Research in Agriculture Livestock and Fisheries <p>Official journal of AgroAID Foundation. RALF is an open access and peer-reviewed online and printed journal that aims to publish high&nbsp;quality papers&nbsp;to make rapidly available to researchers nation and worldwide. It publishes high quality and novelty scientific papers focusing on Agriculture and allied sciences, Veterinary/Animal Science and allied subjects, and Fisheries / Aquaculture and Marine sciences.</p> <p>Full text articles available on BanglaJOL. Content also available <a title="AGROAID" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">here</a>.</p> <p>Research in Agriculture Livestock and Fisheries is included on <a title="DOAJ" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">DOAJ</a>.</p> AgroAID Foundation en-US Research in Agriculture Livestock and Fisheries 2409-0603 <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Creative Commons</strong><br>All RALF articles are published under the terms of the&nbsp;<a href="">Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 International License.</a>&nbsp;Readers can copy, distribute, transmit and adapt the work provided the original work and source is appropriately cited.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Copyright</strong><br>Submission of a manuscript implies that authors have met the requirements of the editorial policy and publication ethics. Authors retain the copyright of their articles published in the journal. However, authors agree that their articles remain permanently open access under the terms of the&nbsp;<a href="">Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 International License.</a></p> Effect of Cultivar and Seed Rate on Weed Infestation and Crop Performance of Wheat <p>An experiment was carried out at the Agronomy Field laboratory of Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh during the period from November 2015 to March 2016 to study the effect of cultivar and seed rate on weed infestation and crop performance of wheat. Three wheat cultivars viz. BARI Gom 22, BARI Gom 23 and BARI Gom 24 and four seed rates viz. 80, 100, 120 and 140 kg ha-1 were taken as the experimental treatment. The experiment was carried out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. The cultivar and seed rate significantly influenced weed infestation and crop performance of wheat. The dry weight of weeds under cultivar BARI Gom 24 was the lowest (4.18 g m-2) compared to other cultivars. The lowest dry weight of weed was recorded in the seed rate of 120 kg ha-1 (3.67 g m-2) and the highest one (6.69 g m-2) was produced under the seed rate of 80 kg ha-1. The highest number of effective tillers plant-1 (4.05), total number of tillers plant-1 (4.53), number of grain spike-1 (19.85) and grain yield (1.56 g) were produced by BARI Gom 24. BARI Gom 24 produced the highest grain yield (1.56 t ha-1) which was as good as BARI Gom 22 (1.40 t ha-1). BARI Gom 24 produced the highest grain yield with 100 kg seed rate and also a good competitor against weeds. Seed rate was a reliable factor where increasing seed rate reduced the intensity of weed infestation and weed dry weight production. In conclusion, cultivation of BARI Gom 24 at the rate of 120 kg ha-1 seeds may be cultivated for higher grain yield.</p> <p>Res. Agric., Livest. Fish.8(1): 1-8, April 2021</p> Shanta Islam Muhamad Salim Md Saiful Kamal Azad Md Rashedur Rahman ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-05-01 2021-05-01 8 1 1 8 10.3329/ralf.v8i1.53260 Effect of Integrated Use of Rhizobium Inoculum and Phosphorus Fertilization on Nodulation, Growth, and Yield of Soyabean CV. Binasoybean-2 <p>The experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of rhizobium inoculum and phosphorus fertilization on nodulation, growth, and yield of soyabean cv. Binasoybean-2 at the area of Chamberkella, East Subarnachar Upazila, Noakhali, Bangladesh, from mid-January to first week of May 2018. Four levels of Rhizobium inoculation viz: 0, 25, 50 and 75 g kg-1 and four levels of phosphorus viz: 0, 18, 36 and 54 kg P ha-1 were applied. