Pattern and Risk Factors of Diabetic Retinopathy among Type 2 Diabetic Patients: Experience in a Tertiary Care Hospital
Keywords:Diabetic retinopathy, frequency, pattern, risk factors, type 2 diabetes mellitus
Background: Diabetic retinopathy is the commonest cause of blindness in the working age group of both developed and developing countries. It is the indicator of all micro-vascular complications of diabetes mellitus. This study was aimed to find out the frequency and pattern of diabetic retinopathy among hospitalized adult type 2 diabetic patients.
Methodology: This cross-sectional study was carried out in the Department of Medicine and Endocrinology of BIRDEM General Hospital, Dhaka over a period of six months. Retinopathy was determined by fundoscopic examination in dilated pupil. Data were collected in preformed questionnaire including demographic characteristics, fundoscopic findings, and laboratory investigation reports with prior informed consent of the patients.
Results: Total patients were 94, male were 52 and female were 42. Mean age of the patients was 52.2 ± 11.12 years. Hypertension was the most common (42.8%) co-morbid condition followed by dyslipidemia (33%), nephropathy (34%), neuropathy (21.3%), ischemic heart disease (9.6%) and stroke (5.3%). Study showed 37.23% Patient had good glycemic control (HbA1C <7%) and 62.77% had poor glycemic control. The frequency of retinopathy of any form was present in 36.2% patients. Among them, non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) was present in 78.79%, proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) 6.06%, maculopathy 6.06%, both maculopathy and PDR in 9.09% diabetic patients. Among NPDR, 46.15 % was mild, 26.92% was moderate and 26.92% was severe NPDR. This study also revealed retinopathy was more with increase in duration of diabetes (66.6% vs. 17.3% p=0.01), in poorly controlled diabetic than good control (52.54% vs. 8.5%, p=0.01), those with hypertension (55% vs. 22%, p=0.02), and those having diabetic nephropathy (78.12% vs. 14.51%, p=0.01).
Conclusion: This study showed frequency of diabetic retinopathy was 36.2% and among retinopathy NPDR was predominate. Poor glycemic control, increase duration of diabetes, presence of other microvascular complication i.e. nephropathy found to be significant risk factors for developing retinopathy.
J MEDICINE January 2016; 17 (1) : 17-20
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