Stamford Journal of Microbiology <p>Published by the Department of Microbiology, Stamford University Bangladesh. Full text articles available.</p> Department of Microbiology Stamford University Bangladesh en-US Stamford Journal of Microbiology 2074-5346 Microbiological quality determination of pasteurized, UHT and flavoured milk sold in Dhaka, Bangladesh <p>The present study was undertaken to determine the microbiological quality of pasteurized milk, UHT milk and flavoured milk samples collected from different locations in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Twenty pasteurized milk samples, fifteen UHT milk samples and fifteen flavoured milk samples of different brand were collected and different batch were analyzed for enumerating the total viable bacterial count (TVBC), total coliform count (TCC) and physiochemical tests (sensory test, alcohol test, acidity test, fat test, CLR test, SNF). The range of TVBC and pasteurized milk samples was between 2.3×10<sup>2</sup> cfu/ml to 4.69×10<sup>3</sup> cfu/ml. TVBC range of flavoured milk samples was between 5.0×10<sup>1</sup> cfu/ml to 1.8×10<sup>2</sup> and no TVBC was detected for any of the UHT milk samples. No TVBC was found for flavoured milk samples of company-8 (UHT). Because it was processed with ultra high temperature, slightly lower than that recommended by BSTI (not exceeding 20,000 cfu/ml). Coliform bacteria were present only for pasteurized milk samples in one brand, though the count was under acceptable range according to BSTI recommendation (&lt;10/ml coliform in pasteurized milk). Physiochemical tests are also very important to detect the quality of milk samples. Acidity range should not exceed 0.14, for this study fat range should be minimum 3.5% and SNF should be minimum 8%. In this study, for pasteurized milk samples acidity range was between 0.14-0.16, fat range was between 3.5-3.9% and SNF was between the ranges of 8-9.784%. For UHT milk samples acidity range was between 0.13-0.16, fat range was between 3.5-3.8% and SNF was between 8.034-9.012. All the results of sensory and physiochemical tests for pasteurized and UHT milk samples were satisfactory. So, UHT processed milk and flavoured milk can be considered as safe for consumption within the mentioned expiry date without heat treatment.</p> <p>Stamford Journal of Microbiology, Vol.8(1) 2018: 1-6</p> Jubaida Binte Jamal Sharmin Akter Md Aftab Uddin ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-07-31 2019-07-31 8 1 1 6 10.3329/sjm.v8i1.42429 Determination of In vitro antimicrobial activity of homeopathy medicines <p>Homeopathy is a popular alternative medicine. The mechanism of action of homeopathic drug has not been clarified but it has been found to be effective against various diseases including diarrhea, dysentery, otitis media, eczema and even cancer. After qualifying thorough investigation, it can be used against antibiotic tolerance and multi drug resistant bacteria. In a recent study, bactericidal effect of homeopathic remedies has been investigated. But such an effect is not in accordance with the general principles of homeopathy. To test this paradigm, <em>in vitro </em>antimicrobial effects of four homeopathic drugs Aconite 30, Arsenicum album 30, Mercuric corrosivus 30 and Mercury solution 200 against five common intestinal pathogens, including- <em>Escherichia coli, Klebsiella </em>sp., <em>Salmonella </em>sp. <em>Pseudomonas </em>sp., and <em>Bacillus </em>sp have been observed. Standard agar well diffusion technique and macrodilution technique were followed. But, tested homeopathic drugs did not show any significant effect on any of the five pathogens. Rigorous study against other organism is required to fully understand antimicrobial activity and other mechanism of action.</p> <p>Stamford Journal of Microbiology, Vol.8(1) 2018: 7-9</p> Soyoda Mokarroma Tahmina Shammi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-07-31 2019-07-31 8 1 7 9 10.3329/sjm.v8i1.42430 Effectiveness of different instant hand sanitizers against normal flora and some selected pathogenic bacteria <p>To maintain hygienic life it is important to follow the rules of sanitation. Hand sanitation is one of the most necessary parts of keeping personal hygiene. As hands are used directly for person to person contact, contact with animals, food preparation and so on, they can transmit microorganisms to and from all of these sources coming in contact. So if proper hand sanitation is maintained, the transfer of microorganisms will be decreased which can ultimately reduce the transmission of some pathogenic microorganisms to a susceptible host from own self directly or from the animals after handling them. Susceptible people getting harmful pathogenic bacteria can get sick if they find their appropriate routes of entry into them. During food preparation and taking meals, microorganisms can get entrance into the body from hands as well as microbes contaminating foods from the hands can proliferate in the foods causing spoilage and also release toxins causing food borne infection and food borne intoxication respectively. To reduce such risks people need to wash hands on routine basis especially on food processing zone it should be washed with water and soap which results in greater cleaning. People now use instant hand sanitizer after washing hands with water giving an extra protection. Sanitizers works best on hands with no visible sign of dirt. In the current study, five alcohol based hand sanitizers were selected to determine the ability of these sanitizers to decrease the loads of microorganisms from the hands of the five selected volunteers. During the study, it has been found that alcohol based instant hand sanitizer do decrease the loads of microbial flora from the hands but not in satisfactory level. Even they possessed very low effectivity against some pathogenic bacteria. These products can be used only where water is not available to decrease the loads of microbes from the hands.