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. The effect of interaction of different combinations of Rhizobium inoculation and phosphorus rates showed regular trend, although their effects on some of studied growth, and yield parameters were insignificant but most of the growth and yield parameters were significant. Among sixteen treatment combinations the highest grain yield (2.217 t ha-1) was obtained from the treatment combination of 50 g kg-1 Rhizobium inoculation and 36 kg ha-1 phosphorus which was statistically identical with 50 g kg-1 Rhizobium inoculation with 18 kg ha-1, the lowest yield (1.367 t ha-1) was recorded with control treatment.</p> <p>Res. Agric., Livest. Fish.8(1): 9-17, April 2021</p> Kamrul Hasan Shohrab Hoshain Tamanna Sharmin Md Golam Rabbani Md Saiful Kamal Azad Md Rashedur Rahman Partha Sarathi Kar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-05-01 2021-05-01 8 1 9 17 10.3329/ralf.v8i1.53261 Performance of Binadhan-17 With Binadhan-18 and Brri Dhan-29 as Affected by Different Planting Time in Magura District of Bangladesh <p>The experiment was carried out during the period of December to May 2019 at the BINA substation Magura farm and farmers’ field sottopur, sadar, Magura in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The experiment was conducted to study the effect of planting time on the yield and yield attributes along with three sowing time viz. 15 December, 25 December, 05 January and transplanting was done on 24 Jan.; 03 Feb.; 13 Feb. in the main field along with three varieties viz. Binadhan -17, Binadhan-18, BRRIdhan-29. From on farm trial, it revealed that; The transplanting time of February 03 have found more yield and duration (7.62t/ha and 142 days) and transplanting time of January 24 have found have yield and duration 7.59 t/ha and 147 days which was statistically same; lowest yield found in February 13 that was 6.89t/ha and duration 136 days. From on station trial, it revealed that; the January 24 transplanting date was found more yield and duration (7.28t/ha and 147days) and February 03 was found (6.06t/ha and 142 days); lowest yield was found in February 13 transplanting date that was (4.5t/ha and 136 days). From both results discussion, it concluded that Transplanting at January 24 would be the optimum time along with different planting time of Binadhan-17 in Maguraregion.</p> <p>Res. Agric., Livest. Fish.8(1): 19-24, April 2021</p> Shampa Rani Ghosh Mirza Mofazzal Islam Shamsun Nahar Begum Md Tanjilur Rahman Mondal Dinesh Chandra Roy ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-05-01 2021-05-01 8 1 19 24 10.3329/ralf.v8i1.53263 Performance of Different Green Manuring Crops in Bangladesh <p>An experiment was conducted at Sher-e-bangla Agricultural University during May to July, 2016 to examine the morpho-physical potentiality of eight green manure species and these species are viz. Sesbania aculeata, Sesbania rostrata, Crotalaria juncea, Vigna unguiculata, Vigna mungo, Vigna radiata, Leucaena leucocephala and Mimosa pudica. Leaves number, biomass production and nodulation are an important character of any green manuring crops as these crops are very potential for increasing soil fertility after incorporation. The growth habits of these species were studied from 15 DAS to 45DAS whereas dry matter/plant and nodulation data were taken from 25 DAS to 50DAS. At 45DAS, Sesbania aculeata, Sesbania rostrata and Vigna unguiculata shown 53% to 149% higher plant height compared to Vigna mungo, although C. juncea performed better at 30DAS compared to V. unguiculata. Again, C. juncea along with S. rostrata and S. aculeata gave the highest fresh biomass (24% to 72%), dry biomass (2.6t/ha to 5.25t/ha), dry matter plant-1 (60% to 83%) and nodulation compared to rest green manures at 45DAS whereas V. unguiculata produced higher dry matter plant-1 at 20DAS but later it declined insignificantly at 50DAS.The lowest performance was observed from V. mungo followed by V. radiata and M. pudica. It was shown that S. rostrata, S. aculeata, C. juncea, V. unguiculata and L.leucocephala performed better regarding biomass, dry matter and nodule production.