Regional differences in COVID-19 attack and case fatality rates in the first quarter of 2020: a comparative study
Keywords:COVID-19, case fatality, Coronavirus disease 2019
Background and Objective: The COVID-19 (Coronavirus disease 2019) outbreak has become a public health threat all over the world. From December 31, 2019 to March 19, 2020, 146 countries were affected. Evidence on the management approaches of current COVID-19 pandemic is still limited though the numbers of affected countries are increasing as the days go by. This study was aimed at determining the attack rate (AR) and case fatality rate (CFR) of Covid-19 in six different regions around the world in the first quarter of 2020. An attempt was also made to provide an overview of the ongoing situation of COVID-19.
Methods: The design of the study was mixed approach where a retrospective analysis of surveillance data of six different regions around the world were collected from COVID-19 dashboard of World Health organization, between 31 December 2019 to 19 March 2020 (Time: 2:00 pm. BST [CET: 9 am]). Besides, other different validated sources (example: Worldometer, Center for Disease Control and Prevention) were used to assess the ongoing situation regarding COVID-19. A statistical software SPSS version 26 was used to analyze the data.
Results: There were a total of 207,860 confirmed cases and 8779 deaths across six different regions around the world from 31 December 2019 to 19 March 2020, with the highest AR of 9.92/100,000 population in Europe region, followed by Asia (2.7/ 100,000), Australia (1.75/100,000), North America (1.42/100,000), South America (0.23/100,000) and Africa (0.06/100,000) regions. Study results revealed statistically significant association between attack rates and the six regions of the world (p=0.002), meaning that AR varied in the regions around the world. The CFR was high in Europe region (4.81%), followed by Asia (4.06%), Africa (2.72%), South America (1.41%), Australia (1.12%), and North America (0.69%) regions. Data reviewed from different countries revealed that the highest number of cases was confirmed in the United States, followed by Spain and Italy. The findings revealed that the reported confirmed cases varied widely in different regions of the world.
Conclusion: The severity and variation in -geographical distribution of COVID-19 cases and deaths suggest that urgent response from various government and public health authorities should be taken and research regarding underlying factors determining this severity should be sought for.
Ibrahim Med. Coll. J. 2020; 14(2): 1-10
How to Cite
Authors who publish in IMCJMS agree to the following terms that:
- Authors retain copyright and grant IMCJMS the right of first publication of the work.
Articles in IMCJMS are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License CC BY-4.0.This license permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as greater citation of published work.