Journal of Biodiversity Conservation and Bioresource Management Official journal of the Biodiversity Conservation Trust Foundation (BCTF) en-US <p>© Journal of Biodiversity Conservation and Bioresource Management</p><p><a href="" rel="license"><img style="border-width: 0;" src="" alt="Creative Commons License" /></a><br />The articles in the Journal of Biodiversity Conservation and Bioresource Management are licensed under a <a href="" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License</a>. </p><p>The Journal of Biodiversity Conservation and Bioresource Management (JBCBM) can be used,<br />distributed and reproduced in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, is not changed in any way, and is not used for commercial purposes.</p> (Dr. M. A. Bashar) (Md Fahmid Uddin Khondoker) Wed, 29 Nov 2023 09:27:39 +0000 OJS 60 Roadside Automobile Stressed Plants as Bioindicator Based on Air Pollution Tolerance Index in Dhaka, Bangladesh <p>The evaluation of plants' ability to resist pollution was conducted by studying two distinct plant species, <em>Swietenia mahagonia </em>and <em>Polyalthia longifolia</em>, obtained near the urban roadsides in Dhaka during the winter season. The air pollution tolerance index (APTI) was assessed for both <em>Polyalthia longifolia </em>and <em>Swietenia mahagoni</em>. Between the two species, <em>Polyalthia longifolia </em>exhibited the highest air pollution tolerance index (APTI 12.54), indicating its lower sensitivity towards pollution. On the other hand, <em>Swietenia mahagoni </em>(APTI 12.27) demonstrated a comparatively higher sensitivity to pollutants. <em>Polyalthia longifolia </em>had the highest total chlorophyll concentration (TCC) (1.080 mg/g), relative water content (RWC) (88.50%), pH value (6.73), ascorbic acid concentration (ACC) (4.303). On the other hand, <em>Swietenia mahagoni </em>showed the lowest scores across almost all the indicators (except ACC: 5.44), demonstrating the most pollutant-sensitive species. The assessment of plants in relation to their capacity to withstand air pollution is crucial due to their role as a pollution sink. Consequently, planting species that exhibit tolerance to pollution in contaminated regions can provide several environmental advantages.</p> <p>Biodivers. Conserv. Bioresour. Manag. 2023, 9(2): 1-10</p> K Azam, SU Zaman, MS Islam, MZ Uddin, Abdus Salam Copyright (c) 2023 Wed, 29 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of proline in comparison to PVS2 in cryopreservation of somatic embryo and callus cultures of date palm <p>In this work, the amino acid proline was investigated as cryoprotectant in cryostorage of date palm, <em>Phoenix dactylifera</em> L., tissue cultures. Among various levels of proline, it was found that 15% is the most effective one on survival. This concentration was compared to Plant Vitrification Solution 2 (PVS2). Generally, the maximum viability percentages of the two types of cryoprotectants were registered at 60 min exposure period. Proline was superior to PVS2 on callus viability. Moreover, healthy and good appearance calli were observed with the proline treatments. In contrast, the highest viability percentages of somatic embryos were observed with PVS2 solution. Regarding regrowth, the recovery parameters of both callus and somatic embryos increased as exposure period increased till 60 min and then decreased. The maximum callus fresh mass and growth value were registered when callus was cryoprotected by 15% proline. With respect to somatic embryos, proline gave good differentiation percentages, but they were slightly lower than PVS2. The highest differentiation percentage (70%) was recorded with PVS2 for 60 min in cryoprotection. However, the highest numbers of proliferated shootlets were recorded with proline in cyoprotection.</p> <p>Biodivers. Conserv. Bioresour. Manag. 