Potential role of medicinal plants for anti-atherosclerosis activity

  • Muhammad Imran Qadir Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan http://orcid.org/0000-0003-1899-5459
  • Ayesha Manzoor Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan
  • Muhammad Sajid Hamid Akash Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Government College University, Faisalabad


Atherosclerosis may lead to the death of a number of people. In case of atherosclerosis, stiffness of arteries of the heart is caused by the excess deposition of lipids in the coronary arteries. The mentioned condition produces atherosclerotic plaques. When these plaques are burst then clots of blood are formed that cause coronary issues. To overcome this severe disease, extracts of many medicinal plants or spices like garlic, ginger and onion, and many others that are mentioned in this review are used to treat atherosclerosis.


Download data is not yet available.


Abbasi Oshaghi E, Khodadadi I, Saidijam M, Yadegarazari R, Shabab N, Tavilani H, Goodarzi MT. Lipid lowering effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Anethum graveolens L. and dill tablet in high cholesterol fed hamsters. Cholesterol 2015; 2015.

Adegbola P, Aderibigbe I, Hammed W, Omotayo T. Anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory medicinal plants having potential role in the treatment of cardiovascular disease: A review. Amer J Cardiol Dis. 2017; 7: 19.

Afroz RD, Nurunabbi ASM, Khan MI. Effects of wheatgrass (Triticum aestivum) juice on serum cholesterol of experimentally induced hypercholesterolaemic male long evans rat. Bangladesh J Physiol Pharmacol. 2014; 27: 21-27.

Afroz RD, Nurunnabi ASM, Khan MI, Jahan T. Effect of wheatgrass (Triticum aestivum) juice on high density lipoprotein (HDL) level in experimentally induced dyslipidaemic male long evans rat. Delta Med Coll J. 2015; 3: 18-24.

Aissaoui A, Zizi S, Israili ZH, Lyoussi B. Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of Coriandrum sativum L. In meriones shawi rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011; 137: 652-61.

Ali T, Saeed K, Abdullah M, Murtaza I. Antihematotoxic role of Bunium persicum seed differential extracts in animal model: Reactive oxygen species might be a contributor. Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2014; 5: 358-63.

Al-Naqeep G, Al-Zubairi AS, Ismail M, Amom ZH, Esa NM. Antiatherogenic potential of Nigella sativa seeds and oil in diet-induced hypercholesterolemia in rabbits. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2011; 2011.

Al-Shehabi TS, Iratni R, Eid AH. Anti-atherosclerotic plants which modulate the phenotype of vascular smooth muscle cells. Phytomedicine 2016; 23: 1068-81.

Antony B. Composition to enhance HDL cholesterol and to decrease intima-media thickening in animals and humans and a method for its preparation. U.S. Patent No. 9,757,423. 2017.

Bahramsoltani R, Farzaei MH, Rahimi R. Herbal remedies for atherosclerosis: From back to the future. Cardiovasc Dis. 2017; 1: 188.

Berberich T, Takagi T, Miyazaki A, Otani M, Shimada T, Kusano T. Production of mouse adiponectin, an anti-diabetic protein, in transgenic sweet potato plants. J Plant Physiol. 2005; 162: 1169-76.

Bhaskaran S, Santanam N, Penumetcha M, Parthasarathy S. Inhibition of atherosclerosis in low-density lipoprotein receptor-negative mice by sesame oil. J Med Food. 2006; 9: 487-90.

Changizi-Ashtiyani S, Zarei A, Taheri S, Rasekh F, Ramazani M. The effects of Portulaca oleracea alcoholic extract on induced hypercholesteroleomia in rats. Zahedan J Res Med Sci 2013; 15: 34-39.

De Bock M, Derraik JG, Brennan CM, Biggs JB, Morgan PE, Hodgkinson SC, Hofman PL, Cutfield WS. Olive (Olea europaea L.) leaf polyphenols improve insulin sensitivity in middle-aged overweight men: A randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. PLoS One. 2013; 8:e57622.

Dong Y, Fernandes C, Liu Y, Wu Y, Wu H, Brophy ML, Deng L, Song K, Wen A, Wong S. Role of endoplasmic reticulum stress signalling in diabetic endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. Diab Vasc Dis Res. 2017; 14: 14-23.

Estrada-Luna D, Martínez-Hinojosa E, Cancino-Diaz J, Belefant-Miller H, López-Rodríguez G, Betanzos-Cabrera G. Daily supplementation with fresh pomegranate juice increases paraoxonase 1 expression and activity in mice fed a high-fat diet. Eur J Nutr. 2017; 2017.

Farah H, Elbadrawy E, Al-Atoom AA. Evaluation of anti-oxidant and antimicrobial activities of ethanolic extracts of parsley (Petroselinum erispum) and coriander (Coriandrum sativum) plants grown in saudi arabia. Int J. 2015; 3: 1244-55.

Ganji SH, Kamanna VS, Kashyap ML. Niacin and cholesterol: Role in cardiovascular disease. J Nutr Biochem. 2003; 14: 298-305.

