Login or Register to make a submission.

Submission Preparation Checklist

As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.
  • The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another journal for consideration (or an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor).
  • The submission file is in OpenOffice, Microsoft Word, RTF, or WordPerfect document file format.
  • Where available, URLs for the references have been provided.
  • The text is double-spaced; uses a 12-point font; employs italics, rather than underlining (except with URL addresses); and all illustrations, figures, and tables are placed within the text at the appropriate points, rather than at the end.
  • The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines, which is found in About the Journal.
  • If submitting to a peer-reviewed section of the journal, the instructions in Ensuring a Blind Review have been followed.

Author Guidelines

IMCJMS is an open access journal where Ibrahim Medical College bears its publication costs. It provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making results of the research freely available to the public and scientists across the globe will help in improving the life of human being in all countries of the world. Under the Open Access policy, all articles are available as outlined by the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License., which states that others may distribute and copy the article, and include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s).

The journal allows reader to freely read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of its articles and to use them for any other lawful purpose.

Copyright
Authors who publish in IMCJMS journal agree to the following terms that:

  1. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal the right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
  2. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.

Authors are permitted to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.

Publication fees:
Authors are not charged article submission, processing and publishing fees.

Editorial policies and overview of the publication and peer review processes
Any manuscript submitted to the journal must not be under consideration by any other journal or already published in any journal or other citable form. Submission of a manuscript to IMCJMS implies that all authors have read and agreed to its content.  Authors should state that the research has approval of an appropriate ethics committee. Additionally, all research carried out on humans must be in compliance with the Helsinki Declaration, and animal studies must follow internationally recognized guidelines. Methodology section of the manuscript should have a statement to this effect and the name of the approving body should be mentioned. Authors are required to provide a declaration of competing interests, which will be mentioned in the appropriate section of the article. Articles should be written in English (using US English spelling). 

Plagiarism Policy
Articles submitted to IMCJMS are screened for plagiarism. If plagiarism is detected either by the editors, reviewers or editorial staff at any stage before publication of a manuscript before or after acceptance, during editing or at page proof stage we will inform the authors asking him/her to either re-write the text or quote the text exactly and to cite the original source. If the plagiarism is extensive -that is at least 25% or more - then the article is rejected and notified. If the plagiarism is less than 25%, the manuscript is sent back to the author for content revision and re-submission.

If plagiarism is detected after publication, IMCJMS will conduct an investigation. If plagiarism is found, depending of the extent of the plagiarism, the paper may be formally retracted.  

The corresponding author must set up an IMCJMS account to submit the manuscript online. The manuscript may also be submitted as email attachment to the editorial office fulfilling the required criteria. 

Peer-Review Process
Once an author submits a manuscript it is entered into the log book.

Each manuscript is then read by an editor to assess its suitability for the journal.  It includes the standard of presentation, the quality of the data presented, and conformity with the required style and format of the journal. Those papers judged by the editor(s) as inappropriate or outside the scope of our journal are rejected promptly without external review. Manuscripts within the scope of our journal are then sent out for review to a minimum of two additional reviewers. Here, the single blinded review process is followed. The reviewers' identities are withheld from the authors but the author(s) identity is revealed to reviewers. The reviewers return their recommendations and reports to the editor within the stipulated time. Once the reviewers’ comments are received, the editor, in consultation with other editors, takes one of the following decisions:

  • Acceptance without revision
  • Acceptance subject to minor revision
  • Resubmission for review after major revision
  • Declined

The comments or issues raised by the reviewers are communicated to the corresponding author. For manuscripts accepted pending revision, the authors must submit a revised manuscript addressing the issues raised by the reviewers. The revised manuscript goes through some of the stages mentioned above. Once a manuscript has been revised satisfactorily it is accepted and prepared for publication. The maximum time required for the review process is usually around 30 to 45 days from the date of submission.

Organization and Layout of the Manuscript
Articles should be written in English using US English spelling. Articles should be typed double spaced including references legends of figures and caption of tables. Manuscript should be prepared in MS Word .doc/docx format.   IMCJMS recommends using Times New Roman Font: 12 PX. 

