SAARC Journal of Agriculture Published by the SAARC Agricultural Centre, Bangladesh SAARC Agricultural Centre (SAC) en-US SAARC Journal of Agriculture 1682-8348 <p>© SAARC Agricultural Centre</p><p>Copyright on any research article is transferred in full to SAARC Journal of Agriculture upon publication in the journal. The copyright transfer includes the right to reproduce and distribute the article in any form of reproduction (printing, electronic media or any other form).</p><p><a href="" rel="license"><img style="border-width: 0;" src="" alt="Creative Commons Licence" /></a><br />Articles in the SAARC Journal of Agriculture are Open Access articles published under a <a href="" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>] CC BY License.</p><p>This license permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.</p> Mutants and weather parameters affecting the population dynamics of three major insect pests of Mungbean <p>The study was conducted to know the abundance of aphid, flea beetle and pod borer on the mutants viz., MBM-07-Y-1, MBM-07-Y-2, MBM- 656-51-2, MBM-527-114, MBM-07-(S)-2, MBM-347-13, MBM-390-94-Y, MBM-427-87-3, MBM-80 (Local) and a variety BARI moog-6 and the role of weather parameters on the population dynamics of insects at the Agricultural Farm of Patuakhali Science and Technology University from April to June, 2015. Results revealed that the tested mutants did not show resistance against aphid, flea beetle and pod borer. Mutant MBM- 347-13 had the lowest number of flea beetle while mutant MBM-427-87- 3, MBM-80(LCAL) and MBM-527-114 had the highest number of flea beetle indicating higher susceptibility to flea beetle. Mutant MBM-390-94- Y had the lowest abundance of aphid while BARI moog-6 had highest aphid abundance. Mutant MBM-347-13 had lowest number of pod borer and MBM-427-87-3 had highest abundance of pod borer followed by MBM-07(S)-2 and BARI moog-6. Flea beetle abundance gradually increased with decreasing average temperature while aphid and pod borer abundance gradually increased with increasing average temperature. In case of humidity, flea beetle abundance increased very slightly with increasing average humidity but aphid abundance increased very slightly with increasing average humidity. Pod borer abundance was low with high average humidity and then increased slightly due to decrease of humidity and finally declined with increasing humidity.</p> <p><em>SAARC J. Agri., 16(2): 1-12 (2018)</em></p> MMH Khan MM Islam M Asaduzzaman MN Uddin ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-02-16 2019-02-16 16 2 1 12 10.3329/sja.v16i2.40254 Soil organic carbon stocks under different land uses in Chure region of Makawanpur district, Nepal <p>Soil C sequestration through enhanced land use is a good strategy to mitigate the increasing concentration of atmospheric CO<sub>2</sub>. A study was conducted in Chhatiwan VDC of Makawanpur District to compare soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks of four main land use types such as forest, degraded forest, Khet and Bari land. Stratified random sampling method was used for collecting soil samples. Organic carbon content was determined by Walkley and Black method. Total SOC stock of different types of land followed the order: as Forest (110.0 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) &gt; Bari (96.5 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) &gt; Khet (86.8 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) &gt; Degraded land (72.0 t ha<sup>-1</sup>). The SOC% declined with soil depths. The SOC% at 0–20 cm depth was highest (1.26 %) that recorded in the forest soils and lowest (0.37%) at 80- 100cm depth in degraded forest land. Thus, the SOC stock varied with land use systems and soil depths. The study suggests a need for appropriate land use strategy and sustainable soil management practices to improve SOC stock.