García-Risco MR, Mouhid L, Salas-Pérez L, López-Padilla A, Santoyo S, Jaime L, de Molina AR, Reglero G, Fornari T. Biological activities of asteraceae Achillea millefolium and Calendula officinalis and lamiaceae Melissa officinalis and Origanum majorana plant extracts. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2017; 72: 96-102.

Gholamhoseinian A, Shahouzehi B, Joukar S, Iranpoor M. Effect of Quercus infectoria and Rosa damascena on lipid profile and atherosclerotic plaque formation in rabbit model of hyperlipidemia. PJBS. 2012; 15: 27-33.

Gorinstein S, Jastrzebski Z, Namiesnik J, Leontowicz H, Leontowicz M, Trakhtenberg S. The atherosclerotic heart disease and protecting properties of garlic: Contemporary data. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2007; 51: 1365-81.

Gou SH, Liu BJ, Han XF, Wang L, Zhong C, Liang S, Liu H, Qiang Y, Zhang Y, Ni JM. Anti-atherosclerotic effect of Fermentum rubrum and Gynostemma pentaphyllum mixture in high-fat emulsion-and vitamin D3-induced atherosclerotic rats. J Chinese Med Asso. 2017; 2017.

Hajhashemi V, Abbasi N. Hypolipidemic activity of Anethum graveolens in rats. Phytother Res. 2008; 22: 372-75.

Heidarian E, Rafieian-Kopaei M, Ashrafi K. The effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Allium latifolium on the liver phosphatidate phosphatase and serum lipid profile in hyperlipidemic rats. J Babol Uni Med Sci. 2013; 15: 37-46.

Ibegbulem C, Chikezie P. Hypoglycemic properties of ethanolic extracts of Gongronema latifolium, Aloe perryi, Viscum album and Allium sativum administered to alloxan-induced diabetic albino rats (rattus norvegicus). Phcog Commn. 2013; 3:12.

Javed I, Zia-Ur-Rahman N, Khan MZ, Muhammad F, Aslam B, Iqbal Z, Sultan JI , Ahmad I. Antihyperlipidaemic efficacy of Trachyspermum ammi in albino rabbits. Acta Veterinaria Brno. 2009; 78: 229-36.

Kamkar A, Ardekani MRS, Shariatifar N, Misagi A, Nejad ASM, Jamshidi AH. Antioxidative effect of iranian Pulicaria gnaphalodes L. extracts in soybean oil. S Afr J Bot. 2013; 85: 39-43.

Khazdair MR, Ghorani V, Alavinezhad A, Boskabady MH. Pharmacological effects of Zataria multiflora Boiss L. and its constituents, focus on their anti‐inflammatory, anti-oxidant and immunomodulatory effects. Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 2017; 2017.

Khennouf S, Benabdallah H, Gharzouli K, Amira S, Ito H, Kim T-H, Yoshida T, Gharzouli. A Effect of tannins from Quercus suber and Quercus coccifera leaves on ethanol-induced gastric lesions in mice. J Agric Food Chem. 2003; 51: 1469-73.

Lee AS, Lee YJ, Lee SM, Yoon JJ, Kim JS, Kang DG, Lee HS. Portulaca oleracea ameliorates diabetic vascular inflammation and endothelial dysfunction in db/db mice. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2012; 2012.

Lee CH, Kim JH. A review on the medicinal potentials of ginseng and ginsenosides on cardiovascular diseases. J Ginseng Res. 2014; 38: 161-66.

Lee J, Cho JY, Kim WK. Anti-inflammation effect of exercise and korean red ginseng in aging model rats with diet-induced atherosclerosis. Nutr Res Pract. 2014; 8: 284-91.

Liu J, Li Y, Shi H, Wang T, Wu X, Sun X, Yu LL. Components characterization of total tetraploid jiaogulan (Gynostemma pentaphyllum) saponin and its cholesterol-lowering properties. J Funct Foods. 2016; 23: 542-55.

Medina‐Remón A, Casas R, Tressserra‐Rimbau A, Ros E, Martínez‐González MA, Fitó M, Corella D, Salas‐Salvadó J, Lamuela‐Raventos RM, Estruch R. Polyphenol intake from a mediterranean diet decreases inflammatory biomarkers related to atherosclerosis: A substudy of the predimed trial. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2017; 83: 114-28.

Meyers CD, Kamanna VS, Kashyap ML. Niacin therapy in atherosclerosis. Curr Opin Lipidol. 2004; 15: 659-65.

Mirhosseini M, Baradaran A, Rafieian-Kopaei M. Anethum graveolens and hyperlipidemia: A randomized clinical trial. J Res Med Sci. 2014; 19: 758.

Murugaiah JS, Namasivayam N, Menon VP. Effect of ginger (Zingiber officinale R.) on lipids in rats fed atherogenic diet. J Clin Biochem Nutr. 1999; 27: 79-87.

