Stamford Journal of Microbiology https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/SJM <p>Published by the Department of Microbiology, Stamford University Bangladesh. Full text articles available.</p> Department of Microbiology Stamford University Bangladesh en-US Stamford Journal of Microbiology 2074-5346 Detection of pathogenic bacteria associated with earphones used by students of Stamford University Bangladesh https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/SJM/article/view/50723 <p>The use of earphones has increased in recent times throughout the world especially among the different level of students such as school, college or university who have a higher tendency of sharing these among them. Unlike airline headsets, headphones and stethoscope ear-pieces, ear phones are often shared by multiple users and can be a potential medium for transmission of pathogens, which can give rise to various ear related infections. The objective of this study was to detect the pathogenic bacteria from the ear-phones used by the students of Stamford University Bangladesh. A total of 16 ear-phone swabs were collected by sterile cotton swabs. The swabs were inoculated onto blood agar and incubated aerobically overnight at 37<sup>o</sup>C. Microscopic observation and standard biochemical tests were performed to confirm the identification of all the bacterial isolates. Six presumptively identified <em>Staphylococcus </em>spp. (38%) were tested against six different types of antibiotics following Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Isolates were found to be 84% resistant against Cotrimoxazole and demonstrated 100% sensitivity to Vancomycin and Ciprorofloxacin. The findings of this study suggest the users to disinfect their respective ear phones and not to exchange them as they may act as a potential source to transfer pathogenic and antibiotic resistant bacteria among the ear phone users.</p> <p>Stamford Journal of Microbiology, Vol.10 (1) 2020: 1-4</p> Omor Ahmed Chowdhury Md Raihan Ahmed Md Raihan Dipu Md Aftab Uddin ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-13 2020-12-13 10 1 1 4 10.3329/sjm.v10i1.50723 Ornaments of daily usage can be a source of microbial contamination and a causative agent of diseases https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/SJM/article/view/50724 <p>Hand hygiene is the most simple and effective way to prevent infection. Contaminated hand and related ornaments act as a vector of transmitting diseases. The main goal of this study was to find out whether personal accessories of different categories of working women are responsible for foodborne illness or contagious diseases. For this purpose, six categories of individuals were chosen, and five types of ornaments were taken from each individual. Total thirty swab samples were taken from the surface of bangles, nose pins, ear rings, finger rings and chains. Conventional culture techniques and biochemical tests were performed to determine the presence and identification of the pathogenic microorganisms. Total viable bacteria was present in all those samples but the presence of specific microorganisms were not found in all of those samples. Moderate growth of <em>Staphylococcus </em>spp. was found in finger rings and ear rings of the home makers and presence of <em>Escherichia coli </em>was detected in 16% of these samples as an indicator of fecal contamination. In the light of these results, it is essential to maintain proper hand hygiene and sanitation practice as some ornaments could be the significant source of pathogenic microorganisms. Food handlers and health care workers should abide by the rules and regulations of personal hygiene.</p> <p>Stamford Journal of Microbiology, Vol.10 (1) 2020: 5-8</p> Tohura Sultana Ifra Tun Nur ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-13 2020-12-13 10 1 5 8 10.3329/sjm.v10i1.50724 Combined usage of rHVT-H5 and Re-6 vaccines towards an effective avian influenza vaccination program for commercial layer chickens https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/SJM/article/view/50725 <p>Vaccination against highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) of subtype H5N1 is one of the possible means to protect chickens against its outbreak in endemic countries. Early vaccination of layer birds with recombinant vector vaccine based on turkey herpesvirus expressing H5 gene (rHVT-H5) provides longer protection while inactivated vaccine Re-6 needs multiple booster doses to achieve continuous antibody titer. Therefore, this study was carried out to offer a vaccination program using live rHVT-H5 and inactivated Re-6 vaccines in field condition. For this trial, five ISA brown commercial layer chicken farms were raised with 500 birds per farm. Two licensed vaccines- rHVT-H5 and Re-6 in Bangladesh were used for this trial where birds in farms 1 and 2 were administered only rHVT-H5 vaccine at one-day-old, and farms 3 and 4 rHVT-H5 vaccine at one-day-old then boosted with Re-6 vaccine at 25 weeks of age. Farm 5 was not vaccinated and functioned as control. Blood samples were randomly collected from 20 birds in each farm at 3-week interval from 2 weeks old till 65 weeks and harvested serum analyzed by haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test for antibodies against HPAIV H5N1. The titer of haemagglutination inhibiting antibodies against AIV H5N1 on farms 3 and 4 was considerably high and remained up to 65 weeks. However, in farm 1 and 2 there was decline in antibody titer after 56 weeks of age. This study demonstrated that the combined use of rHVT-H5 vaccine at one-day-old and Re-6 at 25 weeks of age enhanced a longer lasting protective antibody against circulating HPAIV H5N1 in commercial layer chickens in Bangladesh.