Journal of Biodiversity Conservation and Bioresource Management 2023-01-16T08:16:51+00:00 Dr. M. A. Bashar Open Journal Systems Official journal of the Biodiversity Conservation Trust Foundation (BCTF) Effects of Holy Basil (Ocimum Sanctum Linnaeus) On the Modulation Of Stress in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis Niloticus Linnaeus) 2023-01-08T06:30:06+00:00 A Biswas L Mason A Mustafa <p>Fish in aquaculture face stress, which is a major concern due to its effects on the overall wellbeing of the fish. To modulate the stress responses, researchers are turning to the use nutraceuticals rather than chemical drugs. In a six-week long study, holy basil (Ocimum sanctum) was used to observe its effects on stress in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Stress was induced by adding cortisol with the feed as a supplement. Three different treatments (control, stress, stress- basil), each with two replicates, were used to measure serum cortisol, lysozyme activity, macrophage phagocytosis, spleen somatic index, and condition factor. Basil had no significant effect on any of the parameters when comparing the stress and stress basil treatments. But the result showed significant imperative effect of stress due to cortisol supplement in both stress and stress-basil groups. The results suggest that basil may have potentials to modulate the stress response in Nile tilapia.</p> <p>J. Biodivers. Conserv. Bioresour. Manag. 2022, 8(2): 1-12</p> 2023-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Integrated Effects of Vermicompost, Npk Fertilizers, Cadmium And Lead on the Growth, Yield and Mineral Nutrient Accumulation In Spinach (Spinacia Oleracea L.) 2023-01-08T06:30:08+00:00 M Syed KTM Sadi R Uddin AK Devnath MK Rahman <p>An integrated fertilizer experiment was conducted on the spinach plant at the net house of Soil, Water and Environment department under University of Dhaka during the rabi season using pot culture. The intention of the study was to evaluate the integrated effect of vermicompost, NPK fertilizers, Cd and Pb on soil properties, spinach growth, yield and concentration of nutrients. The trial was carried out in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) followed by two replications, having twelve treatments, including control. The maximum growth and yield contributing characteristics of spinach plant viz. plant height (23.10 cm), leaf area (61.13 cm<sup>2</sup> plant<sup>-1</sup>), length of leaf (10.85 cm plant<sup>-1</sup>), no. of leaf (10 plant<sup>-1</sup>), yield of fresh (10.92g plant<sup>-1</sup>) and dry materials (1.05g plant<sup>-1</sup>) found in T<sub>12</sub> (vermicompost 5 ton ha<sup>-1</sup> + N<sub>25</sub>P<sub>8</sub>K<sub>10</sub> kg ha<sup>-1</sup> + Pb<sub>4</sub> kg ha<sup>-1</sup>). All the growth and yield parameters observed lowest with the sole Cd application and the performance of sole Pb also showed reducing trends compared to other integrated treatments. The highest achievements of macro elements N (0.0798%), P (0.0027%), K (0.0068%) and S (0.0084%) of post-harvest soil with the treated pot in T<sub>12</sub> over the control. Mineral nutrients of leaves (N-2.29%, P-1.30% and K-8.24%) were found highest in the same T<sub>12</sub>. It may be concluded that the maximum production of spinach, sustain the soil productivity and achieve the high nutritional value of the leaf in the treatment T<sub>12</sub> (vermicompost 5 ton ha<sup>-1</sup> + N<sub>25</sub>P<sub>8</sub>K<sub>10</sub> kg ha<sup>-1</sup> + Pb<sub>4</sub> kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) recommended for its cultivation.</p> <p>J. Biodivers. Conserv. Bioresour. Manag. 2022, 8(2): 13-24</p> 2023-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Effects of Water Quality on the Growth, Molting and Mortality Of Mud Crab, Scylla Serrata Forskal (Decapoda: Portunidae) From Cox’s Bazar 2023-01-08T06:30:09+00:00 J Dutta M Nasiruddin MA Azadi <p>The important decapod crustacean, the soft-shell crab, Scylla serrata is in great demand in different countries due to its taste next to shrimp and nutritional value, for which its farm is growing day by day as a source of income generation. This experiment was conducted for one year from January 2016 to December 2016 in Chaufaldandi, Cox’s Bazar, Bangladesh to study the growth, molting and mortality rates of the soft shell crab and water quality of the crab culture pond. During the three experiments in a year, matured male crab showed highest growth performance (28.00±7.02g to 32.15±3.87g). Mature female crab showed maximum molting (60%) during the 3rd experimental period (September to December), while immature crab depicted the highest rate of molting (75%) in the 2nd (May-August) and 3rd experimental periods (September- December). Mortality rate was found highest in mature male during the 1st experimental period (60%). The female crab showed maximum mortality rate (40%) during the 1st experimental period. The survival rate was best for female and immature S. serrata. The growth of S. serrata showed significant positive relationships with water temperature, salinity, water pH, soil pH, and alkalinity during the all three experimental periods. The 2nd and 3rd experimental periods were found to be the most favorable time to produce soft-shell crab due to suitable weather conditions.