Prevention of Intra-Operative Cerebrospinal Fluid Leaks by Lumbar Cerebrospinal Fluid Drainage during Endoscopic Endonasal Trans- Sphenoidal Surgery for Pituitary Macroadenomas
Aim and Objective: Postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leak is a recognized complication of endoscopic endonasal trans- sphenoidal surgery for pituitary macroadenomas. In this study we assess the utility of prophylactic use of lumbar drain in preventing intra-operative cerebrospinal fluid leakage during endscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary macroadenoma which will ultimately reduce the rate of persistent post-operative cerebrospinal fluid leakage.
Materials and Methods: 34 patients who underwent endscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary macroadenoma were dividedd into two groups by non-probability convenient sampling technique. In one group of which lumbar subarachnoid drain were given just before induction of anesthesia named LD Group and another group went through conventional method without giving lumbar drain named No LD Group. In all patients of LD Group 20-30 ml of CSF was drawn through lumbar drain before giving dural incision. Valsalva maneuver was used in each group to identify intraoperative CSF leaks at the end of definitive surgery before repairing the sellar floor.Zero degree rigid endoscope was used in all cases. Intraoperative CSF leak was categorized as ‘Yes’ or ‘No’ which was decided by surgeon.Lumbar drains were removed within 24 hours of operation in 16 patients of LD Group and in case 1,who developed intraoperative CSF leak, lumbar drain was removed later.
Results: Thirty four patients were eligible for inclusion, of which 17 were assigned to the LD Group and 17 to the no LD Group. There were no statistically significant differences in patient demographics, tumor pathology, or radiology between the two groups. In LD Group intraoperative CSF leak occurred in 1(5.9%) patient and leak did not occur in 16(94.1%) patients, in No LD Group intraoperative CSF leak occurred in 14(82.4%) patients and leak did not occur in 3(17.6%) patients. Intraoperative CSF drainage significantly reduced the incidence of intraoperative CSF leaks from 82.4% in the No LD group to 5.9% in the LD group (P < 0.001). There were no catheter related complications.
Conclusion: Intraoperative CSF drainage significantly reduces the incidence of intraoperative CSF leakage in patients undergoing endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary macroadenomas.
Bang. J Neurosurgery 2020; 10(1): 52-56
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