Progressive Agriculture https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/PA The official journal of Progressive Agriculturists. Full text articles available Progressive Agriculturists en-US Progressive Agriculture 1017-8139 Growth and yield of okra influenced by different types of fertilizers and netting https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/PA/article/view/41550 <p>An experiment was conducted at the Horticulture Farm of Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh during the period from March 2017 to June 2017 with a view to evaluate the effect of different types of fertilizer and netting on the growth and yield of okra. The experiment consisted of 4 levels of fertilizer following cow dung 15 t/ha (F<sub>1</sub>), inorganic fertilizer (NPK) (F<sub>2</sub>), combined application of cow dung (2/3) + inorganic fertilizer (1/3) (F<sub>3</sub>), control (F<sub>4</sub>) and 2 levels of mosquito netting (N<sub>0</sub> = control with no netting, N<sub>1</sub>=blue colour Netting). The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with 3 replications. Overall, the growth like plant height, leaf length, pod length, pod diameter and pods numbers of okra was found higher from the combined effect of F<sub>3</sub>N<sub>1</sub> which was significantly different from other treatments combination. The lowest growth and yield of okra was found from the treatment combination of F<sub>4</sub>N<sub>0 </sub>(control). First flowering were observed in F<sub>3</sub>N<sub>1</sub> at 39 days after planting of okra seeds. The control treatment without net gave the lowest production of okra compared to combination of inorganic fertilizer and cow dung with netting.&nbsp; In case of fertilizers effect, the highest yield (16.06 t/ha) was found from F<sub>3. </sub>&nbsp;Blue colour net gave the highest yield (10.99 t/ha) compared to without net (8.88 t/ha). The highest yield of okra (17.55 t/ha) was found from the combined effect of F<sub>3</sub>N<sub>1</sub> which was 78.52% higher compared to control treatment combination F<sub>4</sub>N<sub>0</sub> (3.77 t/ha).</p> <p><em><strong>Progressive Agriculture, Vol. 30, Suppl. 1: </strong><strong>1-9, 2019</strong></em></p> MA Muqtadir MA Islam T Haque A Nahar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-29 2019-05-29 30 1 9 10.3329/pa.v30i0.41550 Evaluation of morphological traits, phytochemical compositions and antioxidant properties of watercress leaves https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/PA/article/view/41552 <p>Despite the significant nutritional and health values, watercress (<em>Nasturtium officinale </em>L.) is still insufficiently known and explored leafy vegetables. Being a native crop of Central Asia ensure possibility of watercress to grow under Bangladesh climate.An experiment was conducted during October 2015 with the aim to evaluate the morphological traits, morphological traits, phytochemical compositions and antioxidant properties of the leaves of watercress. The experiment was designed with Completely RandomizedDesign (CRD) with three replications. The results showed, average watercress shoot biomass was 38.60 ± 3.41 g plant<sup>-1</sup>. In case of leaf pigment composition the chlorophyll a and b was 70.45 ± 11.97 and28.32 ± 4.37 mg 100 g<sup>-1</sup> FW. On an average, the increasing order of the nutrients of proximate analysis in fresh sample was fat&lt;ash&lt;carbohydrate&lt;protein&lt;moisture. Besides those, mineral composition and antioxidant properties of watercress leaves were evaluated. Potassium mineral concentration was highest in watercress leaves 278±45% w.b. followed by Calcium 131±13 % w.b. The ascorbic acid was found in highest concentration 70.57±5.78 mg/100g fresh weight. Results also showed 50.42±2.77 mg GAE/g phenols and 0.13±0.03 mg/ml DPPH radicle scavenging activity in watercress.</p> <p><strong><em>Progressive Agriculture, Vol. 30, Suppl. 1: </em></strong><strong><em>10-16, 2019</em></strong></p> MA Sakil MAS Polash S Afrin MA Hossain ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-29 2019-05-29 30 10 16 10.3329/pa.v30i0.41552 Screening and isolation of arsenic tolerant Rhizobacteria from arsenic contaminated areas of Bangladesh https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/PA/article/view/41553 <p>An experiment was carried out to collect and isolate arsenic (As) tolerant rhizobacteria from As contaminated areas of Faridpur district. A total of 32 root samples of 17 plant species were collected from six locations of Bhanga and Nagarkanda upazila. From the plant roots, 16 rhizobacterial isolates were separated and their