Inhibitory effect of Sphagnum palustre extract and its bioactive compounds on aromatase activity
Sphagnum palustre (a moss) has been traditionally used in Korea for the cure of several diseases such as cardiac pain and stroke. In this research, the inhibitory effect of S. palustre on aromatase (cytochrome P450 19, CYP19) activity was studied. [1?-3H] androstenedione was used as a substrate and incubated with S. palustre extract and recombinant human CYP19 in the presence of NADPH. S. palustre extract inhibited aromatase in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50 value: 36.4 ± 8.1 µg/mL). To elucidate the major compounds responsible for the aromatase inhibitory effects of S. palustre extract, nine compounds were isolated from the extract and tested for their inhibition of aromatase activity. Compounds 1, 6, and 7 displayed aromatase inhibition, while the inhibition by the other compounds was negligible.
Video Clip of Methodology:
Altundag K, Ibrahim NK. Aromatase inhibitors in breast cancer: An overview. Oncologist 2006; 11: 553-62.
Balunas MJ, Kinghorn AD. Natural compounds with aromatase inhibitory activity: An update. Planta Med. 2010; 76: 1087-93.
Balunas MJ, Su B, Brueggemeier RW, Kinghorn AD. Natural products as aromatase inhibitors. Anticancer Agents Med Chem. 2008; 8: 646-82.
Campbell DR, Kurzer MS. Flavonoid inhibition of aromatase enzyme activity in human preadipocytes. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 1993; 46: 381-88.
Cazzaniga M, Bonanni B. Breast cancer chemoprevention: Old and new approaches. J Biomed Biotechnol. 2012; 2012: 985620.
Chumsri S, Howes T, Bao T, Sabnis G, Brodie A. Aromatase, aromatase inhibitors, and breast cancer. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2011; 125: 13-22.
Couperus PA, Clague ADH, Van Dongen JPCM. Carbon-13 chemical shifts of some model carboxylic acids and esters. Org Magn Reson. 1978; 11: 590-97.
Dang HT, Lee HJ, Yoo ES, Shinde PB, Lee YM, Hong J, Kim DK, Jung JH. Anti-inflammatory constituents of the red alga Gracilaria verrucosa and their synthetic analogues. J Nat Prod. 2008; 71: 232-40.
Edmunds KM, Holloway AC, Crankshaw DJ, Agarwal SK, Foster WG. The effects of dietary phytoestrogens on aromatase activity in human endometrial stromal cells. Reprod Nutr Dev. 2005; 45: 709-20.
Fatima N, Kalsoom A, Mumtaz A, Muhammad SA. Computational drug designing of fungal pigments as potential aromatase inhibitors. Bangladesh J Pharmacol. 2014; 9: 575-79.
Feldhues M, Schäfer HJ. Selective mixed coupling of carboxylic acids (II). Photolysis of unsymmetrical diacylperoxides with alkenyl-?, halo-?, keto-?, carboxyl-?groups and a chiral ?-?carbon: Comparison with the mixed kolbe electrolysis. Tetrahedron 1985; 41: 4213-35.
Ibrahim AR, Abul-Hajj YJ. Aromatase inhibition by flavonoids. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 1990; 37: 257-60.
Jeon SH, Chun W, Choi YJ, Kwon YS. Cytotoxic constituents from the bark of Salix hulteni. Arch Pharm Res. 2008; 31: 978-82.
Jeong HJ, Shin YG, Kim IH, Pezzuto JM. Inhibition of aromatase activity by flavonoids. Arch Pharm Res. 1999; 22: 309-12.
Kang HR, Lee D, Eom HJ, Lee SR, Lee KR, Kang KS, Kim KH. Identification and mechanism of action of renoprotective constituents from peat moss Sphagnum palustre in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. J Funct Foods. 2016; 20: 35868.
Kawagishi H, Miyazawa T, Kume H, Arimoto Y, Inakuma T. Aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitors from the mushroom Clitocybe clavipes. J Nat Prod. 2002; 65: 1712-14.
Krzyczkowski W, Malinowska E, Suchocki P, Kleps J, Olejnik M, Herold F. Isolation and quantitative determination of ergosterol peroxide in various edible mushroom species. Food Chem. 2009; 113: 351-55.
Nam JH, Jeong JC, Yoon YH, Hong SY, Kim SJ, Jin YI, Lee YJ, Yoo DL, Lee KT, Park HJ. Phytochemical constituents and anticancer activity of Sphagnum palustre extract. Korean J Plant Res. 2011; 24: 40-47.
Narayanaswamy A, Xu H, Pradhan N, Kim M, Peng X. Formation of nearly monodisperse In2O3 nanodots and oriented-?attached nanoflowers: Hydrolysis and alcoholysis vs pyrolysis. J Am Chem Soc. 2006; 128: 10310-19.
Prescott AG, Stamford NPJ, Wheeler G, Firmin JL. In vitro properties of a recombinant flavonol synthase from Arabidopsis thaliana. Phytochemistry 2002; 60: 589-93.
Renoir JM, Marsaud V, Lazennec G. Estrogen receptor signaling as a target for novel breast cancer therapeutics. Biochem Pharmacol. 2013; 85: 449-65.
Satoh K, Sakamoto Y, Ogata A, Nagai F, Mikuriya H, Numazawa M, Yamada K, Aoki N. Inhibition of aromatase activity by green tea extract catechins and their endocrinological effects of oral administration in rats. Food Chem Toxicol. 2002; 40: 925-33.
Seebacher W, Simic N, Weis R, Saf R, Kunert O. Complete assignments of 1H and 13C NMR resonances of oleanolic acid, 18?-oleanolic acid, ursolic acid and their 11-oxo derivatives. Magn Reson Chem. 2003; 41: 63638.
Siddiqui S, Hafeez F, Begum S, Siddiqui BS. Oleanderol, a new pentacyclic triterpene from the leaves of Nerium oleander. J Nat Prod. 1988; 51: 229-33.
Taniguchi S, Imayoshi Y, Kobayashi E, Takamatsu Y, Ito H, Hatano T, Sakagami H, Tokuda H, Nishino H, Sugita D, Shimura S, Yoshida T. Production of bioactive triterpenes by Eriobotrya japonica calli. Phytochemistry 2002; 59: 315-23.
Copyright (c) 2016 Ki Hyun Kim, Hee Jeong Eom, Yong Joo Park, Hee Rae Kang, Ha Ryong Kim, In Jae Bang, Hyun Bong Park, Kyu Hyuck Chung
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).