Original Articles and Brief research note: Original article should be arranged in the following sections and order: Title page, Abstract, Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion including conclusion, Acknowledgements, References and Figures. Figure(s) should be submitted as separate file in .tif or .jpeg format. Tables should be incorporated in appropriate section within the text.

For Brief research note, the text should not exceed a total of 2500 words including the abstract (Abstract should not exceed 250 words).  Subdivisions into sections (as mentioned above) may be used if necessary for the clarity and convenience of the readers.

In case of clinical trial, the trial registration number should be provided at the time of article submission. List of trial registers that meet the ICMJE guidelines are available at http://www.icmje.org/faq.pdf. 

Clinical Case reports: It should describe the case (clinical features), investigations, diagnosis and or treatments which are of exceptional interest, highlighting novel and important findings. Clinical case report should be arranged in the following section: Abstract, Case report (clinical presentation, investigations, diagnosis and treatment), Discussion with conclusion. Figure(s) should be submitted as separate file in .tif or .jpeg format. Tables should be incorporated in appropriate section and place within the manuscript.

Reviews: The review article should cover interesting issues, new developments and advancement in areas related to medicine, biomedical and health science. It should be of broad interest to the target audience of the journal. The layout of manuscript should be as follows: Title page, Abstract, Main text (Introduction including sub-sections), Conclusion, Acknowledgements, References and Figure(s). Figure(s) should be submitted as separate file in .tif or .jpeg format. Tables should be incorporated in appropriate section and place within the manuscript. 

Title Page
The title page should include the title of the manuscript, full names and institutional affiliations for all authors. The corresponding author should be indicated.

Title: The title should contain no more than 125 words and should be specific to the study objectives and easily understandable.

Authors and Affiliations: This section should include the first names, middle and surnames of all authors and affiliations (university or organization), department, city, state/province (if applicable), and country for all authors. Full contact details namely - postal address, telephone and fax numbers, and email address for the corresponding author must be provided. If the article is submitted on behalf of a consortium, a listing of all consortium members and affiliations should be included after the Acknowledgements. 

Abstract: 
An abstract not exceeding 250 words must be provided. It should be divided into the following sections: Background and objectives, Methods, Results and Conclusion. Each section should be brief (exp. Methodology must be mentioned without going into methodological detail) and the most important findings should be highlighted with specific conclusion. Do not cite references in the abstract. 

Introduction
The most important aspects of the literature should be reviewed indicating why the study was necessary and what it would contribute to the field of study. The introduction should conclude with a comment about the overall aims and objectives of the study. 

Methods
This section should include the design of the study, the place, the type of participants or study materials involved, a detail description of all interventions (if any). Established methodologies should simply be mentioned and referenced appropriately. For new methods, the detail protocol for the method should be described so that it can be reproduced by others. Generic drug names should be used, but if proprietary brand has been used, the brand name must be mentioned in parenthesis. The accession numbers and corresponding database of any nucleic acid sequences and protein sequences cited in the manuscript should be provided. The authors should provide a description of the statistical analysis, power calculation, etc. 

Results
The results section should not repeat data given in Table or Figure in detail. Only salient findings may be highlighted and described or explained. The result section may be subdivided into subsection with short headings for clarity of the findings. Where needed the statistical analysis should be appropriately mentioned (both in Table and within text).

Discussion
The discussion should provide a clear explanation of the importance and relevance of the findings and conclusions. Suggestion regarding future work, unexplored issues, new directions, limitations, etc may be included.

Declarations
Authors are required to declare the followings:

Acknowledgments
Individuals who have made contribution to the study by providing advice and suggestions, but do not fulfill the criteria for authorship should be mentioned in this section.

Author’s contributions
Contribution of each author should be described. Example: SD performed the culture and identification of organisms. SH performed the antimicrobial susceptibility tests and manuscript writing.

Competing interest

Author(s) should state regarding competing interest/conflict of interest. Ethics approval and consent to participate and publish

Authors are required to furnish the ethical permission from relevant authority and process of informed consent from participants regarding participation in the research and publication of data.

Funding
Source of funding (if any) should be mentioned.