</p> <p>Res. Agric., Livest. Fish.8(1): 25-31, April 2021</p> Israt Jahan Irin Parimal Kanti Biswas ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-05-01 2021-05-01 8 1 25 31 10.3329/ralf.v8i1.53264 Marketing Problems of Potato Farmers in Munshigonj District of Bangladesh <p>The study was conducted in the Lohajang upazilla under Munshigonj district. The main purposes of the study were i) to describe the selected characteristics of the potato farmers; ii). to determine the extent of marketing problems faced by the farmers and iii). to explore relationship between selected characteristics of the farmers and their marketing problems. From the findings it was revealed that about one half of the respondents were middle aged and another half was young (41.9%) and old (8.6%). The highest proportion (73.3%) achieved education ranging from primary to above secondary. Rest of the respondents had no school education. All the respondents had organizational participation. More than two third had medium to high organizational participation. Potato growers of Lohajang were not so much financially sound as the result showed that only (6.7 %) had high capability and the overwhelming majority (58.1% &amp; 35.2%) were under low to medium category. Regarding knowledge, one half of the respondents had low knowledge and the other half had medium to high knowledge. Distance of market place showed not much problems because (81%) of the respondents stayed within 2 km of market place. Among the respondents, the highest (52.4%) proportion had medium storage facilities, while (23.8 %) potato growers had low and high storage facilities. Among the respondents the highest (49.5 %) potato growers faced medium problem in potato marketing. Regarding the relationship between the selected dependent and independent variable, it was observed that age and distance of market place had significant positive relationships with marketing problems of potato growers. Educational level, financial capabilities, extent of use of quality control, availability of marketing information and storage facilities had significant negative relationships with marketing problems of potato growers. On the other hand, organizational participation had no relationship with marketing problems of potato growers.</p> <p>Res. Agric., Livest. Fish.8(1): 33-40, April 2021</p> Sifat Jahan Mohammad Abul Hossain Md Ahsan Habib Shamima Akter Rimi Md Saiful Islam ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-05-01 2021-05-01 8 1 33 40 10.3329/ralf.v8i1.53265 Women Farmers’ Knowledge and Practices on Organic Farming <p>The main purpose of the study was to investigate the knowledge and practices of women farmers on organic farming. The study was conducted in two union of Nilphamari Sadar upazila namely Lakshmi Chap and Palashbari under Nilphamari district. Ninety-two (92) women farmers were randomly selected as sample from an updated list of 120 women farmers. Data were collected by a pre-tested interview schedule during 1st to 30th October 2020. Simple and direct questions with different appropriate scales were used to obtain information. Descriptive statistics, correlation and multiple regression analysis was used for the present study. Majority of the respondents know about rotating crops, using different wastes, composting, limiting the use of synthetic/ chemical fertilizers, trap method, and mulching as part of organic farming practices. Majority of the respondents opined that they were practicing more than once „Using organic fertilizer‟, „using plant waste‟, and „using kitchen waste‟ for the last 12 months. Slightly above four-fifths (83.7 percent) of the women farmers had medium practices on organic farming, while 14.1 percent women farmers had high practices on organic farming, and only 2.2 percent women farmers had low practices on organic farming. Thus, a proportion of 85.9 percent of the women farmers low to medium practices on organic farming. Correlation analysis indicated that among nine socio-economic profile educational qualifications, farm holding, training received, extension media contact and innovativeness of women farmers had significant positive relationship with their practices on organic farming. However, age, organic farming experience, annual family income and cosmopoliteness had no significant positive relationship with their practices on organic farming. Regression analysis indicated that education qualification, farm holding, extension media contact, and innovativeness of the respondents had significant positive contribution with their practices on organic farming.</p> <p>Res. Agric., Livest. Fish.8(1): 41-50, April 2021</p> Pallab Goswami Md Rubayet Al Ferdous Noman Saiful Huda ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-05-01 2021-05-01 8 1 41 50 10.3329/ralf.v8i1.53266 Profitability Comparison Between Boro Rice and Maize Production in Dinajpur District <p>The study focuses on comparing technical efficiency and profitability between Boro rice farmers and maize farmers in Dinajpur district consisting of 150 randomly collected samples which are analyzed with statistical software STATA 12.0 version. Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA) is used to accomplish the first objective where it is found that the maize farmers are efficient compared to boro-rice farmers. The deviation of the mean technical efficiency is estimated at 0.09. In addition maize farmers are also more profitable than boro-rice farmers estimated with a benefit Cost Ratio (BCR) of1.08 is for boro-rice and 1.26 is for maize production. The net profit for boro-rice is estimated as 10,527.60 Tk./ha whereas 28,966.40 Tk./ha for maize producers. However mean technical efficiency of boro-rice (0.44) and maize (0.53) cultivation clearly indicates that better utilization of resources will raise the efficiency and profitability for both crops production.</p> <p>Res. Agric., Livest. Fish.8(1): 51-56, April 2021</p> Rozina Yeasmin Mohammad Saidur Rahman Mohammad Ismail Hossain ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-05-01 2021-05-01 8 1 51 56 10.3329/ralf.v8i1.53267 A Case Study on Disaster Insurance in Kenya <p>This study aims to provide a comprehensive outlook on the active disaster insurance scene in the East African country, Kenya. It begins with a geographic and economic analysis of the country followed by its historical challenges with natural disasters, namely droughts. The study is both qualitative and quantitative in nature and mostly deals with secondary sources of data. Establishing the current status of the country, the discussion brings into light the three insurance programs that have gained prominence there in the last decade: Kenyan Livestock Insurance Program (KLIP), Area Yield Index Insurance (AYII), and Kilimo Salama or Safe Agriculture. These programs use state of the art remote sensing technology to determine the availability of pasture, crop yields, etc. through standardized vegetation indices. Once the indices reach a predetermined minimum threshold, they trigger the payout mechanisms of the respective programs, economically uplifting the vulnerable communities involved and avoiding potential disaster. The programs are partially subsidized by the government which allows ease of adoption for local communities and helps stabilize the economy by keeping the agriculture and livestock sectors in balance. The study also acknowledges the limitations faced by the programs in order to provide a more realistic depiction and aims to encourage the piloting of similar programs in other developing nations like Bangladesh.</p> <p>Res. Agric., Livest. Fish.8(1): 57-64, April 2021</p> Fahmid Mohtasin ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-05-01 2021-05-01 8 1 57 64 10.3329/ralf.v8i1.53268 An Assessment of Flood Shocking Tears Down: A Case Study in Bogura District <p>This study was conducted on two chars of Bogura district using primary data and aims at understanding of how flood affects the rural poor living in the char lands. The study revealed that floods have long-term negative implications on socio-economic status. According to survey the most affected sector was agriculture (54.03%), followed by property (28.66%) and health (19.71%), diseases as Diarrhea occurred at alarming levels (76.07%) in the study areas. In the study year food availability and roads communications were also highly affected by flood. Floods make people vulnerable; as they take away their livelihoods at the first instance and leave them with little resources to overcome from the situation. Because of floods, rural poor communities face job loss, and two-thirds of their income is reduced, which limits their capabilities of preparedness, response, and recovery to subsequent floods. People cope with the situation by bearing substantial debts and a loss of productive assets. It also examines the impacts of flood on the livelihood of the rural poor and explores their coping strategies and also observers it as a positive ingredient for fertility and soil improvement. However the present study captures both positive and negative.