</p> <p><em>SAARC J. Agri., 16(2): 13-23 (2018)</em></p> P Ghimire B Bhatta B Pokhrel G Kafle P Paudel ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-02-16 2019-02-16 16 2 13 23 10.3329/sja.v16i2.40255 Nutrient profile of five freshwater fish species <p>The nutrient profile of five freshwater fish species viz., <em>Mystus vittatus, Ompok bimaculatus, Channa striata, Wallago attu </em>and <em>Pangasianodon hypophthalmus </em>were studied. The proximate composition data shows that the moisture and fat content differed significantly (P&lt;0.01) among the fish species. The fat content was significantly higher in <em>P. hypophthalmus </em>and <em>M. vittatus</em>. The moisture was significantly higher in <em>C. striata</em>. The potassium content was significantly (p&lt;0.01) higher in <em>C.striata</em>. <em>M.vittatus </em>shows higher content of calcium. The other trace minerals like iron, copper and zinc contents of fish did not differ significantly among the species. The vitamin A content is maximum in <em>O.bimaculatus </em>whereas vitamin D content is higher in <em>Mystus vittatus</em>. The palmitic acid was significantly (p&lt;0.01) higher in <em>M. vittatus</em>. The oleic acid was significantly (p&lt;0.01) higher in <em>C. striata </em>and <em>W. attu. </em>The linoleic acid content was significantly (p&lt;0.05) higher in <em>P. hypophthalmus</em>. One of the important PUFA i.e. DHA was significantly higher in <em>O. bimaculatus </em>and <em>C.striata</em>. The PUFA content was significantly (p&lt;0.05) higher in <em>O.bimaculatus </em>and <em>P.hypophthalmus</em>. Among the amino acids, arginine, histidine, threonine and isoleucine were higher in <em>P.hypophthalmus</em>. <em>C.striata </em>and <em>W. attu </em>contain high amount of Tryptophan. Glutamic acid was high in <em>O.bimaculatus </em>and Aspartic acid was high in <em>C. striata</em>. The energy content was maximum in <em>P. hypophthalmus</em>. The nutrient profile of these fish species revealed that they were rich in all the essential nutrients required by human being. The information on nutrient profile of fish will give a guideline to dieticians, nutritionists, medical practitioners, researchers to advice consumers to take fish in their daily diet as a health food.</p> <p><em>SAARC J. Agri., 16(2): 25-41 (2018)</em></p> BN Paul S Bhowmick S Chanda N Sridhar SS Giri ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-02-16 2019-02-16 16 2 25 41 10.3329/sja.v16i2.40256 Dairy buffalo production system under semi-intensive management in the coastal area of Bangladesh <p>This study was conducted to evaluate the present status of production system of dairy buffalo under semi-intensive management in coastal area of Bangladesh. The data were collected during farm visit and recorded in prepared questionnaire and check list. The findings of the study revealed that very minimum housing facilities were provided to the buffaloes. Both the grazing and confinement time were found similar (around 6 hrs in a day) and they spent almost 3 hrs in a day for wallowing. The majority of the lactating buffaloes were not being adequately fed. Farmers usually supplied local grass (4.98±2.89 kg DM/day) and rice straw (10.90 ±2.85 kg DM/day) with one or two concentrate feed separately as supplement (1.51±0.80 kg DM/day). The daily average DCP and TDN supply were 0.365 and 6.417 kg/d respectively which were undersupplied as compared to standard requirement. The productive and reproductive performance of indigenous dairy buffalo was not similar to high producing dairy buffaloes. The average lactation yields (litre/lactation) were found as 469.52±163.71. The EC value (2.73±3.53) of milk indicated as healthy milk production. Milk consumption pattern (8%) was not satisfactory. Milk market was volatile. Natural breeding (95.7%) was more prominent practice than artificial insemination (AI) (4.3%). The most of the buffalo cows showed heat from early night to early morning (22.2-54.2%). Technology adaptation for buffalo rearing was very much poor. Technology adaptation index for the use of concentrate feed, artificial insemination, de-worming and vitamin-mineral premix were 16.34, 13.46, 23.07 and 6.25 respectively. It therefore be concluded that technological transformation could be boost up to national milk production by developing of the management practise of dairy buffalo under semiintensive system in Bangladesh.