The Utility of Beta 2 Microglobulin (B2M) as an Initial Diagnostic Tool for Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC): Evidence from a Malaysian Scenario

  • Maithrea Suresh Narayanan Department of Otorhinolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia Health Campus, 16150 Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia
  • Nur Karyatee Kassim School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia Health Campus, 16150 Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia
  • Tang Liszen Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Unit, School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia Health Campus, 16150 Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia
  • Baharuddin Abdullah Department of Otorhinolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia Health Campus, 16150 Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia
  • Julia Omar Department of Chemical Pathology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia Health Campus, 16150 Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia
  • Suhaily Mohd Hairon Hairon, Department of Community Medicine, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia Health Campus, 16150 Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia
  • Norhafiza Mat Lazim Department of Otorhinolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia Health Campus, 16150 Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia
Keywords: Oral Squamous Cell carcinoma; Beta 2 Microglobulin; serum marker

Abstract

Background: The delay in diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a factor in rendering the poor prognosis, and recent research has explored the use of serum tumour markers such Beta 2 Microglobulin (B2M), to aid early diagnosis. However, despite a high incidence of OSCC in Southeast Asia, no studies on the clinical use of B2M in the region were found.

Objectives: To determine if serum B2M level can serve as an initial diagnostic tool to indicate if a biopsy is warranted, and if so, to propose a local B2M serum reference value to identify OSSC patients.

Methodology: Twenty-one patients were seen at Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM) for a one-year period, between June 2016 and June 2017, and equal number of healthy controls participated in the study. Apart from patient history, venous blood of approximately 5ml volume was collected from each subject at the pre-treatment stage and analysed by an Abbot ARCHITECT c8000 analyser using the immunoturbidimetry method. The results were analysed using ROC analysis and the Mann Whitney test.

Results: Serum B2M levels showed a statistically significant increase (p<0.001) in patients compared to controls. The test was shown to have 90.5% sensitivity and 90.5% specificity. It was found to be a sensitive and specific serum tumour marker at a cut off value of 1.57mg/l to differentiate cases from controls.

Conclusion: B2M is a sensitive and specific tumour marker to differentiate OSCC cases from controls. It is cost effective and minimally invasive, making it a potentially useful adjunct diagnostic tool in a high-risk patient pool.

Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.18(4) 2019 p.729-735

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Published
2019-08-30
How to Cite
Narayanan, M., Kassim, N., Liszen, T., Abdullah, B., Omar, J., Mohd Hairon, S., & Lazim, N. (2019). The Utility of Beta 2 Microglobulin (B2M) as an Initial Diagnostic Tool for Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC): Evidence from a Malaysian Scenario. Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science, 18(4), 729-735. https://doi.org/10.3329/bjms.v18i4.42876
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Original Articles