</p> <p>Res. Agric., Livest. Fish.8(1): 65-73, April 2021</p> ATM Rezaul Hoque ANH Angona Babor Ahmad ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-05-01 2021-05-01 8 1 65 73 10.3329/ralf.v8i1.53269 Screening of Salinity Tolerance of Twenty Rice Genotypes at the Seedling Stage Through Hydroponic and Ssr Marker <p>Salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses which severely affect the production of crops across the world. In this experiment, we examined 20 rice genotypes of diverse origins and sources including few salt tolerant varieties (Binadhan-8, Binadhan-10, Pokkali and FL478) as check. The main objective of this study was to determine salt tolerance at seedling stage and to evaluate genetic variation using SSR markers. IRRI standard protocol was applied to screen out salinity among those varieties, at the glasshouse of Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture, BAU campus, Mymensingh-2202. Shoot length, root length and total dry matter were recorded at 6dS/m, 8dS/m, 10dS/m and 12 dS/m salt stress levels. According to the morphological and molecular survey of 20 rice genotypes at the seedling stage it was evident that, Binadhan-8, Binadhan-10, Pokkali, FL478, IR64, IR4630, FR13A and Sadamota identified as salt tolerant whereas THDB, Moulata, MV-20, CPD-23, CPD-29, Pot-18, Pot-27 and Dudkalam those were found as susceptible, BRRI dhan67, Binadhan-17 and Binadhan-21 those were traced as highly susceptible. The highest Nei’s genetic distance value 1.0 was found in Moulata vs Sadamota and the lowest value 0.08 was observed in Binadhan-21 vs IR64. It will be used in future breeding program to develop a saline tolerant variety of rice.</p> <p>Res. Agric., Livest. Fish.8(1): 75-88, April 2021</p> Sharif Ahmad Al Muti Md Shahidul Islam Md Monirul Islam Md Mahmud Al Noor SM Abdul Alim Md Monir Hossain Pritish Chandra Paul Md Faysal Arafatbin Siddique ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-05-01 2021-05-01 8 1 75 88 10.3329/ralf.v8i1.53270 Genomic Tools and Genetic Improvement of Crossbred Friesian Cattle <p>Any genetic improvement in dairy cattle requires information on productive and reproductive performance in the given population. Animals have been selected to improve their productivity in order to increase the profitability to the farmer. As a result, selection of animals is made for higher production and a shortened productive life. The reproductive performance of Friesian cows under intensive and semi-intensive management system in Bangladesh is poor. Animal selection has historically been based on production traits, and not much attention was given to AI recording. Many attempts were taken scatterly to increase productive and reproductive potential of Bangladeshi cattle for different periods with variable achievements. Therefore, in this review article we have addressed the new tools and information that could be used to determine the level of productive and reproductive performance and to evaluate genetic factors using admixture analysis of cows bred by AI sires which affect reproductive traits of crossbred Friesian dairy cows reared in selected areas in Bangladesh.</p> <p>Res. Agric., Livest. Fish.8(1): 89-107, April 2021</p> Md Anisur Rahman Nasrin Sultana Juyena Mohammed Shamsuddin Mohammad Musharraf Uddin Bhuiyan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-05-01 2021-05-01 8 1 89 107 10.3329/ralf.v8i1.53271 Bacterial Flora Isolated From Dried Fishes Sold at Retail Markets Within Dhaka City Corporation of Bangladesh <p>Along with other contaminants, bacterial contamination in the dried fishes is a common issue which severely affects the quality of cured fishes. Hence, the present study was aimed to isolate and identify different bacterial flora contaminating different dried fishes, sold at different retail markets within Dhaka Metropolitan city, Dhaka, Bangladesh. A total of 25 different dried fishes were collected from Dhaka North city corporation area (Town Hall kacha bazar, Krishi market, and Mohammadpur kacha bazar) and Dhaka South city corporation area (New market kacha bazar, and Jatrabari chowrasta bazar). Each sample was divided into three regions (head, body, and tail) and bacterial isolation and identification was done by studying their cultural, staining and biochemical properties. Of the 25 dried fishes, Escherichia coli, Bacillus spp., Staphylococcus spp., Salmonella spp. and unidentified bacteria isolation rates were 44%, 56%, 80%, 48%, and 24%, respectively. The presence of E. coli and Salmonella spp. in various dried fish samples could be considered as indication of lack of hygienic condition during dried fish processing. Confirmation through molecular detection methods, pathogenicity, and antibiogram of the isolated bacteria could be included for future study.