pure cultures were prepared. The collected rhizobacterial isolates were then characterized for morphological and biochemical traits. Among the bacterial isolates four were gram negative and 12 were gram positive. About 12 bacterial isolates had catalase producing capacity and the remaining three were negative to catalase test. Four bacterial isolates gave the positive HCN test. These bacterial isolates were grown on Pikovskays media to determine their phosphorus (P) solubilizing capacity. Four bacterial isolates had P solubilizing capacity and their Phosphorus Solubilizing Index (PSI) ranged between 3.00 and 4.66. However, isolate FB4 gave the highest P solubilization (4.66 PSI). For the evaluation of As tolerance, nutrient agar medium was prepared with different concentrations of As ranging from 30 to 600 ppm and the bacterial isolates were allowed to grow on the As contaminated medium for 36 hours. Isolate FB9 and FB4 showed maximum tolerance against As upto 600 ppm. Hence, these two isolates, both collected from Bhanga upazila and from wild brinjal species (<em>Solanum capsicoides</em>). Further research is needed to assess their effect on As dynamics at the rhizosphere, selection of suitable plant species for bacterial association and their potentials for field applications.</p> <p><strong><em>Progressive Agriculture, Vol. 30, Suppl. 1: </em></strong><strong><em>17-25, 2019</em></strong></p> AM Taher QF Quadir MZ Hossen T Nazneen A Rahman ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-29 2019-05-29 30 17 25 10.3329/pa.v30i0.41553 Gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters in four maize genotypes influenced by first phase of salt stress https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/PA/article/view/41554 <p>Responses in photosynthesis, transpiration, stomatal conductance, chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics and chlorophyll content of four maize (<em>Zea mays</em> L.) genotypes were examined under first phase of salt stress. In the experiment four maize genotypes viz. indigenous yellow pure line, indigenous yellow, hybrid, and indigenous white were tested in two levels of salinity (control: without NaCl application; salinity: 12 dS m<sup>-1</sup> by applying NaCl). The experiment was laid out following completely randomized design (CRD) with four replications in the net house of Department of Crop Botany, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh. Plants were harvested on day 21 after 7 d application of full salt stress (12 dS m<sup>-1</sup>). The reductions of shoot fresh masses under salinity were 70, 57, 55 and 61% in indigenous yellow pure line, indigenous yellow, hybrid, and indigenous white, respectively. Some core physiological parameters viz. net photosynthesis rate (Pn), transpiration rate (E), stomatal conductance (gs), and the chlorophyll content decreased in all the maize genotypes except indigenous white under first phase of salt stress. In contrast, the ratio of variable fluorescence to maximal fluorescence (Fv/Fm) of photosystem II significantly decreased only in indigenous yellow pure line under salinity stress. Thus the first phase of salt stress seemed to be deleterious on its response to shoot fresh mass production in all the tested four maize genotypes with the concomitant decrease in rate of photosynthesis, rate of transpiration, stomatal conductance and chlorophyll content in all genotypes except indigenous white.</p> <p><strong><em>Progressive Agriculture, Vol. 30, Suppl. 1: </em></strong><strong><em>26-32, 2019</em></strong></p> MN Uddin MIU Hoque S Monira MAA Bari ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-29 2019-05-29 30 26 32 10.3329/pa.v30i0.41554 Impact of extreme cyclone events on coastal agriculture in Bangladesh https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/PA/article/view/41555 <p>Extreme cyclone events are now occurring more frequently in Bangladesh. Bangladesh experiences severe 52 cyclones from 1960 to 2010 where, the approximate percentage of storm surge impact is 40%, the largest in the world. A severe cyclone in 1970 and 1991 caused loss of 300,000 and 200,000 lives. It is reported that 210000, 36000, and 3500 tonnes of <em>boro rice</em>, <em>aus rice</em>, and other food crops (e.g. potatoes and vegetables) were totally destroyed by 1991 cyclone. The storm surge killed huge livestock and caused loss of 100% of freshwater fish. Recently, the super cyclonic storm SIDR (2007) and AILA (2009) affected 10,000 and 300,000 people, respectively. Apart from these, cyclones NARGIS (2008) and MOHASEN (2013) are also mentionable. The crop production in the coastal regions of Bangladesh is most vulnerable by cyclones while, sea level rise by 2050 will inundate 17.7% of southern coastal areas. Tropical cyclones could become more frequent with more strength under recent climate change conditions. In this research, a new dimension of extreme weather assessment is done combining GCM and GIS technology and using tropospheric instability indices. The thermodynamic environment, vertical instability characteristics of severe cyclones are indispensable to cope with climate change conditions, and for planning, disaster management, and to reduce the risk of food insufficiency.