Research in Agriculture Livestock and Fisheries <p>Official journal of AgroAID Foundation. Full text articles available on BanglaJOL. Content also available <a title="AGROAID" href="" target="_blank">here</a>.</p><p>Research in Agriculture Livestock and Fisheries is included on <a title="DOAJ" href="" target="_blank">DOAJ</a>.</p> AgroAID Foundation en-US Research in Agriculture Livestock and Fisheries 2409-0603 <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Creative Commons</strong><br />All RALF articles are published under the terms of the <a href="">Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 International License.</a> Readers can copy, distribute, transmit and adapt the work provided the original work and source is appropriately cited.</p><p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Copyright</strong><br />Submission of a manuscript implies that authors have met the requirements of the editorial policy and publication ethics. Authors retain the copyright of their articles published in the journal. However, authors agree that their articles remain permanently open access under the terms of the <a href="">Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 International License.</a></p> Financial profitability and resource use efficiency of boro rice production in some selected areas of Mymensingh in Bangladesh <p>Bangladesh is predominantly an agricultural country. Agriculture provides employment to nearly about 47.33 percent of its total labor forces (BER, 2015). Broad agriculture sector which includes crops, livestock, fisheries and forestry contributes 16 percent to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) as a whole in the FY 2013-14 (BER, 2016). Mymensingh district was selected for the study to calculate the profitability and to assess the resource use efficiency of Boro rice production. Simple random sampling technique had been used for collecting data from 60 sample farmers through interview schedule. Both descriptive studies and functional analysis was done to achieve the objectives of the study. The findings of the study revealed that per hectare gross return, net return, and gross margin were found to be BTD110680.00, BTD 25208.94 and BTD 48158.95, respectively. Total costs of rice production were calculated at BTD 85471.06 per hectare. Benefit Cost Ratio (BCR) was found to be 1.29 for Boro rice production. Thus it was found that Boro rice production was profitable. Production function analysis suggested that, among the variables included in the model, quantity of seed, animal labor and power tiller cost, No. of human labor, quantity of fertilizer, cost of irrigation, had a positive and significant effect on the gross yield of Boro rice production, except for cost of manure and cost of pesticides had an insignificant effect on the gross yield of rice production. Efficiency analysis indicated that most of the farmers inefficiently used their inputs. This study also identified some problems associated with Boro rice production. Problems faced by the farmers were ranked on the basis of corresponding percentages. This study provides appropriate suggestion and policy recommendations which will help the development agencies and policy makers of the country for improving the livelihood of the people in the study area.</p> <p>Res. Agric., Livest. Fish.5(3): 293-300, December 2018</p> Rezoyana Kabir Rasha Hafija Akter Liza Shirajum Manjira Mohammad Mizanul Haque Kazal Shah Johir Rayhan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-31 2018-12-31 5 3 293 300 10.3329/ralf.v5i3.39575 Adoption and farmer’s perceptions of BARI Aam-3 Mango variety in selected areas of Bangladesh <p>The study was conducted to assess the level of BARI Aam-3 mango variety adoption, factors affecting adoption and farmer’s perceptions about this variety in four districts namely Khagrachori, Bandorban, Naogaon, and Satkhira of Bangladesh during February to March, 2018. A total of 128 BARI Aam-3 growers and 72 non-growers were selected using multi-stage random sampling technique. Logit model was used to assess the determinants of adoption. The study revealed that BARI Aam-3 was the most adopted variety (57%) than other and it covered 47.5% of the total mango production in the study areas. Most of the rice and vegetable fields are occupied by BARI Aam-3 and majority of the respondents practiced intercropping with BARI Aam-3. Family size, sex, training, and extension linkage had significant positive effect on adoption of BARI Aam-3 mango variety while age and farm size had negative effect. Three fourth (75%) of the respondents collected information about this variety from other neighbor farmers while about 43% learned from Department