</p> <p>Res. Agric., Livest. Fish.8(1): 109-115, April 2021</p> Md Kamrul Hassan Munalisa Poppy Tanvir Ahamed Fahima Morsheda Ravi Yadav Alamgir Hasan Mahbubul Pratik Siddique ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-05-01 2021-05-01 8 1 109 115 10.3329/ralf.v8i1.53272 Immune Responses Induced in Chickens by Capsular Extract of P. Multocida Isolated From Farm Rat <p>An experiment was conducted to investigate the immune response induced in chickens by capsular extract of Pasteurella multocida isolated from rats wandering in and around the poultry farms. The rat isolate of P. multocida was isolated and identified by cultural, morphological, and biochemical characteristics, followed by capsular extract preparation and experimental vaccine development. The isolated P. multocida was found Gram-negative, non-motile, non-spore forming rod occurring singly or pains and occasionally as chains or filaments in Gram’s-staining method. The isolates consistently produced acid from dextrose, sucrose and mannitol but not fermented maltose or lactose. The Capsular antigen was extracted and confirmed by acriflavine test. Finally, experimental fowl cholera vaccine was prepared. Primary vaccination was performed at the dose rate of 5.6×107 CFU/ml through intramuscular and subcutaneous routes in birds of group A (10 birds) and group B (10 birds) and group C (10 birds) were control birds. Secondary vaccination was similarly performed after 15 days of primary vaccination in groups A and B. The levels of pre-vaccination and post-vaccination sera were determined by passive haemagglutination test. The passive haemagglutination antibody titre was recorded on 15 and 35 days of post vaccination in groups A and B. It was demonstrated that experimental capsular extract fowl cholera vaccine conferred 100% protection (p&lt;0.01) against challenge infection and found to be safe. It could be suggested that after thorough field trial, the experimentally prepared capsular extract FC vaccine using rat isolate of P. multocida may be used side by side with conventional FC vaccine.</p> <p>Res. Agric., Livest. Fish.8(1): 117-124, April 2021</p> Mashuda Akter Md Mosaraf Hossain Md Kamrul Hassan Ravi Yadav Fahima Morsheda Md Shahidur Rahman Khan Mahbubul Pratik Siddique ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-05-01 2021-05-01 8 1 117 124 10.3329/ralf.v8i1.53273 Molecular Characterization of Duck Plague Virus for Determination of TCID<sub>50</sub> <p>Duck plague is an enveloped DNA virus that belongs to the Anatid Herpes Virus; the Herpesviridae family is an acute and highly infectious duck, geese, and swan disease that causes tremendous economic losses of duck rearing in Bangladesh and other duck rearing countries. Therefore, we decided to isolate duck plague virus from recent fields’ outbreaks area and performed molecular detection and phylogenetic analysis to find out the similarities between our findings and other isolates around the world. Visceral organs of 13 suspected ducks from recent outbreaks area were collected by post-mortem examination for inoculum preparation. Several passages were performed to harvest into 9-11 old embryonated eggs Chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) route and duck embryo fibroblast (DEF) primary cell culture. DNA polymerase (446bp) and DNA polymerase (UL, 602bp) genes were used for molecular detection by Polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Pathogenicity was done with duckling and TCID50 on DEF. Molecular characterization was performed from extracted DNA of duckling and 2 Positive PCR products were partially sequenced for phylogenetic analysis of their origin and nucleotide variations. Sequenced data was analyzed to reveal genetic relationships among constructed phylogenetic tree for understanding potential transmission with origin of virus and data was then submitted to gene bank and got accession number for DPV-BR1-MN937272 and DPV-BR-2-MN937273. Among 13 samples, 4(30.77%) were found positive by PCR using DNA polymerase at 446 bp and UL at 602 bp gene. Chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) was observed hemorrhagic after 72 days and duck embryo fibroblast (DEF) become round as showed cytopathic characteristics after 48h of infection .Duckling showed that isolated virus was highly pathogenic as characteristics signs of post-mortem examination. Therefore, this has found that recent isolates have similarity with Bangladesh, India and China isolates. Moreover, TCID50 has confirmed the isolates have accepted titer to be a vaccine strain.