Impact of Admission Blood Glucose Added on GRACE Risk Score for All-Cause In-Hospital Mortality in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome
Background: Abnormal glucose metabolism is a predictor of worse outcome after acute coronary syndrome (ACS). However, this parameter is not included in risk prediction scores, including GRACE risk score. We sought to evaluate whether the inclusion of blood glucose at admission in a model with GRACE risk score improves risk stratification.
Objectives: To assess whether inclusion of admission blood glucose in a model with GRACE risk score improves risk stratification of ACS patients admitted in a tertiary hospital of Bangladesh. Methods: This cross sectional comparative study was carried out in the department of cardiology, Dhaka Medical College Hospital (DMCH), Dhaka between May 2016 to April 2017. Data were collected from ACS patients admitted at CCU, DMCH who fulfilled inclusion and exclusion criteria. GRACE score was calculated for each patient. The predictive value of death by GRACE score was compared with the predictive value of combined GRACE score + admission blood sugar. Comparison between these results in two groups were done by unpaired t-test, analysis was conducted SPSS-22.0 for windows software. The significance of the results was determined in 95.0% confidence interval and a value of p <0.05 was considered to be statistically significant.
Results: A total of 249 cases of ACS patients were selected. Most of the patients belonged to 5th and 6th decades 25.3% vs 37.3% and the mean age was 55.7±11.7 years. Most of the patients were male. High GRACE risk score (≥155) and elevated admission blood sugar (≥11) was found significantly higher in-hospital death whereas only high GRACE risk score (≥155) and normal admission blood sugar (<11) was found non significant regarding in-hospital death. Test of validity showed sensitivity of GRACE risk score regarding in-hospital death was 85.29%, specificity 57.7%, accuracy 61.4%, positive and negative predictive values were 24.2% and 96.1% respectively. The sensitivity of GRACE risk score + admission blood sugar regarding in-hospital death was 85.29%, specificity 62.33%, accuracy 65.46%, positive and negative predictive values were 26.36% and 96.4% respectively. Receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) were constructed using GRACE score and GRACE score + admission blood sugar of the patients with in-hospital death, which showed the sensitivity and specificity of GRACE score for predicting in-hospital death were found to be 79.4% and 58.1%, respectively. Whereas after adding admission blood sugar value to GRACE score both the sensitivity and specificity increased to 82.4% and 58.6% respectively in this new model. Logistic regression analysis of in-hospital mortality with independent risk factors showed GRACE score (≥155) + admission blood sugar (≥11.0 mmol/l) was more significantly associated with in-hospital mortality (P =0.001, OR = 6.675, 95% CI 2.366-13.610).
Conclusion: In patients with the whole spectrum of acute coronary syndrome admission blood glucose can add prognostic information to the established risk factors with the GRACE risk score.
Bangladesh Heart Journal 2018; 33(2) : 94-99
Copyright (c) 2018 Bangladesh Cardiac Society
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© Bangladesh Cardiac Society.
Articles in the Bangladesh Heart Journal are Open Access articles published under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC). This license permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited and is not used for commercial purposes.