</p> <p>Stamford Journal of Microbiology, Vol.8(1) 2018: 10-14</p> Tasnia Ahmed ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-07-31 2019-07-31 8 1 10 14 10.3329/sjm.v8i1.42431 Microbiological quality analysis of commercial fruit juice in Dhaka City, Bangladesh <p>The aims of this study were to evaluate the microbiological quality of different commercially available fruit juice of Dhaka city. In this study total 20 fruit juice samples of five different types were repeatedly subjected to bacteriological and mycological screening for three months. Isolates were identified and confirmed using cultural and biochemical characteristics. Current study showed high bacterial and fungal loads consisting of specific pathogens such as coliform and <em>Staphylococcus </em>spp., fecal coliform and other pathogens are totally absent. The presence of <em>Staphylococcus aureus </em>portends health risk to consumers as some species produce potent toxins associated with food borne illnesses. And high bacterial count indicated unhygienic conditions of the processing area, and that good manufacturing practices during processing are not maintained properly. Recommendations are required to reduce the microbiological contamination and promote quality assurance of the products.</p> <p>Stamford Journal of Microbiology, Vol.8(1) 2018: 15-18</p> Md Al Amin Mofijur Rahman Mamun Kamal Kanta Das ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-07-31 2019-07-31 8 1 15 18 10.3329/sjm.v8i1.42432 Study on the existence of food born microflora and their drug resistant profile isolated from some fermented and non-fermented foods commonly available in Bangladesh <p>Present study depicted a complete microbiological profile of some popular fermented and non-fermented foods available in different food shops and restaurants in Dhaka city, Bangladesh. Furthermore, All the isolated strain were prepared to determine their survivability against some common synthetic drug through Kirby Bouer method. Total 60 samples of 20 categories (10 fermented and 10 non-fermented) unveiled the contaminating microbial flora up to 10<sup>7</sup> cfu/g including total viable bacteria and fungi in case of non-fermented food while the contamination rate was extremely low up to 105cfu/g in fermented food. Exploration of specific pathogenic bacteria was estimated such as <em>E. coli</em>, <em>Salmonella </em>spp, <em>Vibrio </em>spp., <em>Staphylococcus </em>spp. and <em>Pseudomonas </em>spp. within the range of 102 to 10<sup>4</sup>cfu/g in non-fermented foods whereas only the <em>Staphylococcus </em>spp. was present in fermented food up to 10<sup>3</sup>cfu/g. Among all the specific pathogens <em>Salmonella </em>spp., <em>Vibrio </em>spp. and <em>Staphylococcus </em>were significantly propagated in all categories of non-fermented samples up- to 10<sup>4</sup>cfu/g. Total 17 available drugs were used against the identified bacterial strain. Most of the identified bacteria from fermented foods were found to be sensitive against commonly used antibiotics. Subsequently, five isolates from non-fermented foods were found to be 100% resistant against more than one antibiotic as multi drug resistant (MDR).</p> <p>Stamford Journal of Microbiology, Vol.8(1) 2018: 19-23</p> Tasnuva Nusrat Jane Nafisa Tabassum Mrityunjoy Acharjee ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-07-31 2019-07-31 8 1 19 23 10.3329/sjm.v8i1.42433 Assessment of the microbiological quality of rain water: A case study of selected water scarce area in Bangladesh <p>Availability as well as access to drinking water is one of the considerable constraints for achieving sustainable goals in many countries while microbial contamination has exacerbated this issue more significantly. The increasing trend of population and industrialization for economic growth has adversely been affecting fresh water resources that eventually leading to scarcity of available drinking water. Hence, controlling water pollution along with focusing on alternative water sources are important for ensuring access to safe drinking water. This study aimed to determine the biological water quality parameters of rainfall water in the water-scarce areas of Bangladesh. About sixty rainwater samples collected from seven different districts were collected for microbial analysis in particular Total Coliform (TC) and Fecal Coliform (FC) by using membrane filtration and direct counting method. The result found that 70 % of samples were free from total coliform, whereas only 5 % samples showed above 100 colonies. On the other hand, 83% samples were free from fecal coliform, whereas only 2% samples were within the range of 11-100 colonies. This study has also revealed that most of the samples collected from Rangamati and Khulna district were free from total coliform and fecal coliform. This study may also encourage people living in these water scarce areas to come forward for rainwater harvesting system as a prospective tool for achieving sustainable goal in drinking sector of Bangladesh.