Antiamoebic activity of marine sponge Haliclona exigua (Krikpatrick)


  • V. Lakshmi Medicinal and Process Chemistry, Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226001
  • A. Saxena Medicinal and Process Chemistry, Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226001
  • S. K. Mishra Medicinal and Process Chemistry, Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226001
  • M. Mishra Medicinal and Process Chemistry, Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226001
  • S. Srivastava Medicinal and Process Chemistry, Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226001, India.
  • S. Ghoshal Divisions of Microbiology, Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226001



Antiamoebic activity, Araguspongin C, Haliclona exigua, Marine sponge


The methanol and methanol-chloroform (1:1) extracts of the freshly collected Haliclona exigua showed minumim inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 125 ?g/mL and 250 ?g/mL respectively in in vitro studies, but when both of these were tested in vivo in rats, only methanol-chloroform showed 80% inhibition of trophozoites at the dose of 900 mg/kg body weight against Entameba histolytica. Therefore only methanol-chloroform extract was further fractionated into four fractions (n-hexane, chloroform, n-butanol soluble and n-butanol insoluble fractions). Out of these, only n-hexane and n-butanol soluble fractions showed 80% inhibition of trophozoites at 900 mg/kg dose. Further the chromatography of the n-butanol fraction yielded araguspongin-C which showed promising results at different doses.


Download data is not yet available.
670 Read


Beltran F. Epidemiologica de las infeciones on Entameba histolytica. Sect. VIII, Protozoan diseases. Proceedings of the 4th International Congress on Tropical Medicine and Malaria, Washington, 1948 p 1056.

Bhosale SH, Jagtap TG, Naik CG. Antifungal activity of some marine organisms from India against food spaelage Aspergillus strains. Mycopathologia 1999; 147: 133-38.

Compagnone RS, Pina IC, Rangel HR, Dagger F, Suarez AI, Reddy MVR, Faulkner DJ. Antileishmanial cyclic peroxides from the palauan sponge Plakortis aff.angulospiculatus. Tetrahedron 1998; 54: 3057-68.

Copp BR, Kayser O, Brun R, Kiderlen AF. Antiparasitic activity of marine pyridoacridone alkaloids related to the ascididemnins. Planta Med. 2003; 69: 527-31.

Das SR. A novel and rapid method for in vitro testing of antiamebic agents against aerobic and anaerobic amoebae growing axenically or with bacteria. Curr Sci. 1975; 44: 463-64.

Diamond LS, Harlow DR, Cunnick CC. A new medium for the axenic cultivation of Entameba histolytica and other Entameba. Trans Roy Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1978; 72: 431-32.

Edrada RA, Proksh P, Wray V, Wilte L, Ofrogen LV. Four new bioactive lobane diterpenes of the soft coral Lobophytum paucifolrum from Mindoro, Philippines. J Nat Prod. 1998; 61: 358-61.

Faulkner DJ. Marine natural products. Nat Prod Rep. 2001; 18: 1-49.

Haefner B. Drugs from the deep: Marine natural products as drug candidates. Drug Discov Today. 2003; 8: 536-44.

Leitch GJ. Intestinal luminal and mucosal microclimate H- and NH+ concentration as factors in the etiology of experimental amebiasis. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1988; 38: 480-96.

Le Pape P, Zidane M, Abdala H, More M. A glycoprotein isolated from the sponge, Pachymatisma johnstonii, has anti-leishmanial activity. Cell Biol Int. 2000; 24: 5156.

Marchan E, Arrieche D, Henriquez W, Crescente O. In vitro effect of an alkaloid isolated from Amphimedon viridis (Porifea) on promastigotes of Leishmania mexicana. Rev Biol Trop. 2000; 48 (Suppl): 31-38.

Nakao Y, Shiroiwa T, Murayama S, Matsunaga S, Goto Y, Matsumoto Y, Fusetani N. Identification of renieramycin A as an antileishmanial substance in a marine sponge Neopetrosia sp. Marine Drugs. 2004; 2: 55-62.

Neal RA. Some observations in the variations of virulence and response to chemotherapy of strains of Entameba histolytica. Trans Roy Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1951; 44: 439-52.

Prasad BN, Bansal I. Interrelationship between fecal pH and susceptibility to Entameba histolytica infection of rats. Trans Roy Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1983; 77: 271-74.

Rangel HR, Dagger F. Antiproliferative effect of illimaquinone on Leishmania Mexicana. Cell Biol Int. 1997; 21: 337-39.

Rao KV, Santarsiero BD, Mesecar AD, Schinazi RF, Tekwani BL, Hamann MT. New manzamine alkaloids with activity against infectious and tropical parasitic diseases from an Indonesian sponge. J Nat Prod. 2003; 66: 823-28.

Rao KV, Kasanah N, Wahyuono S, Tekwani BL, Schinazi RF, Hamann MT. Three new manzamine alkaloids from a common Indonesian sponge and their activity against infectious and tropical parasitic diseases. J Nat Prod. 2004; 67: 1314-18.

Reddy MVR, Faulkner DJ. 3?, 3?-Dimethylxestospongin-C, a new bis-1-oxaquinolizidinealkaloid from the Palam sponge Xestospongia species. Nat Prod Lett. 1997; 11: 53-59.

Robinson GR. Laboratory cultivation of some human parasitic amoeba. J Gen Microbiol. 1968; 53: 19-29.

Stanley SL Jr. Amebiasis. Lancet 2003; 361: 102534.

Shin J, Fenical W. Fuscosides A-D anti-inflammatory diterpenoid glycoside of new structural classes from the Caribbean gorgonian Eunicea fusca. J Org Chem. 1991; 56: 3153-58.

Venkateshwara RJ. Desaih D. Vig PJ, Venkateshwarlu Y. Marine biomolecules inhibit rat brain nitric oxide synthase activity. Toxicology 1998; 129: 103-12.

Venkateshwarlu Y, Reddy MVR. Rao JV. Bis-1-oxaquinolizidines from the sponge Haliclona exigua. J Nat Prod. 1994; 57: 1283-85.

Yan HY. Harvesting drugs from the seas and how Taiwan could contribute to this effort. Changhua J Med. 2004; 9: 1-6.

Additional Files



How to Cite

Lakshmi, V., A. Saxena, S. K. Mishra, M. Mishra, S. Srivastava, and S. Ghoshal. “Antiamoebic Activity of Marine Sponge Haliclona Exigua (Krikpatrick)”. Bangladesh Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 4, no. 1, Sept. 2008, pp. 55-59, doi:10.3329/bjp.v4i1.1083.



Research Articles