</p> <p><em>SAARC J. Agri., 16(2): 43-59 (2018)</em></p> SMR Rahman MN Islam MH Rashid MSR Siddiki MA Islam ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-02-16 2019-02-16 16 2 43 59 10.3329/sja.v16i2.40257 Assessment of carbon stock and nutrient contents in soils of Northern and Eastern piedmont plains of Bangladesh <p>Under the changing climate documentation of soil carbon and nutrients is indispensable for sustainable crop production which is scarce in the agro-ecological zone (AEZ) of Northern and Eastern Piedmont Plains in Bangladesh. Therefore, the study was conducted collecting and analyzing a total of 240 soil samples considering 0-20 cm soil depth from two upazilas viz. Purbadhola and Akhaura under the mentioned AEZ to quantity carbon stock and nutrient contents of soils. Organic carbon stocks in soils of Purbadhola and Akhaura upazila were 45.97 and 97.04 Gg, respectively, while in the Northern and Eastern Piedmont Plains was 8.56 Tg. The soil pH was very strongly acidic to slightly acidic (4.4-5.8), organic carbon contents (0.53-1.31%) were very low to medium, while the overall soil fertility rated as very low to medium. Balanced fertilization using organic and inorganic sources in general and liming for upland crops might improve fertility and productive capacity of soils in the study area. The study opens up avenues to find out means and ways of increasing carbon contents in soils of Northern and Eastern Piedmont Plains and might help the policy makers to debate on future global carbon trading issues.</p> <p><em>SAARC J. Agri., 16(2): 61-72 (2018)</em></p> R Islam L Rahman D Islam A Kashem A Satter SM Bokhtiar B Hossain M Rahman ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-02-16 2019-02-16 16 2 61 72 10.3329/sja.v16i2.40258 Abundance, damage severity and management of guava mealybug, ferrisia virgata ckll <p>The research was carried out to know the abundance and damage severity of mealybug on sarupkathi variety of guava and to evaluate the efficacy of jet powder and Fighter 2.5EC for suppressing populations of mealybug during January to October 2014. Results revealed that the highest number of guava mealybug was observed on middle leaf (42/leaf) while the lowest number was on lower leaf (13/leaf). The highest percent leaf area covered by mealybug was found on middle leaf (78%) while the lowest was on fruit (18%). Maximum temperature and relative humidity had a positive correlation on the mealybug population while the rainfall showed a negative correlation. The highest percent mortality was observed in T<sub>2</sub> treatment (Jet powder applied @ 5.0 g L<sup>-1</sup> of water) at 24 HAT (hours after treatment) (86.05%) and 48 HAT (93.83%), respectively. At 72 HAT, the highest percent mortality was observed T3 treatment (Jet powder applied @ 7.5 g L<sup>-1</sup> of water). In case of insecticidal control, the highest percent mortality was observed in T2 (100%) and T<sub>3</sub> (100%) treatments, respectively followed by T<sub>1</sub> (98.03%) at 24 HAT. Similar trends were also observed among all treatments at 48 HAT and 72 HAT, respectively. No significant differences were found among three doses of Fighter 2.5EC. The lowest percent mortality of mealybug population was found in T<sub>4</sub> (Water spray forcibly) at 24 HAT, 48 HAT and 72 HAT, respectively. No mortality was recorded in untreated control at different HAT in both application of soap solution and insecticides.</p> <p><em>SAARC J. Agri., 16(2): 73-82 (2018)</em></p> MMH Khan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-02-16 2019-02-16 16 2 73 82 10.3329/sja.v16i2.40260 Economics of Black gram cultivation and its impact on farmers livelihood in two selected districts of Bangladesh <p>The present study is an attempt to assess the existing agronomic practices of black gram cultivation, its impact on farmers livelihood and constraints of black gram production and marketing. Primary data from 85 farmers were collected during February to March 2016 through face to face interviews. Descriptive statistics and Garret ranking method were used to analyze the data. The majority of the farmers had sown seeds during the last week of September to first week of October. The average seed rate was found to be 19.36 kg per hectare which indicated that all farm households used below recommended dose of seeds (35-40 kg/ha). The average yield of black gram was found higher than the national average. The average net income was observed to be Tk. 26990 and Tk. 19845 in Sherpur and Jamalpur respectively. The average gross margin was observed to be Tk. 37629 on total variable cost basis. It was also found that average returns to labour was Tk. 1000/man-day in Sherpur and Tk. 692/man-day in Jamalpur district respectively. It was also observed that all kinds of livelihood assets of the selected farmers increased significantly through black gram farming. The results revealed that the main constraints faced by black gram grower were lack of irrigation facility, non availability of HYV seeds, low output price, labour scarcity, lack of knowledge about improved varieties with their production technology, excessive rainfall after flowering and weak research-extension farmers linkage etc. Farmers also faced some marketing related problems such as limited buyers, price instability, lack of storage facilities and high market toll. Farmers cultivated black gram because of higher yield, higher income, and easy growing.