</p> <p>J. Biodivers. Conserv. Bioresour. Manag. 2022, 8(2): 25-36</p> 2023-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Ecology of Avifauna in Green Spaces of a Sub-Tropical Urban Landscape: Community Structure and Habitat Preference 2023-01-08T06:30:10+00:00 AR Shome MM Alam MF Rabbe T Mia S Munira UH Ilma MF Jaman <p>To scrutinize the present status of birds in a sub-tropical urban green space, a research work was conducted in Mymenshing City Corporation from November 2018 to October 2019 by direct field observations. Three green spaces were selected in the study area where in total 180 species of birds with 7,079 individuals were documented. Passeriformes had the highest species richness (76 species, 42.22%) and abundance (n = 4174, 58.96%). Bangladesh Agricultural University Campus Area (Site A) showed the highest diversity index value with the highest species richness (170 species, 94.44%) and abundance (n = 3261, 46.06%). Analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) test showed a significant difference in bird communities among three study sites. Cluster analysis showed that fallow land and agricultural land formed a large cluster which further formed another cluster with grassland, water-body, tree and urban settlements. Species richness and abundance across the seasons and study sites varied significantly. The highest avian diversity and abundance were observed in winter, particularly in January. Species richness and abundance for nine microhabitats showed significant variations where tree was mostly used microhabitat. The avian community of urban settlements and agricultural lands were highly correlated. These urban green spaces support 48 (26.67%) migratory birds in the study area. Pycnonotus cafér had the highest relative abundance (4.28%), Maximum observed bird species as the least concern and five species were threatened according to the national conservation status.</p> <p>J. Biodivers. Conserv. Bioresour. Manag. 2022, 8(2): 37-50</p> 2023-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Influence of Cow Dung and Npk Fertilizers on Macronutrients and Oil Content of Sunflower (Helianthus Annuus L.) 2023-01-08T06:30:12+00:00 M Alauddin MK Rahman HMZ Ali <p>A field experiment was carried out at the research farm of Charfasson Govt. College, Bhola, Bangladesh in rabi season in 2015-2016 to evaluate the effects of cow dung (CD) with and without NPK fertilizers to estimate the concentration, uptake and oil content of sunflower cv. BARI-2 (Keroni-2). It was laid out in a completely randomized block design (CRBD) having sixteen treatments with three replications and plot size was 3m×2m. Treatments were T1: Control (- CD and -NPK), T2: 2.5t CD ha-1, T3: 5t CD ha-1, T4: 7.5t CD ha-1, T5: N40P30K50kg ha-1, T6: N80P60K100kg ha-1, T7: N120P90K150kg ha-1, T8: 2.5t CD ha-1 +N40P30K50kg ha-1, T9: 2.5t CD ha-1+N80P60K100kg ha-1, T10: 2.5t CD ha-1+N120P90K150kg ha-1, T11: 5t CD ha-1+ N40P30K50kg ha-1, T12: 5t CD ha-1+N80P60K100kg ha-1, T13: 5t CD ha-1 +N120P90K150kg ha-1, T14:7.5t CD ha-1+N40P30K50kg ha-1, T15:7.5t CD ha-1+N80P60K100kg ha-1 and T16: 7.5t CD ha-1+N120P90K150kg ha-1. Sixty plants were grown in each plot for 90 days. Maximum values of NPKS concentration (%) in different organs of sunflower were 1.08, 0.38, 2.04, 0.18 for root; 1.33, 0.33, 1.85, 0.19 for stem; 3.45, 0.67, 4.12, 0.18 for leaf; 1.99, 0.62, 3.0, 0.22 for petiole; 0.73, 0.68, 2.25, 0.23 for inflorescence, and 4.95, 0.94, 0.75, 0.26 for seed measured in combined treatments of 5t CD ha-1 + N120P90K150kg ha-1 and 7.5t CD ha-1 + N120P90K150kg ha-1 in most of the cases. The uptake pattern also followed the same trend as in concentration. The lowest concentration and uptake of NPKS were recorded in control (-CD and -NPK). The highest content of oil in seed (51.8%) was extracted from the treatment 5t CD ha-1+ N120P90K150kg ha-1 and the lowest value (35.6%) was in treatment 5t CD ha-1+ N80P60K100kg ha-1 which was lower than control. The findings of this study indicated that cow dung in combination with chemical fertilizers enhanced the concentration and uptake of NPKS and oil content in seeds of sunflower. The dose 5t CD ha-1 +N120P90K150kg ha-1 can be suggested to produce maximum oil. Study generated an information for the concern people for future research.</p> <p>J. Biodivers. Conserv. Bioresour. Manag. 