Antimicrobial, antioxidant and calcium channel blocking activities of Amberboa divaricata
Keywords:Amberboa divaricata, Antibacterial, Antioxidant, Ca Channels, Spasmolytic
Traditional healers in Pakistan use the herb Amberboa divaricata as tonic, aperiant, deobstruent, febrifuge, antidiarrheal, antiperiodic, antipyretic, anti-cough and in skin disorders. In vitro tissue experiments were carried out on rabbit jejunum to elucidate the possible mechanism of its prescribed effects on gastrointestinal tract, while antibacterial and antioxidant experiments were performed to provide pharmacological evidence of its traditional use in skin disorders. The 70%methanolic crude extract of A. divaricata produced dose dependent relaxation in isolated rabbit jejunum tissue in a concentration range of 0.13.0 mg/mL (n=5). Calcium response curves were constructed at concentration of 0.03 and 0.1 mg/mL (n=5), which produced rightward shift in a pattern similar to that of verapamil, confirming the calcium channel blocking activity. Agar disc diffusion assay at a concentration of 10 mg crude extract/disc showed clear zones of inhibition.
Ali N, Ahmad B, Bashir S, Shah J, Azam S, Ahmad M. Calcium channel blocking activities of Withania coagulans. Afr J Pharm Pharmacol, 2009; 3: 39-442.
Bhattacharjee SK, De LC. Medicinal herbs and flowers. 1st ed. Jaipur, India, Aavishkar Publishers, 2005, p 36.
Capasso A, Pinto A, Mascolo N, Autore G, Capasso F. Reduction of agonist induced contractions of guinea-pig isolated ileum by flavonoids. Phytotherapy Res. 1991; 5: 85-87.
Cowan MM. Plant products as antimicrobial agents. Clin Microbiol Rev. 1999; 12: 546-82.
Di Carlo G, Mascolo N, Izzo AA, Capasso F. Flavonoids: Old and new aspects of a class of natural therapeutic drugs. Life Sci. 1999; 65: 337-53.
Dixon RA, Dey PM, Lamb CJ. Phytoalexins: Enzymology and molecular biology. Adv Enzymol. 1983; 55: 1-69.
Farre AJ, Columbo M, Fort M, Gutierrez B. Differential effects of various Ca++ antagonists. Gen Pharmacol. 1991; 22: 177-81.
Gharib, Naseri MK, Mohammadian M, Gharib Z. Antispasmodic effect of Physalis alkekengi fruit extract on rat uterus. Iran J Reprod Med. 2008; 6: 193-98.
Ghayur MN, Gilani AH, Khan A, Amor EC, Villasenor IM, Choudhary MI. Presence of calcium antagonist activity explains the use of Syzygium samarangense in diarrhoea. Phytotherapy Res. 2006; 20: 49-52.
Gilani AH, Jabeen Q, Khan, AU, Shah AJ. Gut modulatory, blood pressure lowering, diuretic and sedative activities of cardamom. J Ethnopharmacol. 2008; 115: 463-72.
Gilani AH, Shaheen F, Zaman M, Janbaz KH, Shah BH, Akhtar MS. Studies on antihypertensive and antispasmodic activities of methanolic extract of Acacia nilotica. Phytotherapy Res. 1999; 13: 665-69.
Haslam E. Natural polyphenols (vegetable tannins) as drugs: Possible modes of action. J Nat Prod. 1996; 59: 205-15.
Ibrahim M, Khan R, Malik A. Two new guaianolides from Amberboa ramosa. Nat Prod Commun. 2010; 5: 1865-68.
Jabeen Q, Bashir S, Lyoussi B, Gilani AH. Coriander fruit exhibits gut modulatory, blood pressure lowering and diuretic activities. J Ethnopharmacol. 2009; 122: 123-30.
Karaki H, Ozaki H, Hori M, Mitsui-Saito M, Amano MS, Harada KI. Calcium movements, distribution, and functions in smooth muscle. Pharmacol Rev. 1997; 49: 157-230.
