Journal of Science and Technology Research <p>Published by the <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Ministry of Science and Technology (MoST), Govt. of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh</a>. Full-text articles available.</p> <p><a href="" rel="license"><img style="border-width: 0;" src="" alt="Creative Commons Licence" /></a><br />Articles in the <em>Journal of Science and Technology Research</em> are Open Access articles published under the Creative Commons CC BY License <a href="" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</p> en-US (Professor Dr. Mihir Lal Saha) (Md Fahmid Uddin Khondoker) Wed, 30 Nov 2022 19:07:17 +0000 OJS 60 A Holistic Approach to Utilize Mycorrhizae for Improving Soil Health and Enhancing Yield of Wheat in Bangladesh <p>Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) species may have positive impacts on wheat productivity through translocation of nutrients within wheat plant tissue. To quantify effect of mycorrhizae species on wheat plant productivity, two experiments were conducted in this study. One preliminary seedlings growth experiment was conducted in sand culture to reckon exact mycorrhizae effect on wheat seedlings growth response and changes in sand properties due to mycorrhizae inoculation. Another pot experiment was conducted to quantify wheat productivity, nutrient content within wheat plant tissue and changes in soil physiochemical characteristics due to four mycorrhizae species amendment. Result showed that wheat seedling responded better due to mycorrhizae inoculation. Mycorrhizae inoculation also improves nutrient content within wheat seedlings tissue and store carbon in sand. Finding also showed that mycorrhizae species inoculation increased growth and yield of wheat as well as phosphorus accumulation within wheat grain. Both experiments showed that mycorrhizae species inoculums store carbon in soil and within wheat plant tissue.</p> <p>J. of Sci. and Tech. Res. 3(1): 01-10, 2021</p> MT Iqbal Copyright (c) 2021 MT Iqbal Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Synthesis and DFT Studies of Glucopyranoside Dipentanoyl Esters <p>Sugar esters (SEs) with potential antimicrobial activity were found to be a better choice to solve the multidrug resistant (MDR) pathogens due to their less side-effect. In this respect, regioselective dimolar pentanoylation of methyl α-D-glucopyranoside using direct method furnished the 2,6-di-<em>O</em>-pentanoate indicating more reactivity of C-6 and C-2 hydroxyl groups. To develop glucopyranoside based potential antimicrobial agents, the dipentanoate product was further converted into four newer 3,4-di-<em>O</em>-acyl esters reasonably in good yields. Prediction of activity spectra for substances (PASS) indicated them as better antifungals than antibacterials as well as more potent anticarcinogenic agents than the antioxidant agents. These observations were rationalized by DFT based thermodynamic and docking studies with fungal CYP51 (4UYL) and SARS-CoV-2 main protease (6LU7).</p> <p>J. of Sci. and Tech. Res. 3(1): 11-22, 2021</p> MM Matin Copyright (c) 2021 MM Matin Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Chemical Synthesis of Cytosine β-D-Riboside Esters for Pathogenicity, Anticancer and Computational Studies <p>The growing importance of nucleoside derivatives as unique potential antimicrobial and therapeutic agents has drawn attention to the synthesis of thymidine derivatives. In the present study, cytidine (i.e., cytosine β-D-riboside) was treated with various acyl halides to produce 5ʹ-<em>O</em>-acyl cytidine derivatives by direct acylation method with an excellent yield. To obtain newer derivatives for antimicrobial assessment studies, the 5ʹ-<em>O</em>-cytidine derivatives were further modified into three series of 2′,3′-di-<em>O</em>-acyl cytidine derivatives (schemes 1 and 2) containing a wide variety of functionalities in a single molecular framework. The chemical structures of the newly synthesized derivatives were elucidated by analyzing their physicochemical, elemental, and spectroscopic data. The antimicrobial tests demonstrated that most of the derivatives exhibited significant antibacterial and antifungal activities <em>in vitro</em>. The derivatives <strong>7</strong>, <strong>10</strong>, and <strong>11 </strong>were the most potent derivatives