2022, 8(2): 51-60</p> 2023-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Diversity and Traditional Use Value of Medicinal Plants in Bou Saada District of M’Sila Province, South East Algeria 2023-01-08T06:30:13+00:00 H Khalfa K Rebbas MD Miara H Bendif A Boufissiou N Souilah N Daoud A Peroni <p>The study aimed at identifying the plants of Bousaada district of M'sila province, South East Algeria, used by the local people as traditional medicines and analyzing their use value. The ethnomedicinal use information was collected by interviewing local informants using structured questionnaires through regular field surveys. A total of 193 species belonging to 69 families was identified. Lamiaceae and Asteraceae were the most commonly reported medicinal plants with 85 and 71 species, respectively. Artemisia herba-alba and Juniperus oxycedrus were the most widely used plants as the traditional medicine by the local population. The highest use value (UV) was observed for Citrus lemon (L.) Burm., Ficus carica L., Moringa oleifera Lam. and Olea europaea L. (UV=5). The highest fidelity level (FL) value was for 73 species. The calculated informant consensus factor (ICF) showed that diseases related to gastrointestinal disorders and diseases of the glands attached to the digestive system diseases present the highest values.</p> <p>J. Biodivers. Conserv. Bioresour. Manag. 2022, 8(2): 61-78</p> 2023-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Combined Effects of Nickel and Arsenic on Growth and Mineral Nutrients Accumulation in Kalmi (Ipomoea Aquatica), Red Amaranth (Amaranthus SP.) And Spinach (Spinacia Oleracea L.) And Nutrient Release Pattern In Soil at Different Days of Incubation 2023-01-08T06:30:15+00:00 N Sultana S Mazumdar MS Chaudhury MK Rahman <p>Arsenic (As) is a broadly distributed toxic metalloid that accumulates in the environment through natural and anthropogenic sources. Numerous techniques were evolved for arsenic remediation from water including adsorption, flocculation, ion exchange and reverse osmosis. Due to the excessive affinity between iron and inorganic arsenic species, iron-based adsorption is an emerging technique for the remediation of arsenic-contaminated water and soil. Whereas iron (Fe) and nickel (Ni) belong to the same chemical group (VIIIB) in the periodic table, it is expected to get similar interaction of Ni with As. An in vitro incubation study and pot experiment were conducted to evaluate the effect of Nickel on mineral release patterns in soil and growth yield of kalmi (Ipomoea aquatica), red amaranth (Amaranthus sp.) and Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.). Nickel was applied as different doses of Nickel of 10, 40 and 160 mg/kg respectively where As was applied with irrigation water at the rates of 1 mg/L and incubated at field moisture condition for 10, 20 and 30 days individually in different pots. Total organic carbon (C), total nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), sulfur (S), potassium (K) and 0.1N HCl extractable arsenic (As), iron (Fe) contents were determined at 10, 20 and 30 days of incubation. The pot experiment was carried out in triplicates for 45 days till the plants were grown to maturity. The growth performance of plants and the remedial effect of Ni on As toxicity in soil and plant was examined. Nickel showed a significant impact on fresh and dry yield of three plants and an antagonistic relationship between Ni and As was also observed i.e., Ni in soil was found to lessen the availability of As in soil likewise its accumulation in plants.</p> <p>J. Biodivers. Conserv. Bioresour. Manag. 2022, 8(2): 79-88</p> 2023-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Plant Diversity Assessment of Matarbari Area of Moheshkhali Upazila, Cox’s Bazar 2023-01-08T06:30:16+00:00 MZ Uddin A Shomrat MS Hasan <p>The study presents the status of plant diversity in and around Matarbari, in Moheshkhali Upazila, Cox’s Bazar district, situated in the close vicinity of the Bay of Bengal. A total of 248 plant species belonging to 80 families was identified in the study area. For each plant species, the scientific name, local name, family, habit, habitat, origin, status, abundance, and uses are provided. The most dominant family is the Fabaceae, followed by Poaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Verbenaceae, Asteraceae, Convolvulaceae, Malvaceae, Mimosaceae, Moraceae, and Arecaceae. Most of the plant species are herbs, followed by trees, climbers, and shrubs. In the present study, the maximum numbers of plants recorded were from homesteads, followed by roadsides, mangroves, wetland, and sand dune habitats. The most important plant species were medicinal (28%), wildlifesupporting (20%), fruits and grains (10%), and so on. A few exotics (18%), including Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Albizia richardiana, Chromolaena odorata, Lantana camara, etc., some rare species (37 spp.), some mangrove plants, and 2 keystone species (Ficus altisimma and F. rumphii) were found in the study area that are of conservation concern. Besides, significant areas such as sand dunes, eco-parks, Jhao plantation area, and mangrove forests have been identified that should be of concern for any development and management projects in and around Matarbari. A number of threats, including infrastructural development activities, land filling, mangrove forest clearing for shrimp and salt cultivation, was also observed during field data collection. The concerned authorities, including the government, should consider the importance of natural plant diversity in implementing different mega projects.