Study of adverse drug reactions in out-patient departments of a teaching hospital
The study conducted in the Medicine and Skin outpatient departments of Dhaka Medical College, Dhaka revealed 19 cases (7 males, 12 females) of adverse drug reactions (ADR) out of 160 patients. 31.58% ADRs were of mild type, 42.1% were of moderate and 26.32% were of severe in nature. Gastrointestinal complications were the most frequent adverse effect (56%). Antimicrobial drugs were the most common cause of ADR (42.86%) followed by NSAIDs (33.33%). This study is a preliminary study for getting information on the pattern of ADRs in Bangladesh needing further studies.
Bates DW, Cullen DJ, Laird N, Petersen LA, Small SD, Servi D, et al. Incidence of adverse drug events and potential adverse drug events implication for prevention. JAMA. 1995; 274: 29-34.
BDNF. Adverse Drug Reactions Monitoring (ADRM). 3rd ed. Directorate of Drug Administration, BMA & Bangladesh Pharmaceutical Society. 2001, pp 600-08.
Beijer HMJ, de Baley CJ. Hospitalizations caused by adverse drug reactions (ADR): A meta-analysis of observational studies. J Pharm World Sci. 2002; 24: 46-54.
Bhargava KP. Basic mechanism of adverse drug reactions. Indian J Pharmacol. 1972; 4: 35-50.
Brvar M, Fokter N, Bunc M, Mozina M. The frequency of adverse drug reaction related admissions according to method of detection, admission urgency and medical department specialty. BMC Clin Pharmacol. 2009; 9: 1-8.
Canadian ADR Newsletter Apr. 2000; 10 (2): 1. accessed on 06.05.2010 at www.hc-sc.gc.ca/hpb-dgps/therapeut/htmleng/publicat.html.
Canadian ADR Newsletter Apr. 2001; 11 (2): 1. accessed on 06.05.2010 at www.hc-sc.gc.ca/hpb-dgps/therapeut/htmleng/publicat.html.
Chowdhury FR, Mohammed FR, Alam MZ, Nur Z, Hoque MA, Uddin MM, Bakar MA. Etiology and outcome of patients admitted in a tertiary level hospital with adverse drug reaction (ADR). J Dhaka Med Coll. 2008; 17: 17-21.
Giovanni P, Francesco S, Paola C, Ilaria M, Caputi AP. Adverse drug reactions induced by NSAIDs and antimicrobials: analysis of spontaneous reports from the Sicilian regional database. Drug Safety. 2006; 29: 449-59.
Gor AP, Desai SV. Adverse drug reaction (ADR) in the patient of medicine department of a rural tertiary care teaching hospital and influence of pharmacovigilance in reporting ADR. Indian J Pharmacol. 2008; 40: 37-40.
Green CF, Mottram DR, Rowe PH, Pirmohamed M. Attitudes and knowledge of hospital pharmacists to adverse drug reaction reporting. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2001; 51: 81-86.
Islam AFMS, Rahman MS. Levofloxacininduced fatal toxic epidermal necrolysis. Annals Pharmacother. 2005; 39: 113637.
Laurence DR, Bennett PN. Unwanted effects and adverse drug reaction. In: Clinical pharmacology. 9th ed. UK, Churchill Livingstone, 2003, p 135.
Lazarou J, Pomeranz BH, Corey PN. Incidence of adverse drug reactions in hospitalized patients: A meta-analysis of prospective studies. JAMA 1998; 279: 1200-05.
Lei HS, Rahman ABFAB, Haq AHSM. Adverse drug reaction reports in Malaysia: comparison of causality assessments. Malay J Pharm Sci. 2007; 5: 7-17.
McDonnell PJ, Jacobs MR. Hospital admissions resulting from preventable adverse drug reactions. Ann Phrmacother. 2002; 36: 1331-36.
Moore N, Lecointre D, Noblet C, Mabille M. Frequency and cost of adverse drug reactions in a department of general medicine. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1998; 45: 301-08.
Nahar BL, Hossain AKM, Islam MM, Saha DR. A comparative study on the adverse effects of two anti-tuberculosis drugs regimen in initial two month treatment period. Bangladesh J Pharmacol. 2006; 1: 51-57.
National Medicines Information Centre. Adverse drug reactions. Vol 8, No-3, 2002. Accessed on 27.06.2007 at http://www.ukmi.nhs.uk/Newmaterial/html/docs/ 0807021.pdf.
Nies SA, Spielberg PS. Principles of therapeutics. In: Goodman & Gilmans The pharmacological basis of therapeutics. 9th ed. New York, Mc Graw-Hill, 1996, pp 4362.
Palain S, Mishra P, Shankar PR, Dubey AK, Bista D, Almeida R. Safety monitoring of drugs-where do we stand? Kathmandu Univ Med J. 2006; 4: 119-27.
Patel H, Bell D, Molokhia M, Srishanmuganathan J, Patel M, Car J, Majeed A. Trends in hospital admissions for adverse drug reactions in England: Analysis of national hospital episode statistics 1998-2005. BMC Clin Pharmacol. 2007; 7: 9.
Pirmohamed M, Park BK. Adverse drug reactions: Back to the future. J Clin Pharmacol. 2003; 55: 486-92.
Pirmohamed M, James S, Meakin S, Green C, Scott AK, Walley TJ, et al. Adverse drug reactions as cause of admission tohospital: prospective analysis of 18820 patients. BMJ. 2004; 329: 15-19.
Pouyanne P, Haramburu F, Imbs JL, Bégaud B. Admission to hospital caused by adverse drug reactions: cross sectional incidence study. BMJ 2000; 320: 1036.
Ramesh M, Pandit J, Parthasarathi G. Adverse drug reactions in a South Indian hospital: Their severity and cost involved. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Safety. 2003; 12: 687-92.
Rao PGM, Archana B, Jose J. Implementation and results of an adverse drug reaction reporting program in an Indian teaching hospital. Indian J Pharmachol. 2006; 38: 4.
Reidl AM, Casillas MA. Adverse drug reactions: Types & treatment options. American Family Physician. Nov. 1, 2003 Vol. 68.
Singer DRJ, Khong TK. Adverse drug reactions: Current issues and strategies for prevention and management. Exp Opinon Pharmacother. 2002; 3: 1289-1300.
Suh DC, Woodall BS, Shin SK, Hermes-De-Santis ER. Clinical and economic impact of adverse drug reactions in hospitalized patients. Ann Phrmacother. 2000; 34: 1373-79.
Copyright (c) 2012 Zinnat Ara Begum, Sayeeda Sultana, Badar Uddin Umar, A. H. Ferdous, Md. Kamal Uddin, S.M. Hasibul Islam
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).