</p> <p>Res. Agric., Livest. Fish.8(1): 125-133, April 2021</p> Md Salim Jahan Md Mizanur Rahman Rony Ahmed Ajran Kabir ShamsulKaunain Oli Jayedul Hassan Mahbubul Pratik Siddique Md Bahanur Rahman ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-05-01 2021-05-01 8 1 125 133 10.3329/ralf.v8i1.53274 Detection and Antibiogram of Different Bacterial Agents From Market Goat Meat <p>The study was conducted to detect various pathogenic as well as spoilage bacteria present in goat meats and also their antibiogram. Different body regions such as brisket, neck and thigh, supplied at different places like Krishi market, Mohakhali kacha bazar, and Charulata market within Dhaka City Corporation area, were taken and the bacteria were isolated. The isolated bacteria were identified on the basis of cultural, morphological, and biochemical characteristics. The isolated bacterial agents were: Staphylococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Bacillus spp., Micrococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., Enterobacter spp., Proteus spp., Citrobacter spp., Salmonella spp., and Pseudomonas spp. Antibiotic susceptibility test using disc diffusion method revealed that most of the isolates were found to be more or less resistant to tetracycline, ampicillin and erythromycin indicating that these may be a threat to consumer’s health. It is emphasized that the present sanitary conditions, as revealed through this study, of meat processing need to be improved so as to minimize microbial contamination. Suggestions are made to introduce Longitudinally Integrated Safety Assurance (LISA) system and Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) principles.</p> <p>Res. Agric., Livest. Fish.8(1): 135-143, April 2021</p> Md Kamrul Hassan Lubna Jahan Papia Sultana Alamgir Hasan Mahbubul Pratik Siddique ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-05-01 2021-05-01 8 1 135 143 10.3329/ralf.v8i1.53275 Morphological Identification and Prevalence of Gastrointestinal Helminths in Backyard Chicken From Selected Areas of Bangladesh <p>Poultry industry is the promising sub-sector in livestock, which has been expanding day by day. Among the poultry species, backyard chicken is one of the appropriate incomes generating species in rural areas of Bangladesh. Parasitic infections have been considered as one of the major hindrances for backyard chicken rearing. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths of backyard chicken in some selected areas of Bangladesh through their detailed morphological identification. A total number of 108 gastrointestinal tracts were examined for helminths from April 2018 to July 2018. The collected helminths were identified according to the keys and description of Yamaguti (1961) and Soulsby (1982). A high rate of helminth infection (100%) was observed in backyard chickens in Bangladesh. One cestode, Raillietina tetragona (67.59%); two nematodes, Ascaridia galli (43.51%) and Heterakis gallinarum (28.70%); and two trematodes, Catatropis verrucosa (21.29%) and Echinostoma revolutum (6.48%) were encountered during the study. Most of the helminths were recovered from small intestine followed by caecum. All five species of helminths were found from Dhaka and Pabna, but surprisingly no trematodes were found from Bandarban. Out of 108 chickens, 29.62% were infected with single species of helminths while the rest 70.38% harbored mixed infections. This work strongly suggests that helminths create serious problems in backyard chicken as they hamper production and therefore, appropriate control strategies are needed to design for better production.