</p> <p>Stamford Journal of Microbiology, Vol.8(1) 2018: 24-26</p> Minhaj Uddin Ahmed Ahmad Kamruzzaman Majumder Md Sahadat Hossain Abdullah Al Nayeem ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-07-31 2019-07-31 8 1 24 26 10.3329/sjm.v8i1.42434 Changes of microbial load in packet orange juice after expiration date <p>Fruit juice is popular product in the markets worldwide, with a market potential of approximately 230 million liters. Fruit juice although nutritious and beneficial for health can also serve as a vehicle for foodborne diseases. Most commercially available products are labelled with a use by date. These are applicable at a consumer and food handler levels, instructing them on the amount of days after opening within which a product must be consumed. It is important to identify the changes that occur after expiration date to have a better understanding of when food spoilage occurs and how long foods may be preserved, in order to reduce food wastage. The current study attempted to identify the changes that occur in orange juice after the expiration date printed on the product packaging. One to seven days after expiration results showed very little change. Increase in the microbial load was observed after day 14, after which a steady increase was observed in total viable bacteria, fungus, <em>E. coli, </em>and <em>Staphylococcus </em>spp. No changes were observed in other examined organisms.</p> <p>Stamford Journal of Microbiology, Vol.8(1) 2018: 27-29</p> Farahnaaz Feroz ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-07-31 2019-07-31 8 1 27 29 10.3329/sjm.v8i1.42435 Microbiological analysis of ready to eat foods collected from different places of Dhaka city, Bangladesh <p>The current study was attempted to observe the microbiological quality of ready to eat foods collected from different places of Dhaka city, Bangladesh. Ten food samples that include five fried items-fried chicken, fish fillet, shrimp fries, French fries, potato chop and five sweet items-yoghurt, pudding, ice cream, mango drink, lemon drink were analyzed during the period from September 2017 to November 2017. Conventional cultural, microscopic and biochemical tests were followed for the detection and enumeration of bacterial isolates associated with these food samples. The investigation encompassed detection of total viable bacterial count (TVBC) and presumptive identification of other pathogenic bacteria from these samples. The higher counts of TVBC, <em>Escherichia coli</em>, <em>Staphylococcus aureus </em>and <em>Bacillus </em>spp. were recorded as 1.94×10<sup>6</sup> cfu/g (potato chop), 3.1×10<sup>4</sup> cfu/g (fried shrimp), 7.5×10<sup>3</sup> cfu/g (fried chicken) and 1.0 x 10<sup>3</sup> cfu/g (French fries) respectively. Based on the specifications by International Commission for Microbiological Specification for Foods (ICMSF), the level of contaminations was within acceptable microbiological limits except for potato chop.</p> <p>Stamford Journal of Microbiology, Vol.8(1) 2018: 30-33</p> Md Aftab Uddin ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-07-31 2019-07-31 8 1 30 33 10.3329/sjm.v8i1.42436 Microbiological investigation and determination of the antimicrobial potential of cow dung samples <p>Cow dung is being used in agriculture as well for the household and religious purposes from the ancient time. Cow dung is known to possess antimicrobial activity and contains a wide variety of microorganisms with variable properties. Therefore, the present study was carried out to assess the microbial diversity including pathogenic ones of the cow dung samples as well as to determine the antimicrobial traits of the samples. In this regard, a total of 8 fresh cow dung samples were tested. All the samples contained a huge load of bacteria and fungi in an average of 10<sup>8</sup> and 10<sup>7</sup> cfu/g, respectively. An extended number of pathogenic bacteria were recovered. Among the pathogenic bacteria, <em>Staphylococcus </em>spp. and <em>Bacillus </em>spp. were predominantly found in every sample. The presence of <em>Pseudomonas </em>spp. <em>Escherichia coli</em>, <em>Klebsiella </em>spp. and fecal coliform were exhibited in most of the samples. <em>Salmonella </em>spp. and <em>Vibrio </em>spp. were found in 3 and 5 samples, respectively. The average load of the pathogens was 10<sup>4</sup> cfu/g. All the samples showed substantial degree of antimicrobial activity against all the pathogens tested. Samples 1, 2, 3 and 4 were effective in inhibiting the growth of all the tested pathogens. The findings of the present study revealed the need for safe application of cow dung in the agricultural field and of further investigation for the antimicrobial potential of the diversified microflora of cow dung offering agricultural, environmental and medical applications.