Geographic Differentials in Mortality of Children in Mozambique: Their Implications for Achievement of Millennium Development Goal 4


  • Gloria Macassa Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences University of Gävle 80176, Gävle
  • Gebrenegus Ghilagaber Department of Statistics, Stockholm University, SE-106 91
  • Harry Charsmar Department of Sociology, Stockholm University, SE-106 91
  • Anders Walander Department of Public Health Sciences, Division of Social Medicine, Karolinska Institute, SE-17176
  • Örjan Sundin Department of Psychology, Mid-Sweden University, 83125 Östersund
  • Joaquim Soares Division of Public Health Sciences, Mid-Sweden University, 85170, Sundsvall



Child mortality, Economic development, Infant mortality, Millennium Development Goals, Mozambique


In the light of Mozambiques progress towards the achievement of Millennium Development Goal 4 of  reducing mortality of children aged less than five years (under-five mortality) by two-thirds within 2015,  this study investigated the relationship between the province of mothers residence and under-five mortality  in Mozambique, using data from the 2003 Mozambican Demographic and Health Survey. The analyses  included 10,326 children born within 10 years before the survey. Results of univariate and multivariate  analyses showed a significant association between under-five mortality and province (region) of mothers  residence. Children of mothers living in the North provinces (Niassa, Cabo Delgado, and Nampula) and the  Central provinces (Zambezia, Sofala, Manica, and Tete) had higher risks of mortality than children whose mothers lived in the South provinces, especially Maputo province and Maputo city. However, controlling  for the demographic, socioeconomic and environmental variables, the significance found between the place of mothers residence and under-five mortality reduced slightly. This suggests that other variables  (income distribution and trade, density of population, distribution of the basic infrastructure, including healthcare services, climatic and ecologic factors), which were not included in the study, may have confounding  effects. This study supports the thought that interventions aimed at reducing under-five mortality  should be tailored to take into account the subnational/regional variation in economic development. However, research is warranted to further investigate the potential determinants behind the observed differences  in under-five mortality.


J HEALTH POPUL NUTR 2012 Sep;30(3):331-345



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How to Cite

Macassa, G., Ghilagaber, G., Charsmar, H., Walander, A., Sundin, Örjan, & Soares, J. (2012). Geographic Differentials in Mortality of Children in Mozambique: Their Implications for Achievement of Millennium Development Goal 4. Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition, 30(3), 331–345.



Original Papers