</p> <p>J. Biodivers. Conserv. Bioresour. Manag. 2022, 8(2): 89-102</p> 2023-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Vegetation Change Detection of Khagrachhari Sadar Upazila Using GIS and Remote Sensing 2023-01-08T06:30:18+00:00 GA Latifa S Marma M Islam <p>The change of vegetation in Khagrachhari Sadar Upazila during 1991 to 2021 was investigated taking data in 10 years intervals. Satellite images of Landsat 4-5 TM (30 October 1991, 19 March 2001 and 11 February 2011) and Landsat 8 OLI/TIRS (6 February 2021) from USGS Earth Explorer have been extracted. Image classification, analyzing and visualizing the data was accomplished by ArcGIS 10.7.1 software and Microsoft excel. In 1991, vegetation coverage (Forest and agriculture) and non-vegetated area (water body, bare land) were 161.15 km2 (61.19%) and 99.17 km2 (38.09%), respectively. After 10 years (in 2001) vegetation coverage slightly increased (by 0.83%) resulting a little decrease in nonvegetated area. The area became 184.63 km2 (62.60%) and 97.28 km2 (37.40%), respectively for vegetated and non-vegetated coverage. However, since 2011 a decreasing trend for vegetation coverage was observed, 161.81 km2 (62.2%) in 2011 which decreased to 157.97 km2 (60.72%) in 2021. Consequently non-vegetated area increased from 98.34 km2 (37.80%) to 102.18 km2 (39.28%) in this period. The overall loss of 3.18 km2 of vegetation over the last 30 years was mainly due to rapid growth of population and encroachment of hilly area for settlement. This loss of vegetation coverage is affecting the ecological balance of the hilly areas of Bangladesh.</p> <p>J. Biodivers. Conserv. Bioresour. Manag. 2022, 8(2): 103-108</p> 2023-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Strategies for the Remediation of Cadmium and Chromium From Industrial Effluents in Response to Amaranthus Cruentus, Spinacia Oleracea And Amaranthus Viridis of Bangladesh 2023-01-08T06:30:19+00:00 H Khan RS Akter SA Lipi <p>Discharge of industrial effluents and their remediation in relation to crop production are the major concerns. Accordingly, the color, pH, EC, total dissolved solids (TDS), dissolved oxygen (DO), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total hardness, chloride, CO3, HCO3, alkalinity, Cu, Cd, Pb, Mn, Zn, and Cr contents in the effluents discharged from Hazaribagh tannery and Tejgaon textile industries in Dhaka were determined. These effluents had no significant (p≤0.05) effects on soil pH but exerted significant positive effects on the CEC of the soil. The TDS of the effluents were also high but it decreased by alum [K2SO4 Al2 (SO4)3 24 H2O] treatment (0.1%). The DO of the effluents was low and the COD was high leading to a serious threat for aquatic lives. The concentrations of Cd, Pb, Zn, Mn and Cr were high. Filtration through natural sand-gravity-filter acts like Effluent Treatment Plant-ETP and coagulation of effluents by alum decreased the concentrations of Cd and Cr below the permissible limits. The treated effluents were used for the production of vegetables of red amaranth (Amarunthus cruentus), green spinach (Spinacia oleracea) and green amaranth (Amarunthus viridis) grown in a non-polluted soil under pot experiments. Application of treated effluents was found to have significant (p≤0.05) positive effects on the biomass production of the vegetables. The highest amounts of assimilation of Cd in plants were recorded for the Green spinach followed by Green amaranth and for Cr, the order was green spinach followed by red amaranth and green amaranth vegetables grown under the treated effluents of tannery and textile industries. The present study revealed that the natural sand-gravity-filter (i.e., Economic ETP) and alum treatments were found to be effective not only for the remediation of polluted effluents but also improved the growth of vegetables. The use of natural filter and/or alum treatment can be practiced for the remediation of pollution of industrial effluents before discharging from industries.</p> <p>J. Biodivers. Conserv. Bioresour. Manag. 2022, 8(2): 109-118</p> 2023-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022