Percutaneous nephrolithotomy through superior calyceal approach - our experience
AbstractIntroduction: Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is considered the treatment of choice for large (> 2 cm size) renal stones at present. Aim of this study was to evaluate the results of PCNL as monotherapy in our centre which were done through superior calyceal approach.
Materials and Methods: Seventy five patients with three bilateral renal stone (total 78 renal units) that underwent PCNL through superior calyceal approach at Apollo Hospitals Dhaka from May 15, 2005 to December 15, 2007 were included in this retrospective study. Selected patients had renal stones more than 2 cm in size (average stone size 35 mm and surface area 750 mm2). Ultrasonogram, intravenous urogram and in some selected cases CT scan were done to detect the location and size of the stone. Urologist performed percutaneous punctures through superior calyx in prone position under fluoroscopic guidance and general anaesthesia were employed in all cases. Post-operative stone clearance was documented on plain X-ray KUB and ultrasonogram KUB.
Results: PCNL was successfully (complete stone clearance and insignificant residue) carried out in 68 patients (69 renal units). Average stone clearance was 88.46%. No second look procedures were needed. Uro-sepsis was the main complication, occurred in 9 renal units (11.53 %) while urinary leakage/ fistula in 6.41%, significant bleeding in 6 renal units (7.69 %) and pleural breach with fluid in pleural cavity (hydrothorax) in 2 (2.6 %) cases. Mean blood transfusion was 1.2 units and mean hospital stay was 67 hours.
Conclusion: Monotherapy with PCNL is highly effective in the treatment of large volume renal calculi and staghorn calculi using superior calyceal supracostal and subcostal approach. As a minimally invasive procedure, it is quite safe in experienced hand.
Keywords: Percutaneous nephrolithotomy, Renal stone, Superior calyceal puncture, Staghorn calculi
Pulse Vol.3(1) July 2009 p4-6