2023, 9(2): 11-20</p> Shawky Bekheet, Valbona Sota, Mona Ibrahim, Mohamed Rady Copyright (c) 2023 Wed, 29 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Utilizing COI gene for the identification of thirteen Hesperiidae butterflies and determining their genetic relationship <p>In the present study, the COI genes of thirteen species were sequenced, and NCBI GenBank homology searches of these species revealed significant similarity across diverse countries of origin. The sequences of thirteen species of hesperiid butterflies were then submitted to NCBI's GenBank, and assigned accession number. The average nucleotide composition of 585 bp of these genes was analyzed, and the results showed the mean base compositions of the COI sequences were 40.01% T, 16.10% C, 30.21% A, and 13.66% G. The present investigation revealed a significant preference for Adenine+Thymine (A+T), with a prevalence of 70.22%. Afterward, the genetic divergence among thirteen species of hesperiid was analyzed using the Kimura 2-parameter of the MEGA10 program, and the results indicated that the interspecific nucleotide divergence among thirteen species of hesperiid ranged from 0.0532 to 0.1790%. Moreover, a phylogenetic tree was constructed using the Neighbor-Joining (NJ) method, and the result revealed three clusters within the Pyrginae, Hesperiinae, and Coeliadinae subfamilies under the family Hesperiidae. The present investigation revealed Pyrginae as paraphyletic, while Coeliadinae was shown to be the sister group to Hesperiinae. As a final point, the analyses of the data support the following relationships: [(P. dan+T. japetus) + (P. guttata+P. bada+P. agna+B. cinnara+I. semamora+I. salsala+T. colon+U. folus + (O. angulatum)) + (B. oedipodea+S. gremius)]. The findings may be applicable to future research in the disciplines of molecular taxonomy to identify hesperiid species and may reveal a higher level of phylogenetic relationship among the subfamilies of Hesperiidae.</p> <p>Biodivers. Conserv. Bioresour. Manag. 2023, 9(2): 21-28</p> K Akter, SM Meem, S Islam, M A A Mamun, M S Abedin, F S Borsha, A Ghosh, Md Monwar Hossain Copyright (c) 2023 Wed, 29 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of habitat fragmentation impact on community taboo species for adoption as conservation portfolios in lowland rainforest ecological zone of Delta State, Nigeria <p>This study examined the impact of forest loss by fragmentation along four communities that taboo the species of primates and reptiles. Data by survey at three sighting regimes in a3×2×5 factorial experiments were square root-transformed before the analysis of variance and significant means separated at 5% level of probability with the Duncan multiple range tests. The fineness/coarseness of forest corridors and edges, availability of propagules and a-subjective habitat-matrix score for 7 key attributes of forest fragmentation along with soil samples analyzed for CEC, exchangeable cations and Ca-Mg ratio. Results showed higher mean population sighted in corridors than that of the edges. Propagule availability was Ugili Amai-Olloh Ossisa (18.5 kg/ha) &gt;Ugono-Orogun (16.8 kg/ha)&gt;Umute-Nsukwa (15.2 kg/ha)&gt;Emu Uno (10.8 kg/ha) and underpinned intact fragment as Umute-Nsukwa&gt;Ugili-Ossisa&gt;Ugono-Orogu&gt; Emu-Uno for the protection of IUCN Red List vulnerable white-throated guenon (<em>Cercopithecus erythrogaster</em>) and threatened West African dwarf crocodile (<em>Osteollaemus tetraspis</em>).</p> <p>Biodivers. Conserv. Bioresour. Manag. 2023, 9(2): 29-38</p> A E Egwunatum, B C Okonta Copyright (c) 2023 Wed, 29 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Influence of different organic manures on the growth and yield of marigold (Tagetes erecta L.) plants <p>A pot experiment was conducted during rabi season in the year 2021-22 under net house condition of the Department of Soil, Water and Environment, University of Dhaka to evaluate the influence of different organic manures on the growth and yield contributing the characteristics of marigold. Seven types of organic manures, <em>viz.