Stamford Journal of Microbiology <p>Published by the Department of Microbiology, Stamford University Bangladesh. Full text articles available.</p> en-US (Dr. Md. Shahidul Kabir, PhD) (Md Fahmid Uddin Khondoker) Sun, 01 Mar 2020 07:05:07 +0000 OJS 60 Antibiotic resistance pattern of bacteria isolated from outdoor patients in Dhaka city: a single center study <p>Bacterial infections are often found to cause morbidity and mortality around the globe. Indiscriminate use of antibiotic for treatment of such infections is reported to cause selective pressure and increase in drug resistance. Emergence of antibiotic resistance is a growing concern for people of all age having bacterial infections. It is important to determine the trend of antibiotic resistance patterns of pathogenic bacteria isolated from clinical samples for appropriate treatment of patients. A retrospective study was conducted on patient samples collected from 1 July 2018 to 15 March 2019. A total of 500 urine, 136 blood, 120 stool, 172 swab, 90 Sputum and 60 pus samples were randomly collected from both male and female patients of different age groups who reported to a diagnostic centre in Dhaka city. Pathogenic bacteria were isolated and identified from the collected samples following standard methods. Antibiotic sensitivity patterns of isolated bacteria were also determined by disc diffusion test. Proportion of UTI in female patients (71.67%) was found to be higher than the male (28.33%) patients and mostly caused by <em>Escherichia coli </em>(73.33%). Among Gram negative bacteria, <em>E. coli </em>(51%) was found to be predominant followed by <em>Pseudomonas </em>spp. (11.47%), <em>Klebsiella </em>(9.84%) and <em>Salmonella </em>Typhi (9.84%). Among Gram positive organism <em>Staphylococcus aureus </em>(9.0%), beta haemolytic streptococci (5.74%) and enterococci (3.28%) were found to be present. Among the tested antibiotics imipenem was found to be the most effective (93.02%) followed by gentamycin (76.03%) against all isolated bacteria. Amoxycillin was found to be least effective (21.29%) against all isolated bacteria. Increase in antibiotic resistance was possibly due to indiscriminate use of antibiotic for treatment of various infections. Prudent use of antimicrobial drugs will help reduce spread of resistant bacteria and complication of treatment of infected patients.</p> <p>Stamford Journal of Microbiology, Vol.9(1) 2019: 1-4</p> Most Salma Khatun, Saimun Nahar, Md Shahidul Kabir ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 27 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Biodegradation of textile dyes by bacteria isolated from textile industry effluents <p>A country like Bangladesh where textile industries are the main source of developing economy, pollution problem from such industries creates a huge risk for the environment. Textile industries discharge a huge amount of effluent containing various harmful chemicals including synthetic dyes that are very stable and threat to the living organisms. This study deals with the potential decolorization and biodegradation of Bemacron Yellow HP-2R (BY), Bemacron Red RS (BR) and Bemacron blue RS 01 (BB) dyes using bacteria isolated from textile effluent. The effluent and soil samples were collected from different locations of discharge point. Only two isolates were screened out after primary screening using dye supplemented nutrient agar media. Following colony morphology, physiology and biochemical analysis, they were presumptively identified as <em>Bacillus </em>sp. and <em>Staphylococcus </em><em>aureus</em>. They were subjected to decolorization of 0.002 g/l BY, BR and BB dyes. <em>Bacillus </em>sp. showed superior decolorization potential of BR (71%) and BB (83%) dyes after 5 days of incubation. Whereas, <em>Staphylococcus aureus </em>showed 79% decolorization of BY dye after 5 days incubation. Decolorization efficacy can be further improved by optimizing environmental conditions and process parameters.