Reference and Citation
Any information, data, etc. from other article or source should be referenced.

Citation Format within the text
IMCJMS uses the numerical citation method. The references must be listed and numbered consecutively in the order in which they appear in the text. Citations should be indicated by the reference number in square brackets in the text.  Example: [1]. Multiple citations within a single set of brackets should be separated by commas. Example: [2,5,7]. If there are three or more sequential citations, the numbers should be given as a range. Example:  [3-7].

Personal communications, unpublished observations, and submitted manuscripts must be cited in the text only as “([name(s)], personal communication, January 15, 2015).” Do not list it in the ‘Reference’ section.

Reference format in bibliography 
Accuracy of reference data is the author’s responsibility. Verify all entries against original sources, especially journal titles, inclusive page numbers, publication dates. All authors must be listed if less than six. Use et al, if more than six. Vancouver style should be used in listing references. Examples are given below:

1. Journal Article: Less than six authors
Sayeed MA, Hussain MZ, Rumi MAK, Khan AK. Prevalence of diabetes in a suburban population of Bangladesh. Diab Res Clin Pract. 1997; 34(1): 149-155.

2. Journal Article: More than six authors 
Gillespie NC, Lewis RJ, Pearn JH, Bourke ATC, Holmes MJ, Bourke JB, et al. Hypertension in aboriginal population of Bangladesh. Med J Aust. 1986; 145:584-590.

3. Journal Article: Letter 
Jarrett RJ. Insulin and hypertension. J Bacteriology. 1987; 10(3): 120-26. [Letter].

4. Journal Abstract 
Banerji MA, Faridi N, Atluri R, Chaiken RL, Lebovitz HE. Body composition, visceral fat, leptin and insulin resistance in Asian Indian men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1999; 84: 137–144. [Abstract].

5. Journal Article: Editorial
Anwar AKMN, Fariduddin KM, Innovation and re-orientation in medical education and research: challenges for Ibrahim Medical College. Ibrahim Med Coll J. 2007; 1(1): i-ii. [Editorial].

6. Journal Article: In Press Papers 
Kharitonov SA, Barnes PJ. Clinical aspects of exhaled nitric oxide. Adv Clin Path. In press.

7. Article within a journal supplement 
Pross HF, Szewczuk MR, Haq S, Wade A. Mechanisms of resistance in respiratory tract pathogens. J Clin Microbiol.1996; 4 Suppl 2: S19-26.

8. Electronic Journal Articles 
Abalos E, Carroli G, Mackey ME. The tools and techniques of evidence-based medicine. Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2005;19(1):15-26. doi: 10.1016/j.bpogyn.2004.10.008.

9. Whole Book (Single author or editor, No author) 
Ismail A. Microscopic techniques in biotechnology. New York: Mosby; 2003.

Hamilton R, editor.  Microscopic techniques in biotechnology. New York: Mosby; 2003.

Murray PR, Rosenthal KS, Kobyashi GS, Pfaller MA. Medical microbiology. 4th ed. St Louis: Mosby; 2002.

The Oxford concise medical dictionary. 6th ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2003. p. 26.

10. Book Chapters 
Rashid M, Haq MM. Food and Nutrition. In: Rashid KM, Rahman M, Hyder SM, editors. Textbook of community medicine and public health. 4th eds. Dhaka: RHM Publishers; 2004; p126-140. 

Meltzer PS, Kallioniemi A, Trent JM. Chromosome alterations in human solid tumors. In: Vogelstein B, Kinzler KW, editors. The genetic basis of human cancer. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2002. p. 93-113.

11. Government/Technical Report 
Format: Organization Name. Title of report. Place of publication: Publisher; Date of publication. Total number of pages.  Report No.:

Example: World Health Organization. Health status of developing countries: issues and facts. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1992. 150 p Report No.: 201

12. Accession Numbers 
The relevant accession numbers and the version numbers (if applicable) of images, nucleotide and protein sequences and microarray data of deposited material should be mentioned. Suggested databases include - European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL/EBI), Nucleotide Sequence Database, or GenBank (National Center for Biotechnology Information), Protein Data Bank, etc.

