Cardiorenal Syndrome - A Review Article

Authors

  • NS Neki Professor, Dept. of Medicine, Govt. Medical College and Guru Nanak Dev Hospital, Amritsar, 143001, Punjab

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.3329/jom.v16i1.22400

Keywords:

Cardiorenal syndromes, Heart failure, Kidney failure, Biomarkers

Abstract

Cardiorenal syndromes (CRS) describe the dynamic inter-relationship between heart and kidney malfunction. Recent studies have clearly defined its various types and pathophysiology. Improved survival, cardiovascular risk factors (diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia), diagnostic and therapeutic intervention are some contributors in its causation. Types 1 and 2 CRS involve acute and chronic cardiovascular disease (CVD) scenarios leading to acute kidney injury or accelerated chronic kidney disease. Types 3 and 4 CRS describe acute and chronic kidney disease leading primarily to heart failure, although it is possible that acute coronary syndromes, stroke, and arrhythmias could be CVD outcomes in these forms of CRS. Finally, CRS type 5 describes a simultaneous insult to both heart and kidneys, such as sepsis, where both organs are injured simultaneously. This article focuses on different types, pathophysiology, novel biomarkers, preventive and treatment aspects of cardiorenal syndromes.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3329/jom.v16i1.22400

J MEDICINE 2015; 16 : 39-45

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Published

2015-02-25

How to Cite

Neki, N. (2015). Cardiorenal Syndrome - A Review Article. Journal of Medicine, 16(1), 39–45. https://doi.org/10.3329/jom.v16i1.22400

Issue

Section

Review Articles