</p> <p>Stamford Journal of Microbiology, Vol.9(1) 2019: 5-8</p> Khusbu Aktar, Tamanna Zerin, Avijit Banik ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 27 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Presence of microorganisms in commonly used baby cosmetics, available in Dhaka City <p>Cosmetics especially baby products should be safe as children are immunocompromised which means their immune system is not developed enough to combat infections caused by the presence of any pathogenic bacteria. Different factors like chemical composition of cosmetics, handling and storage conditions can influence the chance of contamination of cosmetic products. This study aimed to evaluate the microbiological quality of different commercially available baby cosmetics such as body lotion, body wash or soap, baby shampoo, baby oil of different popular brands sold in Dhaka city. In the current investigation four different brands of cosmetics were subjected to bacteriological and mycological screening. Total viable bacteria and fungal load in all the samples of Brand 1 was in average of 10<sup>5</sup> cfu/g which exceeded the acceptable limit. The samples were found to contain pathogenic bacteria as well, especially <em>Klebsiella </em>spp. The findings indicate that the quality Brand 1 products were not satifactory and might cause harm to children and other consumers. Microbial load of other brands fell within the acceptable limit which indicate their good quality. The incidence of microorganisms in Brand 1 might be due to contamination during the production process or storage under unhygienic condition. Therefore in order to avoid infections in children due to microbial contamination of cosmetics items it is essential to take precautions during production process and storage in appropriate conditions and avoiding use of cosmetics products on damaged skin.</p> <p>Stamford Journal of Microbiology, Vol.9(1) 2019: 9-11</p> Farahnaaz Feroz, Kamal Kanta Das ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 27 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Isolation and quantification of indicator and pathogenic microorganisms along with their drug resistance traits from bottled and jar water samples within Dhaka city, Bangladesh <p>Commercial drinking water may serve as potential threat to public health if these items are contaminated with a number of pathogenic microorganisms due to faulty manufacturing process. Present study attempted to isolate and quantify the microorganisms from various jar and bottle water samples collected from various areas of Dhaka city. Antibiotic susceptibility pattern of suspected bacterial isolates were also determined in this study. Out of the eighteen samples studied, ten were jar water samples and eight were bottled water samples. The range of total viable bacterial count (TVBC) in these samples ranged from 10<sup>2</sup> to 10<sup>5 </sup>cfu/ml. Specific pathogens such as, <em>Salmonella </em>spp., <em>Shigella </em>spp., <em>Vibrio </em>spp. and fecal coliforms could not be found in these samples. However coliforms could be detected in 10 samples. The antibiogram study showed that all <em>Escherichia coli </em>and <em>Klebsiella </em>spp. isolates found from these samples were sensitive against gentamicin (10 μg) and azithromycin (30 μg). Variable antibiotic resistance among these bacterial isolates was detected against cefotaxime (30 μg), streptomycin (10 μg) and erythromycin (15 μg).</p> <p>Stamford Journal of Microbiology, Vol.9(1) 2019: 12-14</p> Md Aftab Uddin, Mst Aysha Siddiqua, Mst Sadia Ahmed ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 27 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Occurrence of drug resistant bacteria in household waste samples <p>Current study was carried out to investigate the presence of drug resistant bacterial isolates in the biodegradable household waste samples. In this respect, a total of six domestic waste samples including three kitchen waste samples and one sample each of home dust, dustbin waste and liquid waste were collected. Samples were analyzed for quantification of bacterial load and along with their drug susceptibility pattern. Huge array of total viable bacteria was present in all the samples (in average of 10<sup>8</sup> cfu/g or ml). Among the specific bacteria, <em>Bacillus </em>spp. was predominant and <em>Vibrio </em>spp. was found in almost all samples except liquid waste. Presence of <em>Staphylococcus </em>spp., <em>E. coli</em>, <em>Klebsiella </em>spp., <em>Pseudomonas </em>spp., <em>Salmonella </em>spp. and fecal coliform were evident in some samples. All isolates were found to be multidrug resistant. Notably, 100% resistance was documented against cefuroxime and amoxicillin. All the isolates showed sensitivity against meropenem, amikacin and ceftriaxone. Presence of drug resistant bacteria in household waste samples in present study critically raises the requirement for proper management and disposal of the accumulated domestic wastes by the municipal and government authorities.