13. Abbreviations: All abbreviations must be defined when first used in the text.

14. Nomenclature & Taxonomy 
Correct and established nomenclature should be used.

  • SI units should be used.
  • The names and spelling of microorganisms should be according to the internationally accepted nomenclature. Genus and Species names should be italicized (e.g., Staphylococcus aureus). In the main text, full genus name should be written at first mention and thereafter abbreviated (e.g. S. aureus).   
  • Genes, mutations, genotypes, and alleles should be italicized. Proteins are not normally italicized. 

15. Tables and Figures 
Table: Tables should be created with clear row and column divisions. To do this, you must use the Table tool from the Insert menu of your word processing software (MS WORD). Do not create tables using the Tab (↔) key or any other format such as tabled data in one big single cell, or text boxes. Table should be numbered consecutively as Table 1, Table 2, Table 3, etc. Table should be incorporated in appropriate section and place within the manuscript and typed in double spaced. Avoid overuse of colors, shading and cross-hatching, symbols, or empty rows / columns.

Figure: Do not incorporate Figure(s) within the main text. Figure(s) must be submitted as separate files. The Figure files should be named according to the figure number and format, e.g. "Fig1.tif", "Fig2.tif (or Fig 1.jpeg, Fig 2.jpeg, etc)". Legends for Figures should be typed double spaced in the appropriate section and place within the main text.

All images MUST be at or above the intended display size. Check this table for immediate reference. The image resolutions should be as follows:

  • Line Art 800 dpi
  • Combination (Line Art + Halftone) 600 dpi
  • Halftone 300 dpi
  • Low resolution (72dpi,) is NOT acceptable.

16. Cover Letter:
The cover letter must include the name, address, telephone and fax numbers, and e-mail address of all authors and a statement that the manuscript has never been submitted, in whole or in part, to other journals. The name of the corresponding author must be mentioned. The letter must include a statement regarding competing interest/conflict of interest of author(s) and co-author(s). The letter must be signed by all listed authors. 

Privacy Statement

Bangladesh Journals Online (BanglaJOL) is a member of the Ubiquity Partner Network coordinated by Ubiquity Press. According to the EU definitions, BanglaJOL is the data controller, and Ubiquity Press are the service providers and data processors. Ubiquity Press provide the technical platform and some publishing services to BanglaJOL and operate under the principle of data minimisation where only the minimal amount of personal data that is required to carry out a task is obtained.

More information on the type of data that is required can be found in Ubiquity Press’ privacy policy below.

Ubiquity Press Privacy Policy

We take seriously our duty to process your personal data in a fair and transparent way. We collect and manage user data according to the following Privacy Policy. This document is part of our Terms of Service, and by using the press portal, affiliated journals, book, conference and repository websites (the “Websites”), you agree to the terms of this Privacy Policy and the Terms of Service. Please read the Terms of Service in their entirety, and refer to those for definitions and contacts.

What type of personal data do we handle?

There are four main categories of personal data stored by our journal platform, our press platform, and our book management system; Website User data, Author data, Reviewer data and Editor data.

The minimum personal data that are stored are:

  • full name
  • email address
  • affiliation (department, and institution)
  • country of residence

Optionally, the user can provide:

  • salutation
  • gender
  • associated URL
  • phone number
  • fax number
  • reviewing interests
  • mailing address
  • ORCiD
  • a short biography
  • interests
  • Twitter profile
  • LinkedIn profile
  • ImpactStory profile
  • profile picture

The data subjects have complete control of this data through their profile, and can request for it to be removed by contacting info@ubiquitypress.com

What do we do to keep that data secure?

We regularly backup our databases, and we use reliable cloud service providers (Amazon, Google Cloud, Linode) to ensure they are kept securely. Backups are regularly rotated and the old data is permanently deleted. We have a clear internal data handling policy, restricting access to the data and backups to key employees only. In case of a data breach, we will report the breach to the affected users, and to the press/journal contacts within 72 hours.

How do we use the data?

