Differential effects of various Ca++ antagonists. Gen Pharmacol. 1991; 22: 177-81.
Fleckenstein A. Specific pharmacology of Ca++ in myocardium, cardiac pacemakers and vascular smooth muscle. Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 1977; 17: 149-66.
Gilani AH, Shah AJ, Ahmad M, Shaheen F. Antispasmodic effect of Acorus calamus Linn., is mediated through calcium channel blockade. Phytother Res. 2006; 20: 1080-84.
Gilani AH, Shah AJ, Ghayur MN, Majeed K. Pharmacological basis for the use of turmeric in gastrointestinal and respiratory disorders. Life Sci. 2005; 76: 3089-3105.
Godfraind T, Miller RMW. Calcium antagonism and calcium entry blockade. Pharmacol Rev. 1986; 38: 321-416.
Hwang KH, Han YN, BH. H. Inhibition of calmodulin-dependent calcium-ATPase and phosphodiesterase by various cyclopeptides and peptide alkaloids from the Zizyphus species. Arch Pharmacal Res. 2001; 24: 202-06.
Kai L, Wang ZF, Xiao JS. L-type calcium channel blockade mechanisms of panaxadiol saponins against anoxic damage of cerebral cortical neurons isolated from rats. Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao. 1998; 19: 455-58.
Karaki H. Use of tension response to delineate the modes of action of vasodilators. J Pharmacol Methods. 1987; 18: 1-21.
Khan A, Rehman NU, AlKharfy KM, Gilani AH. Antidiarrheal and antispasmodic activities of Salvia officinalis are mediated through activation of K+ channels. Bangladesh J Pharmacol. 2011; 6: 110-16.
Khan M, Rehman NU, Khan AU, Gilani AH. Pharmacological basis for the medicinal use of Morus alba in gut and airways disorders. Bangladesh J Pharmacol. 2012; 7: 289-98.
Khan M, Shah AJ, Gilani AH. Antidiarrhoeal and antispasmodic activities of Vitex negundo Linn. are mediated through Ca++ channel blockade. Bangladesh J Pharmacol. 2013; 8: 317-22.
NRC. National Research Council. Guide for the care and use of laboratory animals. Washington DC, National Academy Press, 1996.
Shah AJ, Begum S, Hassan SI, Ali SN, Siddiqui BS, Gilani AH. Pharmacological basis for the medicinal use of Psidium guajava leave in hyperactive gut disorders. Bangladesh J Pharmacol. 2011a; 6: 100-06.
Shah AJ, Gilani AH. Blood pressure lowering and vascular modulator effects of Acorus calamus extract are mediated through multiple pathways. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2009; 54: 38-46.
Shah AJ, Gilani AH. Bronchodilatory effect of Acorus calamus and its constituents is mediated through inhibition of phosphodiesterases, calcium channel and muscarinic receptors. J Ethnopharmacol. 2010; 131: 471-77.
Shah AJ, Zaidi MA, Sajjad M, Hamidullah, Gilani AH. Antidiarrheal and antispasmodic activities of Vincetoxicum stocksii are mediated through calcium channel blockade. Bangladesh J Pharmacol. 2011b; 6: 46-50.
van-Rossum JM. Cumulative dose-response curves. II. Techniques for the making of dose-response curves in isolated organs and the evaluation of drug parameters. Arch Int Pharmacodyn. 1963; 143: 299-330.
Copyright (c) 2014 Nabi Shah, Abdul Jabbar Shah, Manzoor Ahmed, Anwar Hassan Gilani
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).