against <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em>, <em>Salmonella abony</em>, and <em>Staphylococcus </em>strains, with the minimum inhibitory concentration ranging from 0.16 ± 0.01 to 1.25 ± 0.03 mg/mL and minimum bactericidal concentration ranging from 0.32 ± 0.01 to 2.5 ± 0.06 mg/mL. The strongest inhibitory activity was observed against Gram-negative bacteria. Some of the derivatives had a strong antifungal activity. The structure–activity relationship (SAR) and X-ray powder diffraction of these acylated products were also studied. In addition, derivative <strong>6 </strong>exhibited good anticancer activity against EAC cells. Quantum chemical studies were performed employing density functional theory with B3LYP/3-21G level. To support this observation, molecular docking studies have been performed against HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) (PDB: 3V4I). Most of the molecules studied out here could bind near the crucial catalytic binding site, Tyr181, Ile94, Ile382, Lys374, Val381, Val90, and Tyr34 of the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT), and the molecules were surrounded by other active site residues like Gln332, Trp406, Asn265, Gly93, His96, Pro95, and Thr165. The absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity properties predicted the improved pharmacokinetic properties of all derivatives.</p> <p>J. of Sci. and Tech. Res. 3(1): 23-40, 2021</p> SMA Kawsar, J Ferdous Copyright (c) 2021 SMA Kawsar, J Ferdous Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Municipal Solid Waste Management in Mymensingh City towards Sustainable and Profitable Waste Management <p>Waste generation is increasing with the increasing of population at Mymensingh city but the waste management practice of the Mymensingh city corporation is not well established. The present study was conducted to find out profitable opportunities for municipal solid waste (MSW) management of Mymensingh city. Both primary and secondary sources were used to collect data as fulfillment of the study. Twenty two different locations of 5 wards in the city were visited for collecting these data. In the city estimated amount of waste produce 150 tons/day where 40-50% biodegradable and 15-25% recyclable paper, plastic, glass, metal etc. Currently waste is not being collecting and disposing scientifically due to unavailability of facilities, thus creating environmental pollution as well as unable to earn profit. Resource recovery and recycling could be a good option to reduce waste and earn profit from recyclable materials such as plastic, paper, metal etc. Besides this composting could be useful to produce bio fertilizer and bio gas from biodegradable wastes. By selling bio-fertilizer and biogas city could also earn profit. Integrated waste management combination with reduce, recovery, recycling and composting would be better solution for managing waste in the city.</p> <p>J. of Sci. and Tech. Res. 3(1): 41-48, 2021</p> MN Hasan Khan Copyright (c) 2021 MN Hasan Khan Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Detection of Clinically Relevant Genetic Variants in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder by Whole Exome Sequencing <p>Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopment disorder which is related with a good number of genetic mutations. There is a lack of data regarding the genetic framework of children with ASD in Bangladesh. Hence, this study was conducted to detect clinically relevant genetic variants of ASD. A total of13 children with ASD aged between 2-10 years were included in this study, DSM-5 was used to confirm the diagnosis of ASD and to exclude other neurodevelopment, emotional, and behavioral disorders. Whole Exome Sequencing was done under the supervision of a geneticist. Mean age of participants was 5.54±3.13 years with male predominance (61.5℅). Positive family history of neurodevelopment disorder was present in 46.2%. The average loss of acquired skill of study participants was 26.45±14.50 months. Most of the patients had delayed development of vocalization (92.3%), body gesture (61.5%), and spontaneous phrases (69.2%). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was the most common (46.2%) co-morbidity Majority patients (76.92%, n = 10) had presence of gene mutation, wherein 38.46% (n = 5) had variants of uncertain clinical significance (VOUS), 30.77% (n = 4) had likely pathogenic, and only 1 patient (7.69%) had pathogenic gene mutation. In this study, a good number of pathogenic genes related to ASD namely <em>TENM4, ASXL1, CHD3, TSC2 and CACNA1H </em>were detected. Larger multicenter study is recommended.</p> <p>J. of Sci. and Tech. Res. 3(1): 49-60, 2021</p> MM Rahman, K Fatema, MM Hossain, A Sidddika, M Uddin, MA Rahaman Copyright (c) 2021 MM Rahman, K Fatema, MM Hossain, A Sidddika, M Uddin, MA Rahaman Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Genetical and Physiological Analysis for Heat Tolerance in Spring Wheat <p>The experiment was conducted at Agronomy field laboratory, Dept. of Agronomy and Agricultural Extension, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi during 2019-2020 to identify the diverse genotypes of wheat related to heat tolerance. Twenty wheat genotypes/lines were used as a plant materials in this experiment. The wheat genotypes/lines were evaluated in heat stress environments. Non-hierarchical clustering grouped the wheat genotypes into five clusters. The cluster II indicated the maximum number of genotypes following the cluster V, III and IV. Plant height and spikes m-2 were major traits contributed mostly towards genetic divergence. Selection of parents for these two traits has good scope to get broad spectrum of segregates. The cluster V had the highest grains spike-1, spikelet’s spike-1, 1000-grain weight, grain yield and biomass whereas canopy temperature, heading days and maturity days were lowest. Cluster I had the lowest grain yield, spikes m-2, grains spike-1, biomass and chlorophyll content, plant height, spikelet’s spike-1 and 1000-grain weight. Five pairs of clusters viz. the clusters (I and V, I and II, I and IV, III and V and IV and V) may be considered for getting more heterotic F1. The genotypes G 02 and G 11 of cluster I and genotypes G 6, G 15, G 17, G 18 and G 20 of cluster V may be considered as parents for future hybridization program to obtain diverse genotypes related to heat tolerance.</p> <p>J. of Sci. and Tech. Res. 3(1): 61-68, 2021</p> MS Alam, MM Rahman Copyright (c) 2021 MS Alam, MM Rahman Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Eco-friendly Syntheses of Bioactive Iodoflavone from Chalcone under Microwave Condition for the Screening of Their Antibacterial Activity <p>Flavonoids possess potent biological activity due to the presence of heterocyclic ring moiety and have been established as one of the biologically important scaffolds. Iodinated-flavones were synthesized from corresponding chalcones. Both conventional and microwave techniques were used to synthesize these compounds to make a comparative study. A significant reduction in reaction time and increase in % yield has been observed in the microwave technique. Spectroscopic techniques such as UV, IR, and NMR have been used to confirm the structures of all compounds. Agar disk diffusion method was employed to evaluate the antibacterial activities of the newly synthesized compounds against some bacterial strains such as <em>Salmonella typhi, Streptococcus spp, Shigella </em>spp. etc. Iodoflavone was found to be higher potency against most the bacteria, while others were moderately active.</p> <p>J. of Sci. and Tech. Res. 3(1): 69-76, 2021</p> MM Hossain, S Khan, M Mohsin, MM Sarker, SM Rahaman Copyright (c) 2021 MM Hossain, S Khan, M Mohsin, MM Sarker, SM Rahaman Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Molecular Characterization and Antibiogram Profiling of the Isolated Food-Borne Pathogenic Bacteria on Fresh-Cut Salad Vegetables <p>Fresh cut salad vegetables (FCSV) play a significant role in our healthy and balance diet. The consumption of raw salad vegetables are vectors for the transmission of various infectious diseases, which is a public health issue in developing and developed world. Therefore, the aim of this present study was to evaluate the microbial contamination of ready-to-eat salad vegetables sold in different local vendors in Kushtia and Jhenaidah districts in Bangladesh. A total of 21different ready-to-eat FCSV samples were collected aseptically and analyzed immediately in our laboratory. A total viable bacterial count (TVBC) was enumerated up to 107 CFU/g in the tested samples. The highest number (3.01±1.4 × 107 CFU/g) of TVBC was found in Coriander leaf (<em>Coriandrum sativum</em>) and least microbial load (2.33±1.05 × 105 CFU/g) was observed in Red spinach. On the basis of morphological differentiation randomly selected bacterial isolates (<em>Aeromonas </em>sp., <em>Citrobacter </em>sp., <em>Enterobacter </em>sp., <em>Pectobacterium </em>sp., and <em>Staphylococcus </em>sp<em>.