Personal information is only used to deliver the services provided by the publisher. Personal data is not shared externally except for author names, affiliations, emails, and links to ORCiD and social media accounts (if provided) in published articles and books which are displayed as part of the article/book and shared externally to indexes and databases. If a journal operates under open peer review then the reviewer details are published alongside the reviewer details.

How we collect and use your data:

1. When using the website

1.1 what data we collect

  • When you browse our website, we collect anonymised data about your use of the website; for example, we collect information about which pages you view, which files you download, what browser you are using, and when you were using the site.
  • When you comment on an article or book using Disqus, we are not collecting, controlling or processing the data. More details on the DISQUS privacy policy can be found on their website.
  • When you annotate an article or book, this is done via a 3rd party plugin to the website called Hypothes.is. In using this plugin we are not collecting, controlling or processing the data. More details on the Hypothes.is privacy policy can be found on their website.

1.2 why we collect the data

  • We use anonymised website usage data to monitor traffic, help fix bugs, and see overall patterns that inform future redesigns of the website, and provide reports on how frequently the publications on our site have been accessed from within their IP ranges.

1.3 what we do (and don’t do) with the data

  • We do not collect personal information that can be used to identify you when you browse the website.
  • We currently use Google Analytics for publication reports, and to improve the website and services through traffic analysis, but no personal identifying data is shared with Google (for example your computer’s IP is anonymised before transmission).

1.4 what to do if you want to get a copy of your data, or want your data to be removed

  • Please contact info@ubiquitypress.com to request a copy of your data, or for your data to be removed/anonymised.

2. When registering as an author, and submitting an article or book

2.1 what data we collect

  • When registering an account we ask you to log in and provide certain personal information (such as your name and email address), and there is the option to register using an ORCiD which will pre-fill the registration form.
  • As part of submitting an article for publication, you will need to provide personally identifying information which will be used for the peer review process, and will be published. This can include ‘Affiliation’, ‘Competing interests’, ‘Acknowledgements’.

2.2 why we collect the data

  • Registering an account allows you to log in, manage your profile, and participate as an author/reviewer/editor. We use cookies and session information to streamline your use of the website (for example in order for you to remain logged-in when you return to a journal). You can block or delete cookies and still be able to use the websites, although if you do you will then need to enter your username and password to login. In order to take advantage of certain features of the websites, you may also choose to provide us with other personal information, such as your ORCiD, but your decision to utilize these features and provide such data will always be voluntary.
  • Personal data submitted with the article or book is collected to allow follow good publication ethics during the review process, and will form part of the official published record in order for the provenance of the work to be established, and for the work to be correctly attributed.

2.3 what we do (and don’t do) with the data

  • We do not share your personal information with third parties, other than as part of providing the publishing service.
  • As a registered author in the system you may be contacted by the journal editor to submit another article.
  • Any books published on the platform are freely available to download from the publisher website in PDF, EPUB and MOBI formats on the publisher’s site.
  • Any personal data accompanying an article or a book (that will have been added by the submitting author) is published alongside it. The published data includes the names, affiliations and email addresses of all authors.
  • Any articles published on the platform are freely available to download from the publisher website in various formats (e.g. PDF, XML).
  • Ubiquity Press books and articles are typeset by SiliconChips and Diacritech.This process involves them receiving the book and book associated metadata and contacting the authors to finalise the layout. Ubiquity Press work with these suppliers to ensure that personal data is only used for the purposes of typesetting and proofing.
  • For physical purchases of books on the platform Ubiquity Press use print on demand services via Lightning Source who are responsible for printing and distribution via retailers. (For example; Amazon, Book Repository, Waterstones). Lightning Source’s privacy policy and details on data handling can be found on their website.

2.4 why we store the data

  • We store the account data so that you may choose to become a reviewer and be able to perform those tasks, or to become an author and submit an article and then track progress of that article.
  • Published personal data that accompanies an article or a book forms part of the official published record in order for the provenance of the work to be established, and for the work to be correctly attributed.