</em> Alo, Supermill, Mazim, Vermicompost, ACI, Kazi and Poultry manures were applied singly at the rate of 5 ton ha<sup>-1</sup>. The tallest plant of marigold (60 cm) found with Supermill, the maximum leaf number (367 plant<sup>-1</sup>) with Poultry manure, leaf area (6.56 cm<sup>2 </sup>plant<sup>-1</sup>), leaf area index (0.017), total fresh weight (15.55 g plant<sup>-1</sup>) and total dry weight (4.78 g plant<sup>-1</sup>) of marigold plants were recorded with Mazim organic manure. The highest number of branches (78 plant<sup>-1</sup>), flowers (11 plant<sup>-1</sup>), diameter (2.80 cm), fresh weight (1.90 g plant<sup>-1</sup>) and dry weight (0.54 g plant<sup>-1</sup>) were recorded in ACI organic manure. The upper limit length (8.0 cm) of root and the length of shoot (51.30 cm) were recorded in Supermill. The highest root-shoot ratio (0.22) was recorded in Kazi organic manure. The standard range of number of flower’s was 6 to 11 plant<sup>-1 </sup>with the treatments without using synthetic fertilizer or any toxic pest control substance. The maximum number of flower (11 plant<sup>-1</sup>) obtained with ACI. The findings indicated the clear possibilities of growing safe and environment friendly marigold flower in context of Bangladesh. The study revealed that all the sources of organic materials enhanced the growth and yield component of marigold. The study also generated a new information as guide line for future research target. The organic sources may be arranged according to the production of number of marigold flower: ACI&gt;Poultry litter&gt; Mazim&gt;Supermill &gt;Alo&gt;Kazi. Further investigation is needed for future research interest.</p> <p>Biodivers. Conserv. Bioresour. Manag. 2023, 9(2): 39-48</p> R K Halder, S D Gupto, A S Antu, M A Fariha, J Deb , M K Rahman Copyright (c) 2023 Wed, 29 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Park’s benefits to surrounding communities and its impact on wildlife conservation in Kainji Lake National Park, Nigeria <p>Projects linking conservation and development have been implemented around protected areas with a trust to generate benefits for local communities to garner support for the conservation of biodiversity in Nigeria's protected areas. Hence, this study assessed the Park's benefits to surrounding communities and its impact on wildlife conservation in Kainji Lake National Park (KLNP), Nigeria, to provide park managers with additional information in planning their activities. Four (4) randomly selected villages: Luma, Malale, Wawa and Gada Oli were surveyed with 110 questionnaire copies. The results show that the majority of respondents (55.5%) are males, whereas most households (38.18%) comprise 6 to 10 members. The major occupation of the respondents revealed that 42.7% were farmers in the surrounding national park, followed by traders (20%) and civil servants (16.4%). Most of the respondents were non-indigenes of the communities, while 37.20% of the respondents indicated that their monthly income was between ₦20,001 and ₦40,000. Eighty four per cent (84%) of the respondents agreed that the host communities' derived lots of benefits from KLNP, which include the donation of farm inputs (38.18%), employment (18.18%), empowerment programmes (16.36%) and infrastructural development (14.55%) through a majority (65%) of respondents indicated that there is no communities' involvement in the planning of park-initiated projects. The study further established that there is a significant relationship between income and the perception of respondents to wildlife conservation. However, other variables, such as age, sex, occupation, education, and household size are not significant to the notion. This study shows that Kainji Lake National Park's surrounding communities have an overall positive attitude towards the park. However, local people's responses to specific concerns and benefits showed a mixed perception. It is imperative for park authority to build on the communities' perception of conservation and development outcomes.</p> <p>Biodivers. Conserv. Bioresour. Manag. 