Brain abscess: Epidemiological study in a Pediatric Neurosurgery Department of Bangladesh
Keywords:Epidemiological study, Brain abscess
Background: Brain abscess is a relatively uncommon but life-threatening infection in children. It can originate from contiguous site infections (eg, chronic otitis media, mastoiditis, sinusitis, meningitis), from distant pathologic states (eg, cyanotic congenital heart disease, chronic lung infections), after head trauma or neurosurgical procedures, or from cryptogenic sources. Predominant etiologic microorganisms vary depending on these predisposing factors. Proper selection of antimicrobial agents with good penetration of the central nervous system and with adequate coverage of both anaerobic and aerobic bacteria is critical for the medical management of brain abscess. Delay in surgical drainage can be associated with high morbidity and casefatality rates.
Methods: The study was carried out at Department of Paediatric Neurosurgery, NINS&H, Dhaka from November 2017 to till date. Data collection sheet was used to collect the necessary information. Subjects was included from a NINS Pediatrics neurosurgery electronic registry. Structured questionnaire was used to collect the necessary information. Risks and benefits of this study were explained to the patient and patient’s legal guardian/parents in an easily understandable local language. Informed written consent was taken from each guardian before data collection.
Results: Most of the patients were within >5 years age group 21 (38.3%). Second large were <2 years age group 19 (34.5%). According to gender. 33 (60%) patients were males and 22 (40%) patients were females. Distribution of subjects among OPD patients and admitted patients. 41 patients were admitted indoor among 55 patients. Predisposing factors were identified in 24 of 41 admitted cases. 11 abscesses developed in a child with cyanotic congenital heart disease (CCHD) and 2 occurred after head trauma. 2 abscesses were secondary to ear infections. In 28 patients, the abscess was drained through a burr hole, without the need for craniotomy; the other 4 underwent open craniotomy. 9 patients improved only with conservative management. Among the admitted patients, 34 patients were discharged from the ward in clinically stable conditions and 7 patients expired.
Conclusion: Advances in the diagnosis and treatment of brain abscess and subdural empyema with neuroimaging techniques such as computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, the availability of new antimicrobials, and the development of novel surgical techniques have significantly contributed to the decreased morbidity and mortality associated these infections.
Bang. J Neurosurgery 2022; 11(2): 70-74
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