of Agricultural Extension office. More than half of the respondents (63%) have strong ambition to enlarge their BARI Aam-3 mango variety orchard in the future for its unique features such as non-alternate bearing and early fruiting. Climate change, price fluctuation, higher labour costs and access of Indian mango to the market prior releasing this variety were the major bottlenecks for wider adoption of this variety. The study concluded that there is an urgent need to create a sustainable market environment to ensure a better market price for the mango growers. In addition, training and extension services need to expand all over the country to increase the rate of adoption of BARI Aam-3 mango variety.</p> <p>Res. Agric., Livest. Fish.5(3): 301-311, December 2018</p> Muhammad Shahrukh Rahman Mashrufah Khatun ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-31 2018-12-31 5 3 301 311 10.3329/ralf.v5i3.39576 Response of transplanted aman rice varieties to split application of potassium <p>The research was conducted at the Agronomy Field Laboratory, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, to investigate the effect of time of split application of potassium on the yield of three transplanted (T) aman rice varieties. Rice varieties were BRRI dhan39, BRRI dhan40 and BRRI dhan41. Potassium was applied at the rate of 80 kg K ha<sup>-1</sup>. Experimental plot size was 5m2 (2.5m ×2.0m). Four split application of potassium [K<sub>1</sub>= Control (No K application), K<sub>2</sub>= 40 g K plot<sup>-1</sup> at 15 DAT (days after transplanting), K<sub>3</sub>= 20 g K plot<sup>-1</sup> at15 DAT+20 g K plot<sup>-1</sup> at 30DAT, K<sub>4</sub>= 10 g K plot<sup>-1</sup> at 15 DAT+ 10 g K plot<sup>-1</sup> at 25DAT+ 10 g K plot<sup>-1</sup> at 30 DAT+ 10 g K plot<sup>-1</sup> at 45 DAT] were considered as treatments. From the experiment it was found that split application of potassium had no significant effect on plant height, length of panicle, thousand grains weight. It was evident that two splits application of potassium i.e., 20 g K plot<sup>-1</sup> at 15 DAT+20 g K plot<sup>-1</sup> at 30 DAT with BRRI dhan41 gave maximum no. of tiller hill<sup>-1</sup>, effective tiller hill<sup>-1</sup>, grains panicle<sup>-1</sup>, grain yield and straw yield, biological yield and harvest index. But varieties differed among themselves in terms of yield contributing characters and yield, and BRRI dhan41 performed the best. Therefore, based on the findings of the present study, it may be concluded that for obtaining higher yield BRRI dhan 41 can be grown following application of potassium at the rate of 80 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> in two equal split at 15 and 30 days after transplanting</p> <p>Res. Agric., Livest. Fish.5(3): 313-320, December 2018</p> Israt Jahan Sarder Md Altaf Hossain Md Anwarul Islam Joynulalam Talukder ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-31 2018-12-31 5 3 313 320 10.3329/ralf.v5i3.39577 Change and instability in production and yield of rice in Bangladesh <p>Rice is considered as one of the monumental sources of human energy in Bangladesh. It can be stated that a vital element by which agronomic sector has been earned most of the quantity of profits for national development in this country is rice. This study covers the data of rice including the time from 1972 to 2016 has been collected from secondary sources of Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics. Different statistical tools have been used to complete the analysis. The analysis reveals that area, production and yield of rice has increased significant during the study period. The growth rate of production is significantly higher than the growth rate of area and yield. Despite the production has been increased, It is not enough to full fill the demand of the country. It is observed that area, production and yield are not stable<strong>. </strong>Therefore, researchers, government, nongovernment organization and policy makers should come forward to improve this sector. By this way new ideas and findings could be generated in order to improve the growth of rice.