2023, 9(2): 49-56</p> S K Halidu, A J Adeola, K M Adelakun, S M Ayeni, A A Saadu, N Mohammed Copyright (c) 2023 Wed, 29 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Influence of azolla, grass, water hyacinth, and peanut residues in amending soil properties <p>An incubation experiment was undertaken to evaluate the effects of azolla, grass, water hyacinth, and peanut residues for amending some soil properties. The experiment was laid out in pots comprising 7 treatments, <em>viz.</em> T<sub>1</sub>: Control, T<sub>2</sub>: Azolla (<em>Azolla pinnata</em>)<em> @ </em>100 g/pot, T<sub>3</sub>: Grass (<em>Phleum pretense</em>)<em> @ </em>100 g/pot, T<sub>4</sub>: Water hyacinth (<em>Pontederia crassipes</em>)<em> @</em>100 g/pot, T<sub>5</sub>: Peanut (<em>Arachis hypogaea</em>)<em> @ </em>100 g/pot<em>,</em> T<sub>6</sub>: Azolla <em>@ </em>50 g/pot + Water hyacinth <em>@ </em>50 g/pot, and T<sub>7</sub>: Peanut<em>@ </em>50 g/pot + Grass <em>@ </em>50 g/pot. The results revealed that peanut treated soils (T<sub>5</sub>) played an important role in enhancing soil properties significantly (<em>p</em> &lt; <em>0.05</em>) and the values of soil organic carbon (SOC), pH, nitrogen, moisture content and cation exchange capacity (CEC) reached at an optimum level to support microbial growth over a year.</p> <p>Biodivers. Conserv. Bioresour. Manag. 2023, 9(2): 57-64</p> M J Uddin, A Rahman, K Begum, F B Shafiq, S A Tethy Copyright (c) 2023 Wed, 29 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Diversity and seasonal variation of endophytic fungi associated with bark, stem and leaf of agar plant (Aquilaria malaccensis Lam.) <p>The diversity of endophytic fungi was isolated from the bark, stem and leaf of agar plant in monsoon and winter seasons at different locations of Dhaka and Habiganj districts. A total of 25 fungal isolates were found in monsoon and 22 in winter season. The highest diversity value was found in the bark of location 2 in monsoon according to Shannon diversity index and in the stem of location 1 in winter according to Simpson diversity index. The lowest value was found in the leaf and stem of location 1 and 4, respectively. The evenness of endophytic fungi was highest in the stem of location 1 and lowest in leaf in monsoon based on Shannon evenness index. The maximum species richness was recorded in the bark of location 2 (Margalef’s index) and in the stem of location 1 in monsoon (Menhinick’s index), and the minimum value recorded in the bark of location 4 in monsoon season.</p> <p>Biodivers. Conserv. Bioresour. Manag. 2023, 9(2): 65-74</p> S Shamsi, M Zafrin Copyright (c) 2023 Wed, 29 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Study on insect diversity and pollination effect on the yield of elephant apple <p>An experiment was conducted from June to November 2021 at the Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University in Dhaka to find out the insect diversity and pollination effects on the yield of elephant apple. Six flower visiting insects (<em>Apis cerana</em>, <em>Apis dorsata</em>,<em> Xylocopa </em>sp.,<em> Vespa </em>sp.,<em> Camponotus copressus </em>and<em> Syrphes </em>sp.) from five insect families (Apidae, Vespidae, Anthophoridae, Formicidae, and Syrphidae) under two orders (Hymenoptera and Diptera) were observed. Apidae (33.33%), Vespidae (16.67%), Formicidae (16.67%), Syrphidae (16.67%), and Anthoporidae (16.67%) visited flowers. <em>Apis dorsata</em> was the most frequent insect pollinator (47.62%), with 5.00 per flower on average. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index for species was 1.562. The highest foraging duration was recorded for <em>Apis dorsata</em> at 1.4 minutes per flower. Without netting and with netting, elephant apple plants produced 7.00 and zero (0.00) fruit per branch, respectively. Plants without netting had 464 kg of fruit per plant, 92.8 tonnes per ha of yield, and no fruit in the netting treatment.</p> <p>Biodivers. Conserv. Bioresour. Manag. 