</p> <p><em>SAARC J. Agri., 16(2): 83-96 (2018)</em></p> M Mohiuddin N Akter R Khanum ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-02-16 2019-02-16 16 2 83 96 10.3329/sja.v16i2.40261 Effects of micronutrient application on different attributes of potato in floodplain soils of Bangladesh <p>Different crops have variations in their responses to applied micronutrients in soil. A study was conducted on floodplain soil of Bangladesh to explore the response of potato to application of micronutrients in soil. The experimental site was located at farmers’ field in Chandina upazila under Cumilla district of Bangladesh covering the soils of Old Meghna Estuarine Floodplain (AEZ 19) during 2011-12. Randomized complete block design with 3 replications of each treatment was used in the experiment, where seven treatments including a control were tested. Additive element trial technique was followed while designing the treatments taking six micronutrients i. e. Zn, B, Cu, Mn, Fe and Mo at the rate of 3, 2, 2, 3, 5 and 1 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>, respectively. Macronutrients, such as N, P, K and S were applied at recommended rates to all plots. The highest tuber yield (28.7 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) was produced by the combined application of Zn and B. Only Zn application was sufficient to obtain the highest content of protein as well as content of almost all the nutrients in potato tuber. Antagonistic relation between Zn and P in soil-plant system was recorded in the study. Zinc and boron application influenced different growth and yield parameters of potato while the other four added micronutrients did not have any significant effect but combined application of Zn, B, Cu, Mn, Fe and Mo had beneficial role for better plant growth and production. Proper management of zinc and boron fertilizers including optimization of application rates of those nutrients can help to uphold the yield and quality of potato in floodplain soil.</p> <p><em>SAARC J. Agri., 16(2): 97-108 (2018)</em></p> MMH Sarker AZM Moslehuddin M Jahiruddin MR Islam ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-02-16 2019-02-16 16 2 97 108 10.3329/sja.v16i2.40262 Gender role in vegetable production in rural farming system of Kanchanpur, Nepal <p>Agriculture is the primary occupation for the majority of Nepalese populace for their livelihood; the case is especially true for rural areas of Nepal. While both male and female engage in diverse agricultural activities, gender-specific roles in agricultural decision-making are significant. A survey study was conducted in three wards of Kanchanpur district (Majhgau-14, Bhuda-02, and Baghphata-19) to examine the gender-specific labor input in vegetable production activities. Eighty households were chosen by random sampling and a scheduled interview was carried out. Most of the activities such as fence construction, transplanting, fertilizer use, harvesting, cleaning, and grading were found typically female's responsibility. However, males were found dominantly involved in land preparation. Also, males were found to have relatively more access to, and control over farm resources and played dominant role in decision making than women. The findings of this study revealed that there are gender-specific domains in rural farming system. Therefore, there is a need to develop gender friendly technology and policy while formulating specific project planning and development efforts.