Professionalism of future medical professionals in Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Malaysia
Professionalism with high moral character should be developed from the schooling time of the students. The objective of this study was to explore the professionalism of medical students. It was a cross-sectional study conducted on 108 year-I and year-II medical students of session 2012-2013 selected conveniently at UniSZA, Malaysia. Data was collected using a mixed type of validated instrument and analyzed using SPSS. Year-I and year-II were 86% and 98% respectively. Only 27% respondents were male and 73% were female. Mean professionalism scores for year-I and year-II were 175.20 and 172.91, while for male and female were 172.31 and 174.58 respectively. No significant differences observed between gender (p=0.536) and study-year (p=0.484). However, 34% year-I and 19% year-II students defined professionalism diversely while 18% and 9% were un-responded. Professionalism is a braod-concept; a burning issue worldwide. Teachers should emphasis on core elements of professionalism which are unique for all professions.
ABIM-American Board of Internal Medicine Foundation, ACP-ASIM Foundation-American College of Physician-American Society of Internal Medicine, European Federation of Internal Medicine. Medical professionalism in the new millennium: A physician charter. Ann Intern Med. 2002; 136: 243-46.
Anderson MR. The Aim of Medicine. BMJ. 1945; 824.
Arnold L and Stern DT. What is Medical Professionalism? In: Measuring Medical Professionalism. Sten DT eds. New York 10016, USA. Oxford University Press, 2006, pp 15-38.
Barry D, Cyran E, Anderson RJ. Common issues in medical professionalism: Room to grow. Am J Med. 2000; 108: 13642.
Brookfield S. Self-directed learning, political clarity, and the critical practice of adult education. Adult Educ Q. 1993; 43: 227-42.
Bhugra D, Gupta S. Medical professionalism in psychiatry. Adv Psychiat Treat. 2010; 16, 1013.
Brown D, Ferrill MJ, Lloyd L. The taxonomy of professionalism: Reframing the academic pursuit of professional development. Am J Pharm Educ. 2009; 73: 68.
Bryan RE, Krych AJ, Carmichael SW, Viggiano TR, Pawlina W. Assessing professionalism in early medical education: Experience with peer evaluation and self-evaluation in the gross anatomy course. Ann Acad Med Singapore 2005; 34: 486-89.
Candy PC. Self-direction for lifelong learning: A comprehensive guide to theory and practice. San Francisco, Jossey-Bass, 1991.
Chard D, Elsharkawy A, Newbery N. Medical professionalism: The trainees views. Clin Med. 2006; 6: 68-71.
Cohen JJ. Professionalism in medical education, an American perspective: From evidence to accountability. Medical Education 2006; 40: 607-17.
Cote L, Leclere H. How Clinical Teachers Perceive the Doctor-Patient Relationship and Themselves as Role Models. Academic Medicine 2000; 75: 1117-24.
Crawshaw R, Link C. Evolution of form and circumstance in medical oaths. West J Med. 1996; 164: 452-56.
Cruess R, Cruess S. Teaching professionalism: General principles. Med Teach. 2006; 28: 20508.
Cruess RL, Cruess SR, Steinert Y. Teaching Medical Professionalism. Print Publication Press, 2008.
Cruess RL, Cruess SR. Teaching medicine as a profession in the service of healing. Acad Med. 1997; 72: 941-52.
Cruess SR, Cruess RL. The cognitive base of professionalism In: Cruess RL, Cruess SR, Steinert Y (eds), Teaching medical professionalism. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009.
Duke LJ, Kennedy K, McDuffie CH, Miller MS. Sheffield MC, Chisholm MA. Student attitudes, values and beliefs regarding professionalism. Am J Parm Educ. 2005; 69: 1-11.
Elnemr MAM. Professionalism in medical Education. Yemeni J Med Sci. 2010; 4: 25-28.
Fadar J, Arnold R, Coulehan J, Pinkus RL, Meisel A, Schaffner K. Evolution of clinical ethics teaching at the University of Pittsburgh. Acad Med. 1989; 64: 747-50.
Goldie J, Dowie A, Cotton P, Morrison J. Teaching professionalism in the early years of medical curriculum: A qualitative study. Med Edu. 2007; 41: 610-17.
Hafferty F. Viewpoint: The elephant in medical professionalisms kitchen. Acad Med. 2006; 81: 906-14.
Hensel WA, Dickey NW. Teaching professionalism: Passing in touch. Acad med. 1998; 73: 865-70.
Hilton S. Medical professionalism: how can we encourage it in our students? Clin Teacher 2004; 1: 69-73.
Hislton SR, Slotnick HB. Proto-professionalism: How professionalism occurs across the continuum of medical education. Med Educ. 2005; 39: 58-65.
Irvine D. The doctors tale. Oxford, Radcliffe Medical Press, 2003.
Jotkowitz AB, Glick S, Porath A. A physician charter on medical professionalism: A challenge for medical education. Eur J Internal Med. 2004; 15: 5-9.
Jotkowitz AB, Glick S. The physician charter on medical professionalism: A Jewish ethical perspective. J Med Ethics 2005; 31: 40405.
Kenny NP, Mann KV, MacLeod H. Role modeling in physicians professional formation: Reconsidering an essential but untapped educational strategy. Acad Med. 2003; 78: 120310.
Lezzoni LI, Rao SR, DesRoches CM, Vogeli C, Campbell EG. Survey shows that at least some physicians are not always open or honest with patients. Health Aff. 2012; 31: 383-91.
Litzelman DK, Cottingham AH. The new formal competency-based curriculum and informal curriculum at Indiana University School of Medicine: Overview and five year analysis. Acad Med. 2007; 82: 410-21.