Narasimhulu CA, Selvarajan K, Litvinov D, Parthasarathy S. Anti-atherosclerotic and anti-inflammatory actions of sesame oil. J Medicinal Food. 2015; 18: 11-20.

Ntchapda F, Maguirgue K, Adjia H, Etet PFS, Dimo T. Hypolipidemic, antioxidant and anti-atherosclerogenic effects of aqueous extract of Zanthoxylum heitzii stem bark in diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rats. Asian Pacific J Trop Med. 2015; 8: 359-65.

Prashanth M, Revanasiddappa H, Rai K, Raveesha K, Jayalakshmi B. Anti-oxidant and antibacterial activity of ajwain seed extract against antibiotic resistant bacteria and activity enhancement by the addition of metal salts. Res J Pharm. 2012; 5: 1952-56.

Quiles J, Aguilera C, Mesa M, Ramírez‐Tortosa M, Baro L, Gil A. An ethanolic‐aqueous extract of Curcuma longa decreases the susceptibility of liver microsomes and mitochondria to lipid peroxidation in atherosclerotic rabbits. Biofactors 1998; 8: 51-57.

Rahman K. Historical perspective on garlic and cardiovascular disease. J Nutr. 2001; 131: 977S-79S.

Rom O, Korach-Rechtman H, Hayek T, Danin-Poleg Y, Bar H, Kashi Y, Aviram M. Acrolein increases macrophage atherogenicity in association with gut microbiota remodeling in atherosclerotic mice: Protective role for the polyphenol-rich pomegranate juice. Arch Toxicol. 2017; 91: 1709-25.

Ross R, Harker L. Hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. Science 1976; 193: 1094-100.

Saad B, Zaid H, Shanak S, Kadan S. Introduction to medicinal plant safety and efficacy. Antidiabetes and anti-obesity medicinal plants and phytochemicals. Springer International Publishing. 2017, pp 21-55.

Sabzghabaee AM, Dianatkhah M, Sarrafzadegan N, Asgary S, Ghannadi. A Clinical evaluation of Nigella sativa seeds for the treatment of hyperlipidemia: A randomized, placebo controlled clinical trial. Med Arch. 2012; 66: 198.

Setorki M, Rafieian-Kopaei M, Merikhi A, Heidarian E, Shahin-fard N, Ansari R, Nasri H, Esmael N, Baradaran A. Suppressive impact of Anethum graveolens consumption on biochemical risk factors of artherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Inter J Prev Med. 2013; 4: 889-95.

Shin HS, Han JM, Kim HG, Choi MK, Son CG, Yoo HR, Jo HK, Seol IC. Anti-atherosclerosis and hyperlipidemia effects of herbal mixture, Artemisia iwayomogi Kitamura and Curcuma longa Linne in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. J Ethnopharmacol. 2014; 153: 142-50.

Silva E, Souza J, Rogez H, Rees JF, Larondelle Y. Anti-oxidant activities and polyphenolic contents of fifteen selected plant species from the amazonian region. Food Chem. 2007; 101: 1012-18.

Stocker R, Keaney JF. Role of oxidative modifications in atherosclerosis. Physiol Rev. 2004; 84: 1381-478.

Subramani C, Rajakkannu A, Rathinam A, Gaidhani S, Raju I , Singh DVK. Anti-atherosclerotic activity of root bark of Premna integrifolia Linn. in high fat diet induced atherosclerosis model rats. J Pharma Anal. 2017; 7: 123-28.

Subramaniam S, Subramaniam R, Rajapandian S, Uthrapathi S, Gnanamanickam VR, Dubey GP. Anti-atherogenic activity of ethanolic fraction of Terminalia arjuna bark on hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2011; 2011.

Van der Ende MY, Hartman MH, Hagemeijer Y, Meems LM, de Vries HS, Stolk RP, de Boer RA, Sijtsma A, van der Meer P, Rienstra M. The lifelines cohort study: Prevalence and treatment of cardiovascular disease and risk factors. Inter J Cardiol. 2017; 228: 495-500.

Verma S, Singh M, Jain P, Bordia A. Protective effect of ginger, Zingiber officinale Rosc. on experimental atherosclerosis in rabbits. Indian J Exp Biol. 2004; 42: 736-38.

Yazdanparast R, Bahramikia S. Evaluation of the effect of Anethum graveolens L. crude extracts on serum lipids and lipoproteins profiles in hypercholesterolaemic rats. DARU J Pharma Sci. 2008; 16: 88-94.

Yu Y, Tzeng Y. P1422 carnosic acid and ursolic acid (Origanum majorana L.) prevent atherosclerosis caused by obesity: Suppression of leptin-induced proliferation in vascular smooth muscle cells. Atherosclerosis Suppl. 2009; 10: e1472.

How to Cite
Qadir, M. I., A. Manzoor, and M. S. H. Akash. “Potential Role of Medicinal Plants for Anti-Atherosclerosis Activity”. Bangladesh Journal of Pharmacology, Vol. 13, no. 1, Feb. 2018, pp. 59-66, doi:10.3329/bjp.v13i1.33478.
Mini Review