</p> <p><em>SAARC J. Agri., 16(2): 109-118 (2018)</em></p> A Joshi D Kalauni ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-02-16 2019-02-16 16 2 109 118 10.3329/sja.v16i2.40263 Morphological and Molecular characterization of rhizoctonia oryzae sativae in Bangladesh <p>Aggregate sheath spot disease of rice caused by <em>Rhizoctonia oryzaesativae </em>has emerged in higher incidence in North-Western region of Bangladesh. Thirty isolates of <em>R. oryzae-sativae </em>were studied by using morphological and molecular marker. Isolates were confirmed using specific primer where a single band of 1200bp was amplified. Two distinct groups relatively slow and faster were found in mycelal growth. Molecular characterization was done using four primers and DNA band ranged from 0.25 to 2.21 kb. A combined dendrogram was constructed which separated the isolates into three groups at 69.6% similarity level. All isolates placed in two major clusters except isolate RA-1 placed in cluster group III but were not grouped according to their geographic origins. Fast growing isolates have been placed in Group II while slow growing isolates in cluster group I. The similarity coefficient values of the dendrogram profile ranged from 0.36 to 0.98 with an average of 0.67. Diversity of different isolate showed that significant variation was present among the isolate and were not genetically identical.</p> <p><em>SAARC J. Agri., 16(2): 119-128 (2018)</em></p> SB Jahan MA Ali MS Alam ZR Moni MA Latif ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-02-16 2019-02-16 16 2 119 128 10.3329/sja.v16i2.40264 Survey on usage of medicinal plants: a case from Chitwan district of Nepal <p>The aim of this study was to know the commonly available medicinal plants and to document their usages. Study was carried out around periphery of 'Gyaneswor Community Forest' of Bharatpur-16 of Chitwan district of Nepal. Altogether, forty household were selected by random sampling, and key informant interview was carried out with community forest personnel's and leading farmers. Most of the respondents of Bharatpur-16 were found to be dependent on medicinal plants for their primary health care. Because of no side effect, easy availability and cost effectiveness of medicinal plants, most people were found satisfied using it. However, the use of and preference for medicinal plant was found limited to minor diseases only. The findings of this study revealed that there are many medicinal plants in our periphery that can be used as an alternative for allopathic medicines, but they need to be systematically managed and conserved.</p> <p><em>SAARC J. Agri., 16(2): 129-141 (2018</em></p> A Joshi D Kalauni S Bhattarai ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-02-16 2019-02-16 16 2 129 141 10.3329/sja.v16i2.40265 Study on the effect of insemination time on pregnancy rate of Bangladeshi buffalo in intensive farming <p>The study was designed to evaluate the insemination time and pregnancy rate of Bangladeshi buffalo at Lal Teer Livestock Breeding and Research Farm, Bhaluka, Mymensingh, Bangladesh during January 2017 to June 2018. A total of 30 cyclic buffaloes were included in this study. The animals were inseminated under four different times, i.e. inseminated i) between 0-6 hours after seeing first sign of estrous, ii) between 6-12 hours after seeing first sign of estrous, iii) between 12-18 hours after seeing first sign of estrous and v) between 18-24 hours after seeing first sign of estrous. The pregnancies (positive or negative) were confirmed by rectal palpation and transrectal ultrasonography after 60 days of artificial insemination (AI). The total pregnant animals in this study were 40%. The highest pregnancy rate (60%) was observed in insemination between 12-18 hours after seeing first sign of estrous and the lowest pregnancy rate (0%) was observed in insemination between 0-6 hours after seeing first sign of estrous. The findings of the study suggest that, the conception rate of buffalo depend on the time of AI, detection of proper estrus symptoms and site of semen deposition.</p> <p><em>SAARC J. Agri., 16(2): 143-152 (2018)</em></p> MA Hamid ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-02-16 2019-02-16 16 2 143 152 10.3329/sja.v16i2.40266 Performance of different organic fertilizers in improving growth and yield of boro rice <p>A field experiment was conducted at two locations i.e. at Soil Science Field of Bangladesh Agricultural University and at Farmer’s field of Fakirakanda village of Mymensingh Sadar to evaluate the effects of different organic fertilizers on the growth and yield of rice (BRRI dhan28). The experiments at each location containing seven treatments were laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The treatments were T<sub>0</sub>: Control, T<sub>1</sub>: 75% RFD; T<sub>2</sub>: 100% RFD, T<sub>3</sub>: 75% RFD + Kazi Jaibo Shar (5 tha<sup>-1</sup>), T<sub>4</sub>: 75% RFD + Kazi