Growing Significance of Mycobacterium bovis in Human Health
Keywords:HIV infection, Human health, Mycobacterium bovis, Route of Transmission, Source of Infection, Tuberculosis
Tuberculosis is one of the most wide spread highly infectious bacterial zoonotic diseases, and is responsible for high morbidity and mortality in the world particularly in the developing nations. Mycobacterium bovis and closely associated acid fast bacilli cause disease in humans and animals. Humans can be infected with M. bovis where cattle act as the principal reservoir. Air borne infections continue to occur among the persons working in the meat industry, slaughterhouses, and in persons living in close physical contact with infected animals.M. bovis infection is recognized as an occupational hazard to abattoir workers, livestock handlers and veterinarians. The main cause of concern related to M. bovis in industrialized counties are epizootics nature of the disease in domesticated and wild animals. In addition, latent infection in immigrants particularly in HIV infected patients are also a big issue in developed world, since those people could be the potential source of TB for other people. The reemergence of M. bovis infection in captive and free-ranging wild animals, with subsequent transmission to domestic animals, is of concern to livestock producers and regulatory officials. As wild animals represent major reservoir of tuberculosis bacilli, it is imperative to investigate the role of wild animals in transmission dynamics of M. bovis infection. Further studies on the molecular epidemiology and development of safe, cheap and potent drugs to mitigate tuberculosis in highly susceptible population particularly in HIV/AIDS patients is emphasized. In addition, multidisciplinary approaches such as One Health that comprise professionals from medical science, veterinary medicine and wildlife etc. are essential to take measures to control this devastating bacterial zoonosis.
Microbes and Health, June 2014. 3(1): 29-34