Lloyd B, Bor R. Communication skills for medicine. New York, Churchill Livingstone, 1996.
Ludmerer KM. Instilling professionalism in medical education. JAMA. 1999; 282: 881-82.
Mast TJ, Davis D. Concepts of competence. In: The physician as learner. Mast TJ, Davis D (eds). Chicago, American Medical Association, 1994, pp 139-56.
McDonagh D. Medical professionalism. Northeast Florida Medicine Supplement. 2008, pp 6-7.
Medical professionalism in the new millennium: A physician charter. JAMA. 2002; 136: 243-46.
Medical Professionalism Project. Medical professionalism in the new millennium: A physician charter. Clin Med. 2002a; 2: 116-18.
Medical Professionalism Project. Medical professionalism in the new millennium: A physicians charter. Med J Aust 2002b; 177: 263-65.
Nabishah M, Farihah HS, Das S, Salam A, Siti Marium B, Mohd Arif K, Harlina HS, Wan Zurinah WN. Problem based learning facilitation: New challenges to higher education educators. Int Med J. 2009; 16: 243-46.
Nath C, Schmidt R, Gunel E. Perceptions of professionalism vary most with educational rank and age. J Dental Edu. 2006; 70: 825-34.
Orr RD, Pang N, Pellegrino ED, Siegler M. Use of the Hippocratic oath: A review of twentieth century practice and a content analysis of oaths administered in medical schools in the U.S. and Canada in 1993. J Clin Ethics 1997; 8: 37788.
Paice E, Heard S, Moss F. How important are role models in making good doctors? BMJ 2002; 325: 70710.
Patenaude J, Niyonsenga T, Fafard D. Changes in students moral development during medical school: A cohort study. CMAJ. 2003; 168: 840-46.
Project of the ABIM Foundation, ACPASIM Foundation, and European Federation of Internal Medicine. Medical Professionalism in the New Millennium: A Physician Charter. Ann Internal Med. 2002; 136: 243-46.
Relman AS. Education to defend professionalism values in the new corporate age. Acad Med. 1998; 73: 1229-33.
Reynolds PP. Reaffirming professionalism through the education community. Ann Intern Med. 1994; 120: 609-14.
Richmond JB and Eisenberg L. Medical Professionalism in Society. N Engl J Med. 2000; 342: 1288-90.
Riley S, Kumar N. Teaching medical professionalism. Clin Med. 2012; 12: 9-11.
Royal College of Physicians. Doctors in society: Medical professionalism in a changing world. Report of a Working Party of the Royal College of Physicians of London. London: RCP, 2005.
Salam A, Mohammad N, Besar MNA. Audit upon graduation: UKM House Officers competencies. Procedia Social Behavioral Sci. 2011a; 18: 46063.
Salam A, Perdaus AFM, Isa SHM, Zainuddin Z, Latif AA, Pheng NS, Yusuf Z, Soelaiman IM, Mohamad N, Moktar N. UKM medical graduates perception of their communication skills during housemanship. Med Health. 2008; 3: 54-58.
Salam A, Ghafar AA, Latif HA, Siraj HH, Mahdy ZA, Zakaria SZS, Mohamad N, Ali RA. Synchronous transnational collaborative learning: An interesting model of education to learn medicine in global perspectives. South East Asia Journal of Public Health 2011c; 1: 59-63.
Salam A, Rabeya, Y, Harlina HS, Mohammad N. Professionalism in medical education; A review. Eubios J Asian Int Bioethics 2010; 20: 250-51.
Salam A, Siraj HH, Mohamad N, Das S, Yousuf R. Bedside teaching in undergraduate medical education: Issues, strategies and new models for better preparation of new generation doctors. Iranian J Med Sci. 2011b; 36: 1-6.
Salam A, Song CO, Mazlan NF, Hassin H, Lee LS, Abdullah MH. A pilot study on professionalism of future medical professionals in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) Medical Centre. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 2012b; 60: 53440.
Salam A, Song CO, Mazlan NF, Lee LS, Abdullah MA, Hassin H. Professionalism of future medical professionals in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) Medical Centre. Int Med J 2012a; 19: 224-28.
Sox CH. The ethical foundations of professionalism: A sociological history. Chest 2007; 131:1532-40.
Swick HM, Szenas P, Danoff D,Whitcomb M. Teaching professionalism in undergraduate medical education. JAMA. 1999; 282:8302.
Swick HM. Academic medicine must deal with the clash of business and professional values. Acad Med. 1998; 73:75155.
Swick HM. Toward a normative definition of medical professionalism. Acad Med. 2000; 75: 612-16.
Tallis R. The ultimate aims of medicine and the future of old age. Asian J Gerontol Geriatr. 2006; 1: 15762.
The Prayer of Maimonides. Cal State J Med. 1918; 16:51.
Wear D. On white coats and professional development: The formal and the hidden curricula. Ann Intern Med. 1998; 129: 7347.
World Medical Association. Declaration of Helsinki. 1964.
Wright SM, Kern DE, Kolodner K, Howard DM, Brancati, FL. Attributes of excellent attending-physician role models. N Engl J Med. 1998; 339: 1986-93.
Wynia MK, Latham SR, Kao AC, Berg JW, Emanuel LL. Medical professionalism in society. N Engl J Med. 1999; 341: 1612-16.
Yazigi A, Nasr M, Sleilaty G, Nemr E. Clinical teachers as role models: Perceptions of interns and residents in a Lebanese medical school. Med Edu. 2006; 40: 65451.
Copyright (c) 2013 Abdus Salam, Rabeya Yousuf, Md. Zakirul Islam, Farida Yesmin, Asadul Mazid Helali, Ahmed G. Alattraqchi, U.S. Mahadeva Rao, Mainul Haque
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).