</p> <p>Res. Agric., Livest. Fish.5(3): 321-326, December 2018</p> Zaki Farhana Md Taj Uddin ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-31 2018-12-31 5 3 321 326 10.3329/ralf.v5i3.39578 Determination of microbiological (Staphylococci) quality of fast food sold in the different restaurant in Sylhet sadar <p>Fast food monger and restaurants premises are more rapidly growing in Sylhet city. This may cause serious health concern due to unhygienic environment are noticeable almost all types of fast food vendors and restaurants. Hence, the study was undertaken to assess a total viable bacterial count and especially emphasis given on total staphylococcal count of fast food items from various restaurants in and around Sylhet town. From January to February 2016, a total of 45 samples were collected and assessed of five fast food items (Singara, Shamucha, Chicken burger, Chicken roll and cake) belongs to three types of restaurants (Street, mid-level and high level). Assessment revealed, the highest mean value of TVC (Total Variable Count) was found in Shamucha (89.6×10<sup>9</sup> CFU/g.) nearly all types of restaurants whereas lowest was observed in Chicken burger (58.8×10<sup>9</sup> CFU/g.). However, Staphylococcal load (mean value of TSC) was seen highest in both Shamucha and Chicken burger (26×10<sup>3</sup> CFU/g.) and lowest were in cake (16×10<sup>3</sup> CFU/g.) of all types of restaurants. Street level restaurants were observed highly risk for microbial as well as Staphylococcal load when comparison with mid-level and high level restaurants. Based on International Microbiological Criteria, the total viable count and total staphylococcal count found in fast food samples were unsatisfactory of all types of restaurants. Therefore, this study recommends that further analysis is needed regarding this issue. Besides, necessary steps should be taken by the Government for maintaining hygienic standard for preparing, processing and handling cooked food in various restaurants.</p> <p>Res. Agric., Livest. Fish.5(3): 327-333, December 2018</p> Purkayastha Moushumi Sahidur Rahman ATM Mahbub E Elahi Sourav Roy Tanimul Hussain Nasrin Sultana Lucky ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-31 2018-12-31 5 3 327 333 10.3329/ralf.v5i3.39581 A retrospective study on the occurrence of surgical affection in zoo carnivores of the national zoological garden at Dhaka, Bangladesh <p>This study was carried out to investigate the occurrence of various surgical affections often encountered in carnivorous zoo animals of National Zoological Garden, Dhaka, Bangladesh. The study was based on the surgical cases reported in the day record book maintained by the zoo authority during the period of January - December 2012 to January - December 2016. Of 74 surgically affected zoo carnivore’s cases; Felididae recorded highest 81.08 %, Canidae 12.61 % and, Ursidae 6.76 %. When affections were compared between sexes, it was observed higher in male 62.16 % than in female 37.84 %. Among the different surgical affections; the wound cases were observed at the apex with 29.7 % and 18.9 %, followed by paralysis 10.08 % and 6.8 %, skin injury 9.5 % and 6.8 %, myiasis 4.1 % and 2.7 %, lameness 2.7 % and 4.1 % in male and female, respectively. While, tail sore 1.4 %, conjunctivitis 1.4 % and hoof injury 1.4 % were observed in male carnivores only. In conclusion, this report signifies the common surgical affections suffered by zoo carnivores, while male carnivores showed comparatively more prone to affections than female one. This report may be helpful to develop a control strategy in managing zoo animal captivity and further minimizing these surgical affections.</p> <p>Res. Agric., Livest. Fish.5(3): 335-339, December 2018</p> Zaied Talukder Nazmul Hoda Pankaj Kumar Jha Pravin Mishra Moumita Kalowar Momy Md Mahmudul Alam ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-31 2018-12-31 5 3 335 339 10.3329/ralf.v5i3.39582 Fact findings about the frozen buck semen characters freezing with eyc and tris extender and productivity of Black Bengal does as the potential genetic resource in Bangladesh <p>The research work was conducted at the Artificial Insemination Center under the Department of Animal Breeding and Genetics, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh to compare the efficacy between Egg Yolk Citrate (EYC) and Tris diluter for frozen semen production in Black Bengal buck. The parameters of semen characteristics included volume per ejaculate (ml), percentage of individual motility (progressive), normal and live sperm and sperm concentration (billion/ml). After dilution with EYC extender, It revealed from statistical analysis of frozen semen that individual bucks had significant effect (p&lt;0.05) on sperm motility and but insignificant on motility after cooling with and without glycerol. In the same way, with Tris diluter, it was insignificant (p&gt;0.05) on diluted semen motility and motility after cooling with and without glycerol. Motility and morphology of the sperm after equilibration and thawing showed insignificant difference among the bucks using EYC diluter. On the contrary, variation in the motility after equilibration and thawing was found significant (p&lt;0.05) using Tris diluter and insignificant on normal and live sperm percentages. After insemination with frozen buck semen, productivity or conception rate was found significantly (p&lt;0.01) higher (60.37%) in Tris than that of EYC diluter (43.75%). On the other hand, the productivity when compared among bucks within the diluter, the variation was not found significant (p&gt;0.05).The productivity found both in Tris and EYC diluter is almost similar to abundantly used Triladyl diluter (58.25). It is concluded that tris diluter might be used as the alternative to the Tryladil diluter though further study is to be needed for more confirmation.