2023, 9(2): 75-82</p> M S Hossain, M Q Omi, S Akhtar, R S Ruku, M M Akter Copyright (c) 2023 Wed, 29 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Temporal variation, habitat heterogeneity and anthropogenic stressors influencing wildlife communities in an oxbow shaped wetland of lower Ganges floodplain, Bangladesh <p>Marjat <em>baor</em> is an Ecologically Critical Area located at the lower Ganges floodplain of Bangladesh. A yearlong study wildlife status, community structure and seasonal effect was made following direct field observation in the Marjat <em>baor</em>. A total of 186 vertebrate wildlife species (14 amphibians, 21 reptiles, 131 birds and 19 mammals) were recorded with 9402 individuals. Wetland habitat specialist species were abundant in the community where, <em>Dendrocygna javanica </em>was at the top (5.85%). Herpetofauna showed more uneven distribution than the other animal groups. Due to the richness of migratory birds, seasonal variation showed the highest number of unique species in winter season. A significant difference observed between the community structure of human-dominant and non-dominant landscapes in the ANOSIM test (<em>R = 0.146, p &lt;0.021</em>) and NMDs plot. Floating plant and homestead forest around the <em>baor</em> held the maximum wildlife species. Species richness (<em>F=11.334, p=0.0009</em>) and abundance (<em>F=68, p= 0.0021</em>) differed significantly among the five microhabitats of the study area. The presence of eight threatened wildlife species was noticed in the study area. Anthropogenic stressors causes existential crisis for wildlife. It is revealed that, the community-based conservation may be helpful for conserving the wildlife species in the study area. This study may play a significant role in taking future conservation initiatives.</p> <p>Biodivers. Conserv. Bioresour. Manag. 2023, 9(2): 83-98</p> M F Jaman, M M Alam, M F Rabbe, A R Shome Copyright (c) 2023 Wed, 29 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Utilizing net traps to manage pyralid insect population in pond ecosystems: investigating seasonal abundance and their association with duckweeds <p>A one-year (May to April) study was done about the seasonal abundance of pyralid insect (<em>Synclita occidentalis</em>: Pyralidae), its association with the duckweed (<em>Spirodela</em> sp.), and the effectiveness of emergent trap as a control measure of pyralid insect in mini ponds ecosystem. The adult insects were non-feeding and selected duckweeds for oviposition and larval development. The larvae of different instars were used duckweed fronds as a trophic source (food). For this, the insect attains pest status in its larval stage. The duckweed production is highly hampered due to the attack of this pyralid insect in pond ecosystem. During experiment, two seasonal peaks were noted, one in summer and another in autumn (larvae and adults). The highest relative seasonal abundance of the adults was recorded in June (0.2) and larvae was in August (0.23). The lowest abundance of the adults and larvae was found 0.001 and 0.01, respectively during winter season. In this experiment, it was found that larvae used duckweed fronds as food in maximum 18.86 ± 0.86 and minimum 13.33 ± 0.70. The larva also built protective cases in duckweed fronds. The highest length of the larval cases was 27.07 ± 1.7 mm and width was 14.8 ± 1.75 mm. The larval feeding habit and case-making adaptability give this insect pest status. From the experiment, it was also found that the length and width of the larval cases greatly varied in different seasons and not positively correlated (<em>P &gt; 0.005</em>). The total seasonal abundance of larval cases was lower in treatment ponds (54) than control (103); and not varied significantly (<em>P &gt; 0.005</em>) between the experimental ponds. In addition, the net trap of adult’s emergent had an important role in suppressing pyralid pest population especially in summer. This situation indicated that it might be a key contribution as a control planning during the peak season of pyralid pest outbreak for the management of duckweed in aquatic ecosystems.</p> <p>Biodivers. Conserv. Bioresour. Manag. 2023, 9(2): 99-108</p> S F N Chowdhury, N Parven, M Mahmud, S Kamal, S I Belal, S Begum Copyright (c) 2023 Wed, 29 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000