</p> <p><strong><em>Progressive Agriculture, Vol. 30, Suppl. 1: </em></strong><strong><em>33-41, 2019</em></strong></p> MA Farukh MAM Hossen S Ahmed ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-29 2019-05-29 30 33 41 10.3329/pa.v30i0.41555 Mechanical drying of paddy using BAU-STR dryer for reducing drying losses in Bangladesh https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/PA/article/view/41556 <p>Mechanical intervention in each stage of post-harvest operation of paddy is time demand due to increased cost of labour as well as shifting of labour from agriculture to non-agriculture sector. Mitigation of food demand of rapidly increasing population is becoming a major future challenge in agriculture sector. Drying of paddy is important for maintaining quality and long term storage of paddy. Among the drying methods, traditional sun drying is the most common practice in Bangladesh. Normally, farmers use yard in wet season (Boro &amp; Aus) and field in dry season (Aman) to dry paddy. In this case, appropriate paddy drying technology could play a vital role to strengthen food security by reducing drying loss. Therefore, a study was conducted to investigate the drying loss of paddy both in traditional sun drying and mechanized drying method (BAU-STR dryer) at selected areas of Bangladesh. Popular and mega rice varieties cv. BRRI dhan28 and BRRI dhan49 were used as drying materials to evaluate the performance of BAU-STR dryer with different dryer capacity i.e. 300, 400, 500 and 600 kg of paddy per batch. Drying losses of BAU-STR dryer were examined during Boro and Aman season of 2015 and 2016 whereas drying losses under open sun drying method was measured during Aman season 2017 in the selected areas of Tangail, Mymensingh, Netrokona and Jessore districts of Bangladesh. The results showed that the average drying loss of paddy in BAU-STR dryer was found 0.48% and 0.36% during Boro and Aman seasons, respectively at 2015 and 2016 while sun drying loss at farmer’s field level was found 3.95, 3.24, 2.98 2.41 and 3.04% in Tangail, Mymensingh (Phulpur), Mymensingh (BAU), Netrokona and Jessore districts, respectively. The low cost BAU-STR dryer would be an alternative and effective drying technology to save 1.4 MMT of paddy by reducing 2.7% losses of national production (51.87 MMT) for combating hunger and improving food security in Bangladesh.</p> <p><strong><em>Progressive Agriculture, Vol. 30, Suppl. 1: </em></strong><strong><em>42-50, 2019</em></strong></p> MA Alam CK Saha MM Alam ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-29 2019-05-29 30 42 50 10.3329/pa.v30i0.41556 Efficacy of diversified rice storage technologies in Bangladesh https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/PA/article/view/41557 <p>Storage of rice is crucial postharvest operation. Traditional rice storage structures vary over local resources, climate and culture in Bangladesh. This study was carried out to investigate the efficacy of diversified rice storage structures at farmer’s level. Household survey was conducted through face to face interview of farmers using developed pretested questionnaire. Rice samples were also collected to test the quality of stored rice. Six different types of traditional structures namely <em>Dole</em>, Steel drum, Plastic bag, Plastic drum, Gunny bag and <em>Motka</em> for rice storage were identified. Maximum insect infestation in stored rice was observed in <em>Dole </em>followed by<em> Motka, </em>Plastic Bag and Plastic drum. This may be due to upper surface of <em>Dole</em> was open. Germination capacity went down to 68% in Plastic bag, 55% in <em>Motka</em>, and 80% in Plastic drum. Rice storage in Plastic drum was found effective in terms of insect infestation and germination capacity in comparison with other traditional storage structures <em>Motka</em>, <em>Dole</em> and Plastic bag. Therefore, Plastic drum can be an alternative option in rice storage.</p> <p><strong><em>Progressive Agriculture, Vol. 30, Suppl. 