</p> <p>Res. Agric., Livest. Fish.5(3): 341-350, December 2018</p> Md Fazlul Karim MAM Yahia Khandoker Syed Sakhawat Husain ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-31 2018-12-31 5 3 341 350 10.3329/ralf.v5i3.39583 Evaluation of serum electrolyte concentrations in Garole sheep of Sundarban region <p>Garole sheep is very popular for its biannual lambing and disease resistance characters. To evaluate some selected serum electrolytes (Na, K and P) ions in apparently healthy Garole sheep at Sundarban region under Shyamnagar Upazila of Satkhira district, blood samples were collected from 20 Garole sheep (8 males and 12 females) of aged about 6-48 months containing male lambs, rams, female lambs, pregnant ewes and lactating ewes according to the age, sex and physiologic status. Serum was separated and used for biochemical analysis for the measurement of target serum electrolytes. The results of the range and mean ± standard error (SE) of serum electrolytes are as follows: sodium 280-400 ppm and 342.96±7.19 ppm, potassium 30-55 ppm and 34.37 ± 0.72 ppm and phosphorus 40-90 ppm and 70.98 ±1.76 ppm respectively. The significant differences (P&lt;0.05) between males and females in serum ions levels was recorded. It can be concluded that Na, K and P ion level in serum was higher in male than female and significant differences in ion level varies according to physiologic status of female Garole sheep.</p> <p>Res. Agric., Livest. Fish.5(3): 351-358, December 2018</p> Md Azizar Rahman Md Shahidul Islam Anika Jerin Shanta Khaled Mahmud Sujan Md Kamrul Islam ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-31 2018-12-31 5 3 351 358 10.3329/ralf.v5i3.39579 Effect of bitter melon and garlic on blood glucose level and blood cholesterol level in rats in diabetic condition <p>The aim of this research was designed to investigate the single and combine effect of bitter melon and garlic on blood glucose level and blood cholesterol level in rats in diabetic condition. In this study 60 rats (12 normal rats and 48 alloxan induced diabetic rats) was used for trials. The rats were divided into 5 groups for each trial, each containing 12 individuals as follows: First group was normal control (A), Second group was diabetic control (B), third group was alloxan with bitter melon treated (C). Group D was alloxan and Garlic treated and Group E was alloxan, bitter melon, garlic treated. Then alloxan injection was injected at the dose rate of 100mg/kg body weight intraperitoneally to each rate to induce diabetes in groups B, C, D and E. On 10<sup>th</sup> day blood glucose level, blood cholesterol level and the body weights were measured for the first time to ensure diabetic induction as well as hypercholesterolemia. Then all the rats of that group were kept for more 21 days for the treatment of hyperglycemia and hypercholesterolemia. During that period on Day 0, 7, 14 and 21<sup>st </sup>the body weight, blood cholesterol level and blood glucose level were measured. Aqueous extract of bitter melon and garlic were fed at a dose rate of 300mg/kg and 500 mg/kg body weight for 21 days in group C and D respectively and combine in group E. The blood sugar level and blood cholesterol level were reduced in bitter melon, garlic &amp; combine treatment groups compare with untreated group. From these findings it is concluded that the combination of bitter melon and garlic can be used as anti-hyperglycemic and anti- hypercholesterolemic agent.