Hepatoprotective and anti-oxidant effect of Carissa spinarum root extract against CCl4 and paracetamol-induced hepatic damage in rats


  • Karunakar Hegde Department of Pharmacology, Srinivas College of Pharmacy Valachil, Post- Parangepete, Mangalore, Karnataka
  • Arun B. Joshi Department of Pharmacognosy, Goa College of Pharmacy, Panaji, Goa




Carissa spinarum, Hepatoprotection, Oxidative stress


Ethanolic extract of the roots of C. spinarum was evaluated for hepatoprotective and anti-oxidant activities in rats. Oral pre-treatment with ethanolic extract (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) showed significant hepatoprotective activity against CCl4 and paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity by decreasing the activities of bilirubin and lipid peroxidation, and significant increase in the levels of uric acid, glutathione, super oxide dismutase, catalase and protein in a dose dependent manner, which was confirmed by the decrease in liver wet weight and histopathological examination. The extract possessed strong anti-oxidant activity. This suggests that the hepatoprotective activity of C. spinarum is possibly attributed to its free radical scavenging properties.


Download data is not yet available.
1082 Read


Aebi H. Catalase. Methods of enzymatic analysis. Vol. 2, New York, Academic Press, 1974, pp 673-74.

Aniya Y, Koyama T, Miyagic C, Miyahira M, Inomata C, Kinoshita S, Ichiba T. Free radical scavenging and hepatoprotective actions of the medicinal herb, Crassocephalum crepietioides from the Okinowa Islands. Biol Pharm Bull. 2005; 28: 19-23.

Brent JA, Rumack BH. Role of free radicals in toxic hepatic injury. II. Are free radicals the cause of toxin-induced liver injury? J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 1993; 31: 173-96.

Caraway WT. Standard methods of clinical chemistry. Vol. 4. New York, Academic Press, 1963, pp 239-47.

Ellman GL. Tissue sulphydryl groups. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1959; 82: 70-77.

Harborne JB. Phytochemical methods: A guide to modern techniques of plant analysis. 2nd ed. London, Chapman and Hall, 1984, p 84.

Hegde K, Joshi AB. Hepatoprotective effect of Carissa carandas Linn root extract against CCl4 and paracetamol induced hepatic oxidative stress. Indian J Exp Biol. 2009; 47: 660-67.

Hegde K, Joshi AB. Preliminary phytochemical screening and antipyretic activity of Carissa spinarum root extract. Der Pharmacia Lett. 2010; 2: 255-60.

Kakkar P, Das B, Viswanathan PN. A modified spectrophotometric assay of superoxide dismutase. Indian J Biochem Biophys. 1984; 21: 130-32.

Kaplowitz N, Aw TY, Simon FR, Stolz A. Drug-induced hepatotoxicity. Ann Intern Med. 1986; 104: 826-39.

King J. Practical clinical enzymology. London, Nostrand Company Ltd, 1965, pp 191-208.

Kirtikar KR, Basu BD. Indian medicinal plants. Vol. II. Allahabad, Lalit Mohan Basu, 2003, pp 1548-49.

Lowry OH, Rosebrough NJ, Farr AL, Randall RJ. Protein measurement with the folin-phenol reagent. J Biol Chem. 1951; 193: 265-75.

Malloy HT, Evelyn KA. The determination of bilirubin with the photometric colorimeter. J Biol Chem. 1937; 119: 481-90.

Mukherjee PK. Quality control of herbal drugs. 1st ed. New Delhi, Business Horizons Pharmaceutical Publication, 2002, p 531.

Okhawa H, Ohishi N, Yagi K. Assay for lipid peroxidation in animal tissue by thiobarbituric acid reaction. Anal Biochem. 1979; 95: 351-58.

Raucy JL, Kraner JC, Lasker JM. Bioactivation of halogenated hydrocarbons by Cytochrome P4502E1. Crit Rev Toxicol. 1993; 23: 1-20.

Retimen S, Frankel SA. Colorimetric method for determination of serum glutamic oxaloacetic and glutamic pyruvate transaminases. Am J Clin Pathol. 1957; 28: 56-63.

Tran QL, Adnyana IK, Tezuka Y, Nagaoka T, Tran QK, Kadota S. Triterpene saponins from Vietnamese ginseng (Panax vietnamensis) and their hepatocytoprotective activity. J Nat Prod. 2001; 64: 456-61.

Visioli F, Keaney JF, Halliwell B. Antioxidant and cardiovascular disease; panaceas or tonics for tired sheep? Cardivasc Res. 2000; 47: 409.

Vohra MM, De NN. Comparative cardiotonic activity of Carissa carandas and Carissa spinarum. Indian J Med Res. 1963; 51: 937-40.

Additional Files



How to Cite

Hegde, K., and A. B. Joshi. “Hepatoprotective and Anti-Oxidant Effect of Carissa Spinarum Root Extract Against CCl4 and Paracetamol-Induced Hepatic Damage in Rats”. Bangladesh Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 5, no. 1, Oct. 2010, pp. 73-76, doi:10.3329/bjp.v5i1.5681.



Research Articles