In vivo studies on detoxifying actions of aqueous bark extract of Prosopis cineraria against crude venom from Indian cobra (Naja naja)
Detoxification effect of aqueous, methanol and petroleum ether extracts of medicinal plants such as Aristolochia bracteolata, Mucuna pruriens, Prosopis cineraria and Rauvolfia tetraphylla was systematically screened against lethality of crude venom of Naja naja using Swiss albino mice as animal models. We have herein demonstrated that aqueous bark extract of P. cineraria has substantial anti-venom potential vis-à-vis other extracts used in the present study. The aqueous extract at the dose of 14 mg/kg b.w. was able to almost completely neutralize the lethal activity of 3LD50 (1.12 mg/kg b.w.) of the cobra venom and the extract did not cause any types of adverse side-effects to the animal models. The investigation justifies not only the veraciousness of the extract used by traditional healers of Asian subcontinent as antidotes to snake venoms and also suggests that the aqueous extract should contain specific inhibitors to most principle toxic components of the crude venom.
Abubakar MS, Sule MI, Pateh UU, Abdurahman EM, Haruna K, Jahun BM, et al. In vitro snake venom detoxifying action of the leaf extract of Guiera senegalensis. J Ethnopharmacol. 2000; 69: 253-57.
Bawaskar HS. Snake venoms and antivenoms: Critical supply issues. J Assoc Physicians India. 2004; 52: 11-13.
Biswajit G, Sivaraman T. Unfolding stabilities of two paralogous proteins from Naja naja naja (Indian cobra) as probed by molecular dynamics simulations. Toxicon. 2013; 72: 11-22.
Dal Belo C, Colares V, Leite GB, Ticli FK, Sampaio SV, Cintra CO, et al. Antineurotoxic activity of Galactia glaucescens against Crotalus durissus terrificus venom. Fitoterapia 2008; 79: 378-80.
Dufton MJ, Hider RC. Srtucture and pharmacology of elapid cytotoxins. Pharmacol Ther. 1988; 36: 1-40.
Fry BG, Wickramaratna JC, Hodgson WC, Alewood PF, Kini RM, Ho H et al. Electrospray liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry fingerprinting of Acanthophis (death adder) venoms: taxonomic and toxinological implications. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2002; 16: 600-08.
Gilon D, Shalev O, Benbassat J. Treatment of envenomation by Echis collocates (Mid-East saw scaled viper): A decision tree. Toxicon. 1989; 27: 1105-12.
Harvey AL. Snake toxins. New York, Pergamon Press, 1991.
Ibrahim BJ, Kang YH, Sud DY, Han BH. Inhibition effects of Malaysian medicinal plants on the platelet-activating factor (PAF) receptor binding. Nat Prod Sci. 1996; 2: 86-89.
Karalliedde L. Animal toxins. Br J Anaesth. 1995; 74: 319-27.
Kumar PD, Mohan Raj S, Gopi K, Bhaskaran BM. Detoxifying action of Andrographis lineata (Acanthaceae) leaf extracts on Indian cobra Naja naja Venom. J Pharm Res. 2010; 3: 2548-51.
Meenatchisundaram S, Michael A. Antitoxin activity of Mucuna pruriens aqueous extracts against Cobra and Krait venom by in vivo and in vitro methods. Int J Pharmtech Res. 2010; 2: 870-74.
Meenatchisundaram S, Priyagrace S, Vijayaraghavan R, Velmurugan A, Parameswari G, Michael A. Antitoxin activity of Mimosa pudica root extracts against Naja naja and Bangarus caerulus venoms. Bangladesh J Pharmacol. 2009; 4: 105-09.
Mendes MM, Oliveira CF, Lopes DS, Vale LHF, Alcantara TM, Izidoro LFM, Hamaguchi A, et al. Anti-snake venom properties of Schizolobium parahyba (Caesalpinoi) aqueous leaves extract. Phytother Res. 2008; 866: 859-66.
Mohapatra B, Warrell D, Suraweera W, Bhatia P, Dhingra N, Jotkar RM, et al. Snakebite mortality in India: A nationally representative mortality survey. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011; 5: e1018.
Ode OJ, Asuzu IU. The anti-snake venom activities of the methanolic extract of the bulb of Crinum jagus (Amaryllidaceae). Toxicon 2006; 48: 331-42.
Pithayanukul P, Leanpolchareanchai J, Saparpakorn P. Molecular docking studies and anti-snake venom metalloproteinase activity of Thai mango seed kernel extract. Molecules 2009; 14: 3198-213.
Premendran SJ, Salwe KJ, Pathak S, Brahmane R, Manimekalai K. Anti-cobra venom activity of plant Andrographis paniculata and its comparison with polyvalent anti-snake venom. J Nat Sci Bio Med. 2011; 2: 198-204.
Richard L, Punitha LSR, Rajendran K, Arun S, Annie S. Preliminary study on the snake venom activity of Alcoholic Root Extract of Clerodendrum viscosum (Vent.) in Naja naja venom. Nat Prod Sci. 2006; 12: 153-56.
Sakthivel G, Dey A, Nongalleima K, Chavali M, Rimal Isaac RS, Singh NS, Deb L. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of polyherbal formulation against Russell's viper and cobra venom and screening of bioactive components by docking studies. Evid Based Complement Altern Med. 2013; 2013.
Sivaraman T, Kumar TKS, Tu YT, Peng HJ, Yu C. Structurally homologous toxins isolated from the Taiwan cobra (Naja naja atra) differ significantly in their structural stability. Arch Biochem Biophy. 1999; 363: 107-15.
Sivaraman T, Kumar TKS, Yu C. The role of acetic acid in the prevention of salt-induced aggregation of snake venom cardiotoxins. Biochem Molbiol Intl. 1998; 44: 29-39.
Steel RGD, Torrie JH. Principles of statistics with special reference to biological sciences. McGraw-Hill, USA. 1960; pp 99-106.
Williams D, Gutierrez JM, Harrison R, David AW, Julian W, Kenneth DW, et al. The global snake bite initiative: An antidote for snake bite. Lancet. 2010; 375: 8991.
Copyright (c) 2013 Thirunavukkarasu Sivaraman, Sivarathri Siva Rajesh, Veerayan Elango
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).