</p> <p>Res. Agric., Livest. Fish.5(3): 359-363, December 2018</p> Rupaly Akhter Imrul Hasan Rasel Mohammad Saiful Islam ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-31 2018-12-31 5 3 359 363 10.3329/ralf.v5i3.39580 Effects of soybean and rice bran oil on hemato-biochemical parameters in mice <p>The study was conducted on “Swiss Albino” mice fed with additional supplementation of soybean oil and rice bran oil to observe the effects on hematological (total erythrocyte count and hemoglobin concentration) and biochemical parameters (total serum cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoproteins and uric acid). A total of 30, 6-8 weeks old mice were randomly divided into 3 equal groups (n=10) as A, B and C. Group A was considered as control (fed only commercial ration), group B was supplemented with rice bran oil and group C treated with soybean oil respectively in addition to commercial ration for 60 days. At the end of feeding trial the mice were sacrificed for analysis of hematobiochemical parameters. The total erythrocyte count and hemoglobin concentration were increased significantly (P&lt;0.05) in group B and C compared to control group A and the highest values was recorded in soybean oil group C. The total serum cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL and uric acid were increased significantly (P&lt;0.05) in both rice bran oil and soybean oil group compared to control group. It is concluded that some hemato-biochemical parameters of blood in the mice are affected by rice bran and soybean oil enriched diet. Though, oils and fats are detrimental to health but to evaluate the effects of rice bran and soybean oil, further studies with more animals and some other parameters like liver function, kidney function may be conducted.</p> <p>Res. Agric., Livest. Fish.5(3): 365-372, December 2018</p> Nafis Islam Md Shahidul Islam Md Jahangir Alam Md Kamrul Islam Nazim Ahmad ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-31 2018-12-31 5 3 365 372 10.3329/ralf.v5i3.39585 Antidiabetic effect of bitter melon/Kerala (Momordica charantia) in alloxan induced diabetic rat <p>This study aims at investigating the effect of <em>Momordica charantia </em>extract on glucose tolerance and some biochemical parameters in alloxan induced diabetes rat. A total of 150 rats (50 normal rats and 100 alloxan induced diabetic rats) were used for five trials. The rats were divided into three groups for each trial, each containing 10 individuals as follows: Group A: is the control group, Group B as diabetic control group and group C were diabetic rat received bitter melon (<em>Momordica charantia</em>). Then alloxan injection was injected at a dose rate of 150 mg/kg body weight through intra-peritoneal route to each rat to induce diabetes in groups B and C. Aqueous extract of bitter melon (<em>Momordica charantia</em>) were fed by gavage at a dose of 300 mg/kg body weight daily for 21 days in group C. On 15th day blood glucose level and the body weights, biochemical parameters were measured for the first time to ensure diabetic induction. Then all the rats of this group were kept for more 21 days for the treatment of diabetic condition. Alloxan produced a significant increase in serum glucose, triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), Alanine aminotransaminase (ALT) and Aspartate aminotransaminase (AST) and significant decrease in body weight and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC). Bitter melon treatment reduced non-fasting and fasting glucose level (p&lt;0.05). In addition, administration of bitter melon juice was associated with a reduction in the serum levels of Alanine aminotransaminase (ALT) and Aspartate aminotransaminase (AST), Triglyceride (TG), Total Cholesterol (TC) and Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDL-C) when compared with positive diabetic control (p&lt;0.05). High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC) and body weight level significantly increased in bitter melon treated group C compare to Group B (p&lt;0.05).</p> <p>Res. Agric., Livest. Fish.5(3): 373-379, December 2018</p> Rupaly Akhter Imrul Hasan Rasel Mohammad Saiful Islam ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-31 2018-12-31 5 3 373 379 10.3329/ralf.v5i3.39586 A review on dried fish processing and marketing in the coastal region of Bangladesh <p>Sun drying of fish is an important method of fish preservation throughout the world. Due to its availability and product specific flavor and texture, dried fish has become an important part in the diet of people living particularly in the coastal region of many Asian countries including Bangladesh. Product type is considerably wide depending on the season, availability of fish, infrastructure and technical know-how of the processors. These are mainly processed from marine fishes that are caught by the artisanal fishermen and marketed throughout the country by multistep marketing channel up to reaching to the consumer. Due to the importance of the product in terms of market volume as well as its major role in the socio-economic condition of millions of people of the country, the sector needs proper attention by appropriate authorities to ensure quality and safety of the product produced and marketed. In this paper, different methods of sun drying practiced traditionally in the coastal region of Bangladesh and associated marketing systems are reviewed. It is expected that training of processors on Sanitation Standard Operating Procedures and monitoring by appropriate government body would be necessary to improve quality and simultaneously ensure safety of sun-dried fish produced in the coastal region of Bangladesh.