2.5 what to do if you want to get a copy of your data, or want your data to be removed

  • You are able to view, change and remove your data associated with your profile. Should you choose to completely delete your account, please contact us at support@ubiquitypress.com and we will follow up with your request as soon as possible.
  • To conform to publication ethics and best practice any personal data that is published alongside an article or book cannot be removed. If you have a query about a publication to which you are attributed please contact info@ubiquitypress.com

3. When registering as a reviewer

3.1 what data we collect

  • To become a reviewer you must first register as a user on the website, and set your preference that you would like to be considered as a reviewer. No new personal data is collected when a registered user elects to become a reviewer.
  • When registering an account we ask you to log in and provide certain personal information (such as your name and email address), and there is the option to register using an ORCiD which will pre-fill the registration form.
  • Reviewers can also be registered by editors who invite them to review a specific article. This requires the editor to provide the reviewer’s First Name, Last Name, and Email address. Normally this will be done as part of the process of inviting you to review the article or book.
  • On submitting a review, the reviewer includes a competing interest statement, they may answer questions about the quality of the article, and they will submit their recommendation.

3.2 why we collect the data

  • The data entered is used to invite the reviewer to peer review the article or book, and to contact the reviewer during and the review process.
  • If you submit a review then the details of your review, including your recommendation, your responses to any review form, your free-form responses, your competing interests statement, and any cover letter are recorded.

3.3 what we do (and don’t do) with the data

  • This data is not shared publicly and is only accessible by the Editor and system administrators of that journal or press.
  • The data will only be used in connection with that journal or press.
  • Data that is retained post final decision is kept to conform to publication ethics and best practice, to provide evidence of peer review, and to resolve any disputes relating to the peer review of the article or book.
  • For journals or presses that publish the peer reviews, you will be asked to give consent to your review being published, and a subset of the data you have submitted will become part of the published record.

3.4 what to do if you want to get a copy of your data, or want your data to be removed

  • If you would no longer like to be registered as a reviewer you can edit your profile and tick the box ‘stop being a reviewer’. This will remove you from the reviewer database, however any existing reviews you may have carried out will remain.
  • If you have been contacted by an editor to peer review an article this means that you have been registered in the system. If you would not like to be contacted for peer review you can reply to the email requesting that your data be deleted.

4. When being registered as a co-author

4.1 what data we collect

  • Co-author data is entered by the submitting author. The submitting author will already have a user account. According to standard publishing practice, the submitting author is responsible for obtaining the consent of their co-authors to be included (including having their personal data included) in the article/book being submitted to the journal/press.
  • The requested personal data for co-authors are at the bare minimum; first name, last name, institution, country, email address. This can also include; ORCID ID, Title, Middle Name, Biographical Statement, Department, Twitter Handle, Linkedin Profile Name or ImpactStory ID.

4.2 why we collect the data

  • Assuming that it is accepted for publication, this data forms part of the official published record in order for the provenance of the work to be established, and for the work to be correctly attributed.
  • Author names, affiliations and emails are required for publication and will become part of the permanent cited record.

4.3 what we do (and don’t do) with the data

  • The co-author’s personal data is stored in the author database. This personal data is only used in relation to the publication of the associated article.
  • Any co-author data collected is added to the author database and is only used in association with the article the user is co-author on.

4.5 what to do if you want to get a copy of your data, or want your data to be removed

  • To receive a copy of your data, please contact info@ubiquitypress.com
  • To conform to publication ethics and best practice any personal data that is published alongside an article or book cannot be removed. If you have a query about a publication to which you are attributed please contact info@ubiquitypress.com

5. When signing-up to receive newsletters

5.1 what data we collect

  • We require you to include your name and email address

5.2 why we collect and store the data, and for how long

  • This data would be collected to keep you updated with any news about the platform or specific journal

5.3 what we do (and don’t do) with the data

  • We use mailchimp to provide our mailing list services. Their privacy policy can be found here

5.4 what to do if you want to get a copy of your data or want your data to be removed

  • All emails sent via our newsletter client will include a link that will allow you to unsubscribe from the mailing list

Notification about change of ownership or of control of data

We may choose to buy or sell assets. In the case that control of data changes to or from Ubiquity Press and a third party, or in the case of change of ownership of Ubiquity Press or of part of the business where the control of personal data is transferred, we will do our best to inform all affected users and present the options.

(Updated: 18 May 2018)