</p> <p>Stamford Journal of Microbiology, Vol.10 (1) 2020: 9-11</p> Md Zulfekar Ali ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-13 2020-12-13 10 1 9 11 10.3329/sjm.v10i1.50725 Isolation of Bacillus spp. from rhizosphere of garden soil: their potential role in amylase production and nitrogen cycle https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/SJM/article/view/50726 <p>Rhizobacteria influence plant growth by producing various substances like enzymes and play role in nitrogen cycle. Microbes are the most important sources of enzymes because of their stability and reduced price in production. In our present investigation, soil samples were collected from rhizosphere of garden soil and a total of eight isolates of <em>Bacillus </em>spp. were presumptively identified by morphological, cultural and biochemical analysis with the conventional technique. The isolates were named as A1, A3, A4, A5, B2, C1, D1 and D2. Amylase enzyme assay was performed by 3, 5-dinitrosalicylic acid method. The highest enzyme activity was observed with the isolate A4 (2.71 U/ml) followed by isolates D2 (2.54 U/ml) and D1 (2.52 U/ml). The highest ammonification was found to be positive with the isolates A4 and B2 followed by isolate D1. Denitrification potential was found to be highest with isolates A4 and A5. No isolates were found to fix atmospheric nitrogen in Jensen’s media after two weeks of incubation. The isolates have a great potential of amylase production and they can be used in different industries as well as in starch rich waste degradation. Involvement of these bacteria in nitrogen cycle may help promote growth of plants.</p> <p>Stamford Journal of Microbiology, Vol.10 (1) 2020: 12-15</p> Tamanna Zerin ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-13 2020-12-13 10 1 12 15 10.3329/sjm.v10i1.50726 Microbiological analysis of popular spreads used in restaurants inside Dhaka city, Bangladesh https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/SJM/article/view/50727 <p>Spreads are used widely for making the fast foods more amazing and tasty. Varieties and cross combinations of ingredients are used to make many flavours of fast foods. Different restaurants prepare their signature spreads for attracting people but this can cause opposite result if not prepared using high quality raw materials and proper hygienic conditions are not maintained. Current study was conducted on ten different types of spreads (pesto, cilantro, queso, tomato sauce, peanut butter, honey, mustard, cream cheese, chocolate sauce and butter) which are used by the local restaurants in Dhaka city, Bangladesh. Almost all the samples (nine out of ten) harbored total viable bacteria exceeding the standard limit. Four spread samples showed high fungal count (10<sup>2</sup> cfu/gm). Four samples showed to be positive (˃10<sup>1</sup>/ml recommended acceptable count) for <em>Escherichia coli </em>and <em>Klebsiella </em>spp. which indicates that these spread cannot be recommended for public consumption. Among all the samples examined, only chocolate sauce showed acceptable result without the presence of coliforms, <em>Staphylococcus </em>spp. and <em>Pseudomonas </em>spp. This finding suggests proper maintenance of sanitation in spread preparation and selling area. A proper guidelines and monitoring can help keep up the quality of food additives.</p> <p>Stamford Journal of Microbiology, Vol.10 (1) 2020: 16-19</p> Tasnia Ahmed Md Aftab Uddin ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-13 2020-12-13 10 1 16 19 10.3329/sjm.v10i1.50727 Characterization of a bacteriophage from urban sewage obtained with the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/SJM/article/view/50728 <p>Bacteriophages are viruses of bacteria that have received significant attention in the last decades due to their potential as an alternative to the antibiotics, as well as their applicability in the selective control of bacterial species harmful to food. In this context, this work reports the partial results of a viral filtrate named P4CSa that was obtained with the bacterium <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>and characterized by the viral host range and the restriction fragment length polymorphism technique. The results indicate that the phage P4CSa probably belongs to the order <em>Caudovirales</em>, it presents a polyvalent host range, and it can be preserved for the long term in the form of filtrated lysates stored at 4°C, suggesting that the phage P4CSa may have the potential for the development of a pharmaceutical product indicated for the biocontrol of pathogenic bacteria.