1: </em></strong><strong><em>51-56, 2019</em></strong></p> MA Hossain MA Awal MR Ali MM Alam ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-29 2019-05-29 30 51 56 10.3329/pa.v30i0.41557 Assessment of paddy harvesting practices of Southern Delta Region in Bangladesh https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/PA/article/view/41558 <p>Paddy in Bangladesh is an important cereal crop for national food security. Harvesting is the process of collecting mature paddy from the field. Timely harvesting operation is known as crucial and influential processes on quantity, quality and production cost of paddy. The aim of the study was to assess the manual and mechanical harvesting systems of paddy in southern delta region of Bangladesh in terms of labor cost, infield harvesting losses, and time required for harvesting. Several experiments were conducted to compare mechanical and manual harvesting systems. Mechanical harvesting of <em>Aman</em> paddy (November-December 2016) and <em>Boro </em>paddy (April-May 2017) was conducted using two models of reaper and a mini-combine harvester at Dumuria and Wazirpur Upazilas of Khulna and Barisal districts, respectively. An experiment was also conducted at the same locations to determine labor requirement and time for harvesting paddy manually. To determine manual harvesting loss, an experiment was conducted at BAU farm, Mymensingh. Total cost savings in paddy harvesting were found 52% and 37% for mini-combine harvester and reaper, respectively over manual harvesting system. Similarly, labor savings using mini-combine harvester and reaper were found 65% and 52%, respectively over manual harvesting system. The total harvesting losses (including harvesting, threshing and cleaning) were also found 1.24%, 4.22% and 6.36% for using mini-combine, reaper and manual harvesting systems, respectively. The results indicated that manual harvesting is a slow and cost involving system. On the other hand, lack of awareness among farmers about the benefits of mechanical harvesting system and lack of skill manpower for operating and servicing harvesters are major barriers for adopting mechanized harvesting system in southern delta region. This study revealed that mechanical harvesting of paddy using either reaper or mini-combine harvester will assist to strengthen food security in southern delta of Bangladesh.</p> <p><strong><em>Progressive Agriculture, Vol. 30, Suppl. 1: </em></strong><strong><em>57-64, 2019</em></strong>&nbsp;</p> MK Hasan MR Ali CK Saha MM Alam MM Hossain ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-29 2019-05-29 30 57 64 10.3329/pa.v30i0.41558 Seasonal variation of salinity of ground water at Patenga area of Chittagong district in Bangladesh https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/PA/article/view/41559 <p>Availability of safe drinking water is scarce in the coastal areas of Bangladesh due to saltwater intrusion in fresh water aquifer. Patenga, a densely populated coastal area within Chittagong city corporation area, is not under the municipal water supply coverage. The groundwater of Patenga is contaminated by higher concentration of chloride and total dissolved solid. This study aims to investigate the water quality of the tube well based on its distance from flood protection embankment to observed saltwater intrusion in fresh water aquifer. Water sample were collected several times from different tube wells at patenga area based on tube well’s distance from&nbsp; embankment from February 2017 to August 2017 to observe the seasonal variation of water quality. It was found that chloride concentration, electric conductivity, total dissolved solids etc. are very high compared to the standard value for drinking purpose in Bangladesh. The chloride concentration also decreased as the distance of the tube-wells from embankment increased, which implies that tube well near to coast line has higher chloride concentration. It was also observed that chloride concentration in tube well water also increased during dry season. In this study, the location of the tubewells were considered only along a single alignment in the perpendicular direction of the coastal bank. The study can be further extended for more offsets both in the parallel and the perpendicular direction of the coastal bank for better understanding of the groundwater salinity intrusion.</p> <p><strong><em>Progressive Agriculture, Vol. 30, Suppl. 1: </em></strong><strong><em>65-70, 2019</em></strong></p> A Hoque MA Hossen MF Islam MIU Mahmud ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-29 2019-05-29 30 65 70 10.3329/pa.v30i0.41559