Phytochemical screening and antipyretic effects of hydro-methanol extract of Melia azedarach leaves in rabbits

Sabira Sultana, Naveed Akhtar, Hafiz Muhammad Asif

Abstract

The antipyretic effect of the hydro-methanol extract of Melia azedarach leaves was investigated using the yeast induced pyrexia method in rabbits. Paracetamol was used as a positive control and negative control group received distilled water. Rectal temperatures of all rabbits were recorded immediately before the administration of the extract or vehical or paracetamol and again at 1 h interval for 6 h using digital thermometer. The extract was also phytochemically screened for alkaloids, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides and phenols. At 500 mg/kg dose the extract showed significant (p<0.0001) reduction in yeast-induced elevated temperature as compared with that of standard drug paracetamol whereas the extract dose 250 mg/kg was less effective when compared with higher dose (p<0.05). Phytochemical screening showed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, saponins and phenols. This study showed that the hydro-methanol extract of M. azedarach leaves at a dose of 500 mg/kg possesses significant antipyretic effect against the yeast-induced elevated temperature.

 

 

Keywords

Melia azedarach, hydro-methanol extract, antipyretic activity

Full Text:

PDF

References

Abramson S, Weissmann G. The mechanisms of action of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 1989; 3: 163-70.

Ahmed MF, Rao AS, Ahemad SR, Ibrahim M. Phytochemical studies and hepatoprotective activity of Melia azedarach Linn, against CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in rats. J Pharm Res. 2012; 5: 2664-67.

Antara S, Amla B. Chemical composition of methanol extract of the leaves of Melia azedarach L. Asian J Pharmaceut Clin Res. 2012; 5: 42-45.

Bose A, Mondal S, Jayanta Kumar Gupta J K, Gosh T, Gouri Kumar Dash G, Sudam S. Analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic activities of the ethanolic extract and its fraction of Cleome rutidosperma Fitoterpia 2007; 78: 515-20.

Backhouse N, Delporte C, Givernau M, Cassels B, Valenzuela A, Speisky H. Anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic effects of boldine. Inflam Res. 1994; 42: 114-17.

Chang CP, Huang WT, Cheng BC, Hsu CC, Lin MT. The flavonoid baicalin protect again cerebrovascular dysfunc-tion and brain inflammation in experimental heatstroke. Neuropharmacology 2007; 52: 1024-33.

Charturvedi, Raseroka P, Ntshebe BH. Antimalarial activity of Melia azedarach. J Appl Zool Res. 2006; 1: 109-13.

Itokawa H, Qiao ZS, Hirobe C, Takeya K. Cytotoxic limonoids and tetranortriterpenoids from Melia azedarach. Chem Pharm Bull. 1995; 43: 1171-75.

Coelho, MM, Luheshi G, Hopkins NJ, Rothwell. Multiple mechanism mediate antipyretic action of glucocorticoids. Am J Physiol. 1995; 269: 527-35.

Carpinella MC, Ferrayolic CG, Palacios SM. Antifungal syner-gistic effect of scopoletin, a hydroxycoumarin isolated from Melia azedarach L. fruits. J Agric Food Chem. 2005; 53: 2922-27.

Flower RJ, Vane JR. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthetase in brain explains the anti-pyretic activity of paracetamol (4-acetamidophenol). Nature 1972; 240: 41011.

Harborne JB. Phytochemical methods. London, Chapman and Hall Ltd., 1973, pp 49-188.

Kumar R, Singh R, Meera RS, Kalidhar Sb. Chemical components and insectisidal properties of Bakyain (Melia azedarach L.): A Review. Agric Rev. 2003; 24: 101-15.

Kayastha BP. Silvics of the trees of Nepal. Community forest development project, Kathmandu, 1985.

Khan AV. Ethanobotanical studies on plants with medicinal plants with medicinal and antibacterial properties. Aligarh, Aligarh Muslim University, 2002, pp 1-293.

Khan AV, Khan AA, Shukla I. In vitro antibacterial potential of Melia azedarach crude leaf extracts against some human pathogenic bacterial strains. Ethnobot Leaf 2008; 12: 39-45.

Milton AS, Wendlandt S. Effects on body temperature of prostaglandins of A, E and F series on injection in to the third ventricle of an anaesthetized cats and rabbits. J Physiol 1971; 218: 325-36.

Munir A, Sultana B, Babar T, Bashir A, Amjad M, Hassan Q. Investigation on the antioxidant activity of leaves, fruit and stem bark of Dhraik (Melia azedarach). Eur J Appl Sci. 2012; 4: 47-51.

Rang HP, Dale MM, Ritter JM. Ant-inflammatory and immune-suppressent drugs. In: Pharmacology. 4th ed. Edinburgh. Churchill Livingstone, 1992, pp 229-47.

Rasool R, Ganai BA, Akbar S, Kamili AN, Masood A. Phytochemical screening of Prunella vulgaris L. important medicinal plants of Kashmir. Pak J Pharm Sci. 2010; 23: 4.

Sofowora A. Medicinal plants and traditional medicine in Africa. Nigeria, Spectrum Books Ltd, 1993, p 289.

Sidaye RV, Dhanawade AE, Mansha K, Aishwarya G. Synthesis, anti-microbial and antimycobacterial activity of nicotinic-acid hydrazide derivatives. Curr Pharma Res. 2011; 1: 135-39.

Sharma PC, Yelne MB, Dennis TJ. Data base on medicinal plants used in Ayurveda, Documentation and Publication Division, Central Council for Research in Ayurveda and Siddha, New Delhi, 2001, pp 389-406.



DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3329/bjp.v8i2.14708

Copyright (c)