</p> <p>Stamford Journal of Microbiology, Vol.10 (1) 2020: 20-24</p> Anderson Luiz Pena da Costa Antonio Carlos Freitas Souza Rafael Lima Resque ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-13 2020-12-13 10 1 20 24 10.3329/sjm.v10i1.50728 Application of microbiological assay to determine the potency of intravenous antibiotics https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/SJM/article/view/50729 <p>Demonstration of equivalent amounts of active pharmaceutical ingredient is a basic requirement for intravenous generic drugs prior to administration. Physicochemical methods are often used to determine concentration of antibiotics in biological fluids. However, it does not permit direct quantification of potency of a desired antibiotic. This study demonstrates the application of a microbiological assay to determine the potency and concentration of commercially available pharmaceutical-grade antibiotics used for injections. Concentration-dependent variation of inhibitory effect of four commercial brands of cefuroxime and two of ciprofloxacin were observed against two reference bacteria (<em>Escherichia coli </em>DH5α and <em>Escherichia coli </em>ATCC 8739) on Mueller Hinton agar. Regression analysis was used to assess the <em>in vitro </em>equivalence of generic products sold by different retail companies in Dhaka city. A linear relationship was found between the concentration and response of the bacteria in regression analysis where anti-log of X-intercept and slope showed the concentration and potency, respectively. The study showed excellent results of linearity (r2≥0.89), precision (inter assay variation ≤10% for cefuroxime and ≤20% for ciprofloxacin), accuracy and specificity tests for both types of antibiotics. Pharmaceutical equivalence demonstrated by four cefuroxime and two ciprofloxacin samples showed no significantly distinguishable slopes (P &gt; 0.78 and P &gt; 0.44) and intercepts (P &gt; 0.25 and P &gt; 0.07), respectively. Estimated potency for cefuroxime was 91.1-100.0% and for ciprofloxacin was 68.1-100.0%. Microbiological assay was found to be convenient, rapid, cost-effective, precise and accurate in demonstrating pharmaceutical equivalence of antibiotics in different dosage forms. This technique can be used as an alternative method for testing generic antibiotics prior to their use in animal and human.</p> <p>Stamford Journal of Microbiology, Vol.10 (1) 2020: 25-29</p> Saimun Nahar Most Salma Khatun Md Shahidul Kabir ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-13 2020-12-13 10 1 25 29 10.3329/sjm.v10i1.50729 The occurrence of drug-resistant bacteria and screening the possible presence of residual antibiotics in poultry feed samples https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/SJM/article/view/50730 <p>The use of antibiotics in the poultry and livestock industries for the treatment and prevention of infectious diseases, and as growth promoters in poultry feeds has increased worldwide. Such frequent employment of antibiotics may contribute to the development and dissemination of bacterial antibiotic resistance. The present study was an attempt to isolate drug-resistant bacteria and to screen the probability of having residual antibiotics in the poultry feed samples. Therefore, a total of 18 samples inclusive of starter, grower and finisher of two poultry feed brands of reputed Bangladeshi feed companies were collected and subjected to microbiological analysis, antibiogram and agar well diffusion assay. All the samples contained extended numbers of total viable bacteria and fungi in an average of 10<sup>8</sup> and 10<sup>7</sup> cfu/g, respectively. <em>Klebsiella</em>spp., <em>Pseudomonas </em>spp. and <em>Bacillus </em>spp. were predominantly present in the tested samples. <em>E. coli </em>and <em>Vibrio </em>spp. were also found in most of the samples. Most isolates have been determined to be multidrug-resistant. All the isolates showed resistance against Cefuroxime. Penicillin resistance was found in most of the isolates in greater proportion. Higher rate of resistance was evident against Novobiocin, Cephradine and Rifampicin. However, the bacterial isolates showed sensitivity to Tobramycin, Nalidixic acid and Neomycin. The poultry feed samples, especially starter and finisher of both brands noticeably had significant antimicrobial activity against the laboratory isolates indicative of the probable presence of residual antibiotics which might be used as supplements in the poultry feed samples.</p> <p>Stamford Journal of Microbiology, Vol.10 (1) 2020: 30-34</p> Md Al Amin Hossain Sumona Rahman Shewly Chayanika Mazumder Shah Murshid Uj Jaman Arowan Saurab Kishore Munshi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-13 2020-12-13 10 1 30 34 10.3329/sjm.v10i1.50730