</p> <p>Res. Agric., Livest. Fish.8(1): 145-155, April 2021</p> SM Abdullah Amrito Barman Md Yakub Ali Md Saiful Islam Uday Kumar Mohanta ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-05-01 2021-05-01 8 1 145 155 10.3329/ralf.v8i1.53276 The Growth Performance and Lipid Profile of Broilers Fed Diet With or Without Antibiotic and Green Tea (Camellia Sinensis) Extract <p>This experiment was conducted to determine the optimum level of green tea extract (GTE) in diets without antibiotics and to evaluate its effect on broiler performances. A total of 100 Cob broiler chicks were kept for a period of 5 weeks. Dietary treatments used in this experiment were antibiotic free group (basal diet as a control), GTE 0.5% (basal + GTE 0.5%), GTE 1% (basal + GTE 1%) and GTE 2% (basal + GTE 2%) and antibiotic added group (basal + 0.05% oxytetracycline). GTE supplemented group showed significantly higher body weight and better feed conversion ratio (FCR) than other treatments (P &lt; 0.05) where highest live weight (2034 g/bird) was recorded in broilers group provided with 0.5% GTE. The best FCR (1.58) was observed in the group supplemented with 0.5% GTE. The obtained results also revealed significant (P &lt; 0.05) difference among treatments in the lipid profile parameters (total cholesterol, HDL and triglyceride except LDL). Broilers treated with 0.5% GTE showed lowest total cholesterol (115.0 mg/dl), triglyceride (116.3 mg/dl) and highest HDL (30.75 mg/dl). In conclusion, GTE can be added in the diet @ 0.5% for better growth performances of broiler as an alternative to antibiotic without any negative effect on lipid profile.</p> <p>Res. Agric., Livest. Fish.8(1): 157-163, April 2021</p> Md Golum Sorower Sabbir Hossen Sabuz Md Nurul Amin Ummay Salma ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-05-01 2021-05-01 8 1 157 163 10.3329/ralf.v8i1.53277 Prevalence of Visceral Schistosomiasis in Cattle Slaughtered in North-Eastern Region of Bangladesh <p>A cross sectional study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and identify possible risk factors (season, sex) of Schistosoma in three north-eastern districts of Bangladesh namely Mymensingh, Sunamganj, Kishoreganj. Mesenteric sample of cattle from different slaughter houses were collected and examined for helminths which were identified as Schistosoma on accordance with Soulbsy, 1965. Total 67 (55.83%) out of 120 randomly selected samples were found positive for schistosomiasis. Cattle of Kishoreganj were mostly infected (67.50%), followed by Sunamganj (55.00%) and Mymensingh (45.00%). Regarding seasonal prevalence, samples collected during winter (63.33%) were more infected than summer (48.33%). Moreover, 58.69% of male and 46.42% of female were found infected. In conclusion, relatively high prevalence was recorded in the study areas based on the results obtained. Hence, control measures against schistosomiasis must be designed.</p> <p>Res. Agric., Livest. Fish.8(1): 165-169, April 2021</p> SM Abdullah Uday Kumar Mohanta ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-05-01 2021-05-01 8 1 165 169 10.3329/ralf.v8i1.53278 Dose Optimization of Ovatide Hormone for Induced Breeding of Freshwater Gang Magur, Hemibagrus Menoda (Hamilton, 1822) <p>An experiment on induced breeding of gang magur, Hemibagrus menoda (Hamilton, 1822) using Ovatide hormone was carried out at in the Field Laboratory Complex of Faculty of Fisheries, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh. This study consists of three treatments each with three replications. The objective of the experiment was to find out the effective dose of Ovatide hormone for induced breeding. A total number of 54 brood fish were used for the experiment among which 36 were male and 18 were female. Brood fish were kept in the ratio of 2♂:1♀ for breeding purpose. Female brood fish were injected at the rate of 7, 5, 3 ml Ovatide/kg body weight while the males were injected with 3, 2.5 and 1.5 ml Ovatide/kg body weight respectively in T1, T2, and T3 at the same time. The brood fish were injected with single dose of Ovatide in all treatments. Ovulation rates were 0%, 100%, 63%; fertilization rates were 0%, 97%, and 90%, and hatching rates were 0%, 95% and 76% in treatments T1, T2, and T3 respectively. Fertilized eggs were incubated for 21-22 h in all the treatments. Higher ovulation rate (100 %), fertilization rate (97%), hatching rate (95%) and survival rate (85%) were found in treatment T2. Therefore, the optimum dose of Ovatide hormone for induced breeding of H. menoda is 2.5 and 5 ml Ovatide/kg body weight of male and female brood fish, respectively.</p> <p>Res. Agric., Livest. Fish.8(1): 171-179, April 2021</p> Md Zahid Hasan Md Fakhrul Islam Syed Ariful Haque Md Saiful Islam Md Mokhlasur Rahman Md Idris Miah ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-05-01 2021-05-01 8 1 171 179 10.3329/ralf.v8i1.53279