Enzyme Activities and Mobilization of Nutrients in Brassica (<i>Brassica</i> Spp.) and Wheat (<i>Triticum aestivum</i> L.) Seeds during Germination
AbstractContext: Determination of the activities of hydrolytic enzymes from germinating wheat seeds and investigation of degraded nutrients from brassica and wheat seeds at different periods of germination are important factors for identification of richest sources of hydrolytic enzymes and nutrients.
Objectives: To study the activities of hydrolytic enzymes and degradation of seed storage substances of brassica (Brassica napus L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seeds during germination.
Materials and Methods: Three varieties of brassica (Brassica napus L., B. juncea L. and B. campestris L.) and three varieties of wheat (Akbar, Kanchan and Agrani) seeds were analyzed. Amylase, invertase, protease and lipase activities were assayed. Degradation of seed storage nutrients during germination were determined by conventional biochemical methods.
Results: The activities of amylase, invertase, protease and lipase varied from 8.02 – 48.69, 2.45 – 15.32, 20.96 – 45.45 and 2.72 – 12.76 units/ ml respectively. Degradation of nutrients in the three species of brassica and wheat seeds was also studied at different periods of germination. The amount of free sugar in brassica and wheat seeds ranged from 0.93 – 4.27% and 3.82 – 4.88%; reducing sugar content from 0.012 - 0.093% and 0.032 - 0.078%; starch from 1.42 – 4.70% and 10.26 – 69.65%; total protein from 3.1 – 25.37% and 2.3 – 18.37%; water-soluble protein from 1.5 – 14.24% and 1.0 – 6.50%; and oil content from 2.49 – 43.6% and 1.04 – 1.92% respectively.
Conclusion: The results suggest that the extracts from brassica and wheat seeds can be good sources of nutrients and hydrolytic enzymes which are applicable in food industry to improve food quality.
Key words: Brassica; Wheat; Carbohydrate; Protein; Lipid; Hydrolytic Enzyme.
J. bio-sci. 17: 101-106, 2009