Study of Lipid Profile and Coronary Angiographic Pattern in Young Bangladeshi Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome
Background: Majority of the patients of coronary heart disease (CHD) in our country are above 40 years of age but a good number of patients belong to the age under 40, the most valuable and productive period of life during which they can devote themselves to uplift their family, society and country and can participate in nation building activities.3,4 The number of young individuals falling into the spectrum of CHD is increasing everywhere However, this age trend is peculiar in relation to the western age incidence.5 Our objective was to investigate the lipid profile and coronary angiographic pattern in young Bangladeshi patients with acute coronary syndrome and also to find out the relationship between dyslipidemia and coronary artery disease in this age group.
Methods: This observational study was carried out in National Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases (NICVD) during the period of January 2000 to December 2000. A brief history was recorded on the date of admission and fasting lipid profile was done within 24 hours of admission. Other associated major risk factors were looked for and recorded accordingly. After stabilization oh the acute condition patient was prepared for coronary angiogram and informed consent was taken. Accordingly elective CAG was done. Among them total 64 patients of ACS, underwent coronary angiogram in the cath lab of NICVD, were selected randomly of which of which 32 patients were up to the age 40 years (Group- I) and 32 were above 40 years of age (Group-II). Patient of ACS of either sex having no age limitation were included without prior history of Percutaneous Coronary Intervention or Coronary Artery Bypass Graft surgery. The findings were reviewed and scrutinized carefully by two interventional cardiologists. In doubtful cases third expert reviewed the CD. If a consensus was not reached due to technical or visual error, the case wais discarded from the study. Details of CAG findings i.e. site and number of diseased vessels, location, morphology and pattern of lesion were studied and recorded accordingly.
Results: The prevalence of dyslipidaemia and positive family history were more in group I than group II. Younger age group has less favorable lipid profile than older age group having raised total cholesterol in 31.3 percent cases, low HDL in 12.5 percent cases and raised LDL in 31.3 percent cases, while in older age group, it was 21.8, 25.0, 0 and 18.7 percent, respectively. CAG study of the patients showed that no vessel involvement was more common in group I than group II (21.9% vs 12.5%), but triple vessel disease was more common in group II (12.5% vs 21.8%). Single vessel and double vessel diseases were similar in both the groups. Involvement of LAD was slightly more in-group I than group II (68.8% vs 65.6%) and involvement of LCX and RCA were less in group I than group II (21.9% vs 34.3%, and 43.8% vs 78.1%, respectively). Diffuse LAD and RCA lesions were more in group II (36.4% vs 52.4% and 42.9% vs 48.0%, respectively), but diffuse LCX lesion was more in group I (42.9 vs 36.4%). Multiple irregular lesions are more common in older age group (53.1%) than younger age group (28.1%).
Conclusion: The younger age group has less favorable lipid profile than older age group having raised total cholesterol, decreased HDL and raised LDL. CAG findings show that most of the lesions are present in LAD (having less impressive LVEF) as like as in older age group, but older age group has more multiple irregular lesions. Prevalence of >2 lesions in one coronary artery was more in group I (31 vs. 25%) but difference was not statistically significant.
Keywords: Lipid profile, Coronary angiogram, Younger patients, Acute Coronary Syndrome.
Cardiovasc. j. 2009; 1(2): 183-188