Jaibo Shar (3 t ha<sup>-1</sup>), T<sub>5</sub>: 75% RFD + Poultry manure (3 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) and T<sub>6</sub>: 75% RFD + Cow dung (5 t ha<sup>-1</sup>). Application of poultry manure as well as Kazi Jaibo Shar showed positive effects on yield attributes, grain and straw yields of rice, nutrient (N, P, K and S) contents and uptake by grain, straw and in total. The performance of 75% RFD with poultry manure @ 3 t ha<sup>-1</sup> was the best in producing yield components, grain and straw yields of rice. At both locations, the performance of same dose (3 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) of poultry manure and Kazi Jaibo Shar was almost similar in producing growth and yield contributing characters, grain and straw yields, - nutrient content and uptake by rice while each of these manures compensated up to 25% of recommended chemical fertilizers. Therefore, considering the soil health, poultry manure or Kazi Jaibo Shar @ 3 t ha<sup>-1</sup> is recommended for growth and yield enhancement in rice.</p> <p><em>SAARC J. Agri., 16(2): 153-166 (2018)</em></p> TS Hoque I Jahan MR Islam M Ahmed ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-02-16 2019-02-16 16 2 153 166 10.3329/sja.v16i2.40267 Residual effects of different manures and fertilizers applied to preceding potato crop on succeeding Mung bean (vigna radiate l.) crop in potato-mung bean-rice cropping pattern <p>The present study was done at Bangladesh Agricultural University farm to evaluate the field performances of different types of manures viz. cowdung (CD), cowdung slurry (CD slurry), trichocompost (TC), vermicompost (VC), poultry manure (PM) and poultry manure slurry (PM slurry) with chemical fertilizers in the potato-mungbean-T. aman rice cropping pattern during 2011-12 and 2012-13. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design, with three replications and eight treatments including T<sub>1</sub> (Control), T<sub>2</sub> [HYG based 100% chemical fertilizer (CF)], T<sub>3</sub> [CD + CF (IPNS basis)], T<sub>4</sub> [CD slurry + CF (IPNS basis)], T<sub>5</sub> [PM + CF (IPNS basis)], T<sub>6</sub> [PM slurry + CF (IPNS basis)], T<sub>7 </sub>[TC + CF (IPNS basis)] and T<sub>8</sub> [VC + CF (IPNS basis)]. Trichocompost + CF and vermicompost + CF containing treatments produced higher crop yield followed by poultry manure slurry and cowdung slurry. Integrated use of manures and fertilizers gave on an average 6.7-33.7%, 8.3-33.8% and 2.9-18.3% yield increase in potato, mungbean and T. aman rice, respectively over sole application of chemical fertilizers (data not shown). Use of IPNS improved nutrient content and uptake of mungbean. The present study thus indicates that use of manure, especially trichocompost, vermicompost, PM slurry and CD slurry integrated with chemical fertilizers would help increase crop yield and improve soil fertility. However, Trichocompost + CF was the best option in this regard.</p> <p><em>SAARC J. Agri., 16(2): 167-179 (2018)</em></p> S Bilkis MR Islam M Jahiruddin MM Rahman TS Hoque ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-02-16 2019-02-16 16 2 167 179 10.3329/sja.v16i2.40268 Drying kinetics and sorption behavior of two varieties banana (sagor and sabri) of Bangladesh <p>The study was concerned with determining the drying kinetics and sorption behavior of two varieties ripe banana of Bangladesh namely, <em>Sagor and Sabri</em>. The fresh ripe banana collected from the local market were sliced into three different thicknesses (4 mm, 6 mm and 8 mm) and dried at 45°C, 55°C and 65°C in a cabinet dryer. The result showed that the drying rate increases with the increase in temperature and decreases with the increase in slice thickness. The sorption properties of dried banana were studied over a wide range of water activity (0.11-0.93). The BET and GAB models were fitted to the sorption data. It was found that both varieties gave sigmoid (type II) shape isotherm and GAB equation gave the much higher value of monolayer moisture content compared to BET equation. The chemical compositions of fresh and dried banana were determined. The dried products gave substantially higher solid content as well as protein, ash and carbohydrate.</p> <p><em>SAARC J. Agri., 16(2): 181-193 (2018)</em></p> MH Rahman MW Ahmed MN Islam ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-02-16 2019-02-16 16 2 181 193 10.3329/sja.v16i2.40269