</p> <p>Stamford Journal of Microbiology, Vol.8(1) 2018: 34-37</p> Saurab Kishore Munshi Juel Roy Rashed Noor ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-07-31 2019-07-31 8 1 34 37 10.3329/sjm.v8i1.42437 Microbiological analysis of commonly used toothpaste samples in Bangladesh <p>Present study attempted to identify and enumerate microorganisms spoiling commonly used toothpaste samples. Among 7 brand of toothpaste, almost all were found to be rigorously contaminated with total viable bacteria within a range of 10<sup>3</sup> – 10<sup>5</sup> cfu/g. Proliferation of fungal species was observed up to 10<sup>5</sup> cfu/g. Prevalence of Staphylococcus spp., Pseudomonas spp. and Bacillus spp. was observed within a range of 10<sup>3</sup>-10<sup>5</sup> cfu/g while Vibrio spp. were completely absent. Among the enteric bacteria, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. was found in all the samples tested. Such findings highlighted a great public health risk associated with dental diseases among the users and thereby specified the importance to introduce a proper guideline in maintaining good microbiological quality for such daily usage healthcare products.</p> <p>Stamford Journal of Microbiology, Vol.8(1) 2018: 38-40</p> Mousumi Talukder Ifra Tun Nur ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-07-31 2019-07-31 8 1 38 40 10.3329/sjm.v8i1.42438 Microbiological analysis and determination of antimicrobial traits of green banana (Musa spp.) and papaya (Carica papaya) <p>Green banana (<em>Musa </em>spp.) and papaya (<em>Carica papaya</em>), which are commonly consumed as vegetables, are fruits with lots of health benefits. Due to their various medicinal applications, both the fruits are likely to contain antimicrobial properties. In this regard, present study was undertaken to determine the microbiological quality as well as the anti-bacterial traits of fresh green banana and papaya. To serve the purpose, a total of 12 samples (6 green bananas and 6 green papaya) were collected from different local and super shops as well from cultivation land of some villages of Bangladesh. The samples contained the microbial contamination with viable bacteria and fungi up to 10<sup>7</sup>cfu/g and 10<sup>3</sup> cfu/g. Among the pathogenic bacteria, <em>Staphylococcus </em>spp. <em>Pseudomonas </em>spp. and <em>Vibrio </em>spp. were predominant as found in most of the samples in average of 10<sup>2</sup> cfu/g. Whereas <em>Escherichia coli</em>, <em>Salmonella </em>spp. and <em>Shigella </em>spp. were totally absent in all the samples. On the other hand, <em>Klebsiella </em>spp. was present in same samples. Additionally, the anti-bacterial poverties of the samples were chalked out. The <em>in-vitro </em>antimicrobial activities of the ethanolic, methanolic and hot water extracts of the samples were noticeably found against all the tested bacteria. Overall, present study revealed that both the green fruit samples were highly contaminated although they have antimicrobial activities. Thus, consumers’ awareness on the risk of consuming pathogen contaminated vegetables needs to be re-awakened and further investigations are required for potential antimicrobial properties.</p> <p>Stamford Journal of Microbiology, Vol.8(1) 2018: 41-45</p> Nusrat Jahan Rashed Noor Saurab Kishore Munshi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-07-31 2019-07-31 8 1 41 45 10.3329/sjm.v8i1.42439 Transmission of pathogens within the commonly consumed vegetables: Bangladesh perspective <p>Fresh vegetables and fruits are prime source of fiber, vitamins and minerals in our daily diet. Nevertheless, raw vegetables act as a vector for transmitting pathogenic microbes and the majority of diseases are spread by the fecal-oral route at different point of harvesting, post harvesting, during transportation and storage conditions. Contaminated water, carrier materials, and unhygienic handlers are the crucial gateway for disease causing microbes in fresh vegetables. Recently <em>Listeria </em>spp<em>.</em>, <em>E. coli</em>, and <em>Salmonella </em>spp. associated outbreak evident in mixed vegetables salad and other vegetable samples also showed pathogenic proliferation to some extent. Children are the major risk group and according to World Health Organization, their mortality rate is high due to food borne infections. In Bangladesh, the situation is more alarming in terms of pathogenic proliferation in raw vegetables. A lot of researches have been conducted in recent years on fresh vegetables and a wide range of vegetables are found to harbor pathogenic microorganisms inclusive of drug resistant bacteria which may affect the measures to combat harmful pathogens. Additionally, phytotoxic, natural contaminants and pesticides are also found to reside in raw vegetables which may be life threatening for both human and animal health as these particles magnify when we repeatedly consume them. The current review focus on the possible intervention of potential contaminants in the vegetable items and possible public health risks associated with their consumption along with a general guideline to combat contamination of fresh vegetables.</p> <p>Stamford Journal of Microbiology, Vol.8(1) 2018: 46-49</p> Farahnaaz Feroz Rashed Noor ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-07-31 2019-07-31 8 1 46 49 10.3329/sjm.v8i1.42440