</p> <p>Stamford Journal of Microbiology, Vol.9(1) 2019: 15-18</p> Aklima Akter, Sadia Ahmed, Tamanna Islam, Saurab Kishore Munshi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 27 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Occurrence of pathogenic microorganisms in dessert items collected from Dhaka city <p>Due to delicious taste and readily availability, desserts are one of the most popular foods in Dhaka city. High amount of carbohydrate and protein in dessert items make them more susceptible to proliferation of microbial growth. Present study depicted a complete microbiological profile of some popular desserts such as, sweet, pastry, ice cream, pudding, falooda, yogurt and custard available in different food shop at Dhaka city, Bangladesh. All the samples were found to be contaminated with heterotrophic bacteria as well as fungi within the range of 10<sup>3</sup> to 10<sup>6</sup> cfu/g. In case of specific microflora, the growth of <em>Staphylococcus </em>spp., <em>Klebsiella </em>spp. and <em>Pseudomonas </em>spp. were observed in most of the samples indicates the poor quality of these products. Bioburdens of <em>E. coli </em>in sweet, pudding and yogurt were found in the range of 1.2×10<sup>2</sup> to 2.7×10<sup>3</sup> cfu/g. <em>Salmonella </em>spp., <em>Shigella </em>spp. and <em>Vibrio </em>spp. could not be isolated from any of the samples. Current study indicates that hygienic conditions should be maintained during preparation, packaging and retailing of dessert items in order to reduce the load of contamination in ready to eat foods which will ensure good health of consumers.</p> <p>Stamford Journal of Microbiology, Vol.9(1) 2019: 19-22</p> Shohana Akter, Anasua Sarkar, Kamal Kanta Das ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 27 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Microbiological profiling of food additives and evaluation of their antibacterial efficacy <p>Food additives are widely used to enhance the taste, texture, appearance and longevity of food items. The aim of this study is to determine the quality and antibacterial activity of different food additives and preservatives. In this study 8 categories of food additives were collected from different super shops in Dhaka city. Almost 90% samples were free from pathogenic microorganisms and a low number of total viable bacteria were found in all samples. Antibacterial activities of these samples were measured by agar diffusion method. Except food color, all remaining categories exhibited zone of inhibition against tested laboratory isolates between 8 mm and 22 mm in diameter. These findings indicate that adding food additives or preservatives in food item can reduce or prevent the growth of pathogenic microorganisms. Harmful effects of food additives to human health need to be evaluated before they are applied in food items.</p> <p>Stamford Journal of Microbiology, Vol.9(1) 2019: 23-26</p> Umme Habiba, Md Mahmud Rahman, Md Kamran Hossain, Ifra Tun Nur ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 27 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Clinical patterns and risk factors of vulvo-vaginal candidiasis among women of reproductive age attending a tertiary hospital in central India <p>Vulvo-vaginal Candidiasis (VVC) is the most common fungal infection in women of reproductive age. Data related to distribution and risk factors are very limited in India. This study was designed to observe the prevalence of VVC among women of reproductive age group, find the species of <em>Candida </em>causing such infection and find the risk factors associated with VVC. All female patients in the childbearing age group, fulfilling the clinical criteria of vaginitis, reported between January 2016 and June 2017 were included in this study. Standard procedures were followed to collect vaginal swabs. Culture and microscopic examinations were done to isolate <em>Candida albicans </em>and non-<em>albicans Candida </em>(NAC) from the specimens. Descriptive and analytic statistics was used to illustrate the basic and disease characteristics of the study participants. The odds-ratio (OR) associated with each potential risk factor at 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated. All results were