Ksouri R, Falleh H, Megdiche W, Trabelsi N, Mhamdi B, Chaieb K, Bakrouf A, Magne C, Abdelly C. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the edible medicinal halophyte Tamarix gallica L. and related polyphenolic constituents. J Food Chem Toxicol. 2009; 47: 2083-91.
Mason TL, Wasserman BP. Inactivation of red beet betaglucan synthase by native and oxidized phenolic compounds. Phytochemistry 1987; 26: 2197-2202.
Niciforovic N, Mihailovic V, Maskovic P, Solujic S, Stojkovic A, Muratspahic DP. Antioxidant activity of selected plant species: Potential new sources of natural antioxidants. Food Chem Toxicol. 2010; 48: 3125-30.
Nychas GJE. Natural antimicrobials from plants. In: New methods of food preservation. Gould GW. (ed). London Blackie Academic and Professional, 1995, pp 58-89.
Pan Y, Wang K, Huang S, Wang H, Mu X, He C, Ji X, Zhang J, Huang F. Antioxidant activity of microwave-assisted extract of longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour.) peel. Food Chem. 2008; 106: 1264-70.
Pietrobon D, Virgilio F, Pozzan T. Structural and functional aspects of calcium homeostasis in eukaryotic cells. Eur J Biochem. 1990; 193: 599-622.
Prieto P, Pineda M, Aguilar M. Spectrophotometric quantitation of antioxidant capacity through the formation of a phosphomolybdenum complex: Specific application to the determination of vitamin E1. Analyt Biochem. 1999; 269: 337-41.
Qureshi R, Bhatti GR. Ethnobotany of plants used by the Thari people of Nara Desert, Pakistan. Fitoterapia 2008; 79: 468-73.
Raja-Kannan RR, Arumugam R, Anantharaman P. In vitro antioxidant activities of ethanol extract from Enhalus acoroides (L.F.) Royle. Asian Pacific J Tropical Med. 2010; 3: 898-901.
Reddy BS, Reddy RKK, Naidu VGM, Madhusudhana K, Agwane SB, Ramakrishna S, Diwan PR. Evaluation of antimicrobial, antioxidant and wound healing potentials of Holoptelea integrifolia. J Ethnopharmacol. 2008; 115: 249-256.
Roman C, Gonella J. Extrinsic control of digestive tract motility. In: Physiology of the gastrointestinal tract. Johnson LR (ed). 2nd ed. New York. Raven, 1987, pp 507-53.
Sahin F, Karaman I, Gulluce M, Ogutcu H, Sengul M, Adiguzel A, Ozturk S, Kotan R. Evaluation of antimicrobial activities of Satureja hortensis L. J Ethnopharmacol. 2003; 87: 61-65.
Salama HMH, Marraiki N. Antimicrobial activity and phytochemical analyses of Polygonum aviculare L. (Polygonaceae), naturally growing in Egypt. Saudi J Bio Sci. 2010; 17: 57-63.
Scalbert A. Antimicrobial properties of tannins. Phytochemistry 1991; 30: 3875-83.
Schultes R.E. The kingdom of plants. In: Medicines from the earth. Thomson WAR (ed). New York, McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1978, p 208.
Singh RP, Murthy KNC, Jayaprakasha GK. Studies on the antioxidant activity of pomegranate (Punica granatum) peel and seed extracts using in vitro models. J Agricul Food Chem. 2002; 50: 81-86.
Stern JL, Hagerman AE, Steinberg PD, Mason PK. Phlorotannin-protein interactios. J Chem Ecol. 1996; 22: 1887-99.
Tsuchiya H, Sato M, Miyazaki T, Fujiwara S, Tanigaki S, Ohyama M, Tanaka T, Linuma M. Comparative study on the antibacterial activity of phytochemical flavanones against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. J Ethnopharmacol. 1996; 50: 27-34.
Usman H, Abdulrahman FI, Usman A. Qualitative phytochemical screening and in vitro antimicrobial effects of methanol stem bark extract of Ficus Thonningii (Moraceae). Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2009; 6: 289-95.
Vardhana R. Direct uses of medicinal plants and their identifi-cation. 1st ed. New Delhi, India, Sarup and Sons, 2008, p 360.
How to Cite
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).