</p> <p>Res. Agric., Livest. Fish.5(3): 381-390, December 2018</p> Parimal Chadra Paul Md Shaheed Reza Md Nazrul Islam Md Kamal ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-31 2018-12-31 5 3 381 390 10.3329/ralf.v5i3.39587 Livelihood status of women workers in shrimp sector at south western region in Bangladesh <p>In Bangladesh, women are engaging in shrimp sector to support themselves and their family as well. Current study was designed to study the socio-economic and hygienic status of the women working in shrimp sector (employee) in South Western region in Bangladesh (N=150). The study also selected women who are not working in shrimp sector (non-employee) in the same community (N=75) to evaluate impacts of shrimp industry on women. In socio-economic background analysis of the women, medium household size (46% and 65.3%), primary education level (63.3% and 48%), married (79.3% and 97.3%), drinking tube-well water (93.3 % and 92%) and polli electric facility (77.3% and 84%) was dominant in both cases. Average monthly household income and expenditure was found better among the employees (9235 ± 4042 Tk and 765 5± 3032 Tk, respectively) than the non-employees (9068 ± 3113 Tk and 7208 ± 2147 Tk, respectively). In summary, the study observed and suggesting that life style and hygienic condition is better among the women engaged in shrimp sector than the nonemployee in the same community.</p> <p>Res. Agric., Livest. Fish.5(3): 391-397, December 2018</p> Nasrin Nahar Begum Md Nazrul Islam Khan Sk Shafiqur Rahman Sheikh Nazrul Islam ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-31 2018-12-31 5 3 391 397 10.3329/ralf.v5i3.39588 Structural performance of fish market in Bogura district, Bangladesh <p>One of the most important blossom trades in the economy of Bangladesh is fish marketing. To understand the current practices of fish market and marketing systems in Bogura district of Bangladesh, an investigation was conducted based on existing marketing system and economic features of marketing activities and inefficiencies. Fish marketing is almost exclusively maintained by the private sector and large number of intermediaries such as local traders, agents/suppliers, and retailers are involved in the distribution process of fish marketing. Data were collected from 45 fish traders through questionnaire interviews and participatory rural approach methods during December 2011 to May 2012 from three different fish markets named as Fateh Ali Fish Market, Godarpara Fish market and Khandar Fish market of Bogura district. The daily supply of fish in Fateh Ali Fish market, Godarpara Fish market and Khandar Fish market were estimated at 6.75 tons, 0.765 tons and 0.495 tons, respectively. Present supply and requirement of the fish showed a wide gap and virtually most of the fish (85%) is imported from outside where the local supply of fish is only 15%. There is a high consumer preference for Indian major carps i.e. rohu, catal, mrigal and exotic carps silver carp, grass and common carp, tilapia, pangas etc. The price of fish depends on market structure, species, quality, size, weight and season that’s why a well-systematized marketing setup is crucial for reasonable price for fishes. The study revealed that almost all traders in three markets made a considerable amount of profit and broadly improved their food consumption facilities, standards of living, purchasing power, choice and ability as an economic sector. However concerns arise about the sustainable marketing system due to higher transport costs, poor transport facilities, inadequate supply of ice, lack of money for business, and poor institutional support. It is an urgent issue to establish ice factory, improvement of transport facilities, provision of governmental, institutional and banking assistance, introduction of fish quality control measures and training of fish market operators for improved their marketing system. Therefore, the present study emphasizes the fundamental marketing system, market flow of fish, availability of fish in these three markets, and market related constraints in Bogura district, Bangladesh.</p> <p>Res. Agric., Livest. Fish.5(3): 399-410, December 2018</p> Md Helal Uddin - Sirazunnesa Muhammad Shahidul Haq Zoarder Faruque Ahmed Jannatul Fatema Mst Kaniz Fatema ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-31 2018-12-31 5 3 399 410 10.3329/ralf.v5i3.39589