considered significant at <em>P</em>&lt;0.05. Out of total 168 subjects, 32.7% showed pure growth of <em>Candida </em>species and NAC species were found to be predominant (65.4%) followed by <em>C. albicans </em>(34.6%). Maximum <em>Candida </em>positivity was found in age group 21-30 years (60%) compared to other age groups (<em>P</em>&lt;0.05). <em>Candida </em>positivity was found to be higher among pregnant (45.0%) than non-pregnant (28.9%) women (<em>P</em>&lt;0.05) suggests that pregnant women are twice at odds for developing VVC as compared to non-pregnant women. The higher positivity in patients of vaginal discharge with pruritus was found to be statistically significant (<em>P</em>&lt;0.05). One in three patients was found to be positive for VVC and NAC was more prevalent as compared to <em>candida albicans</em>. This study concluded that pregnant women are at risk for VVC.</p> <p>Stamford Journal of Microbiology, Vol.9(1) 2019: 27-31</p> Rafat Siddiqui ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 27 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Analysis of ambient airborne mycoflora around Curzon hall campus, University of Dhaka, Bangladesh <p>The indoor and outdoor air is an important source of aeroallergens and pathogens. Monthly samplings were recorded during September to November 2018 to investigate the airborne mycoflora concentration in Curzon hall campus, University of Dhaka. The fungal colonies developed in Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) media were isolated from four different locations in the morning, noon and evening in monthly intervals. A total number of counted fungal colonies were 2,681 in which 924, 928 and 829 colonies were found in the morning, noon and evening time, respectively. Among the identified fungi, <em>Aspergillus </em>spp<em>. </em>was one of the most predominant genera in all the stations over the study period followed by <em>Penicillium </em>spp<em>. Alternaria </em>spp., <em>Curvularia </em>spp., <em>Fusarium </em>spp., <em>Rhizopus </em>spp<em>. </em>and <em>Trichoderma. </em>The identified fungi belonged to eight genera under the class Ascomycetes, Zygomycetes and Deuteromycetes. Among the fungal isolates, <em>Alternaria </em>spp.<em>, Aspergillus </em>spp<em>., Curvularia </em>spp<em>., Fusarium </em>spp<em>., Penicillium </em>spp<em>. </em>and <em>Rhizopus </em>spp<em>. </em>were previously reported as pathogenic to plants and/or humans and strongly allergenic to human being.</p> <p>Stamford Journal of Microbiology, Vol.9(1) 2019: 32-35</p> Md Nazim Uddin, Gulshan Ara Latifa, Ahmad Kamruzzaman Majumder, Shamim Shamsi, Abdullah Al Nayeem ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 27 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from sputum samples of outdoor patients in Comilla, Bangladesh <p>Tuberculosis (TB) caused by <em>Mycobacterium tuberculosis </em>has plagued humans since the beginning of history, but was on the decline after introduction of the Bacillus-Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination programs. Tuberculosis appears to be an emerging problem worldwide due to environmental changes, mass migration and rise of drug-resistance phenomenon. This study targets to find out the distribution of TB patients in the sub-urban population around Comilla city in Bangladesh. A total of 455 patients with pulmonary symptoms were included in the study over a period of six months (from January 2016 to June 2016). Samples were smeared and stained with acid-fast technique and cultured in Lowenstein Jensen medium. A total of 2.4% of the patients were diagnosed with active pulmonary TB, 1.53% of whom are males and 0.87% are females. On the other hand, the Mantoux Tuberculin test showed 5.3% of these patients to be positive for TB, 3.3% of whom are males and 2% are females. 23% of the samples were sputum, 59% were pus, 14% were cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and 4% were tracheal aspirates. On the whole, the suburban population around Comilla city in Bangladesh has a moderate incidence of pulmonary TB with military TB being rarely present. A thorough multi-year surveillance is needed to control the situation.</p> <p>Stamford Journal of Microbiology, Vol.9(1) 2019: 36-38</p> Baitul Islam, Md Zahidul Islam, Tithi Rani Das, Tasnia Ahmed ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 27 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0000