</em>) were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Moreover, most of the isolates were showed as multidrug-resistant bacteria via the antibiogram profiling testing. The overall antimicrobial susceptibility profile showed that the tested bacterial isolates were resistant against Erythromycin (15μ g), Penicillin G (10 unites), Nalidixic acid (30 μg), Ceftriaxone (30 μg), Ceftazidime (30 μg), susceptible against Kanamycin (30 μg), Polymyxin B (300 units), CO-Trimoxazole (25 μg), Colistin (10 μg), Doxycycline (30 μg) and intermediate against Nalidixic acid (30 μg), CO-Trimoxazole (25 μg), and Kanamycin (30 μg). Pathogenic bacterial contamination of FCSV, hygienic practices should be maintained before consumption.</p> <p>J. of Sci. and Tech. Res. 3(1): 77-84, 2021</p> MA Kadir, MC Ali, W Hassan, MM Rahman Copyright (c) 2021 MA Kadir, MC Ali, W Hassan, MM Rahman Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of Growth Performance of Grade-2 Brahman Crossbred Progeny in a Farmers’ Participatory Beef Breeding Program <p>The study was carried out to compare the growth performance of grade-2 Brahman crossbreds to other available cattle genotypes in Bangladesh. Growth traits were birth weight, weight at 3-, 6-, 9-, 12-month of age and average daily weight gain from birth to 12-month of age. The birth, weight at 3-, 6-, 9- and 12-month were 19.87±0.06, 52.01±0.49, 85.03±0.62, 127.12±0.81 and 171.19±1.20 kg, respectively. The average daily weight gain of calves was 426.00±4.99 g. Area and sex had significant effect (p&lt;0.01) on the birth weight, body weight at 3-, 6-, 9- and 12-month of age and average daily weight gain of Brahman calves. Growth performance results on indigenous, Red Chittagong, Pabna, and crosses of Holstein-Frisian, Jersey, Sahiwal and Sindhi cattle were also collected from published literatures, which were compared with 25% Brahman cross calves. Birth weight (19.87±0.87 kg) and yearling or 12-month weight (171.19±17.9 kg) was highest in Brahman cross calves, whereas birth weight (14.81±2.50 kg) was lowest in indigenous calves and yearling weight (92.28±1.73 kg) was in lowest in Sahiwal cross calves. Average daily weight gain was highest (426.00±4.99 g) in Brahman and lowest (146.78±91.96 g) in Indigenous calves. Thus, it may be concluded that growth performance of Brahman cross calves was better than other existing cattle genotypes of Bangladesh. However, further study with large number of samples at different management systems would help to draw a final conclusion.</p> <p>J. of Sci. and Tech. Res. 3(1): 85-94, 2021</p> MA Hoque, SF Shejuty Copyright (c) 2021 MA Hoque, SF Shejuty Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Genetic Variability, Character Association and Path Aoefficient Analysis of Sweet Pepper (Capsicum Annuum L.) Germplasms <p>The present investigation was carried out to investigate the genetic variability, character association, correlation and path coefficient analysis among thirty accessions of sweet pepper. Significant variations were observed for different morphological traits, yield and yield attributes among the accessions studied. For all the characters, genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV) was smaller than phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV). The highest genotypic and phenotypic coefficients of variations were recorded in case of number of fruit per plant (46.37 and 47.66%) followed by fruit yield per plant (39.39 and 41.44%), fruit length (31.92 and 32.48%) and dry weight (31.50 and 32.00%). Correlation coefficient study indicated that fruit yield had highly significant and positive correlation with individual fruit weight (r = 0.619) and number of fruit per plant (r = 0.605). In respect of path analysis, number of fruit per plant was contributed by maximum direct effect on sweet pepper (0.603) indicating its importance as a selection parameter.</p> <p>J. of Sci. and Tech. Res. 3(1): 95-102, 2021</p> Md Rezaul Karim, Meherun Nesa Copyright (c) 2021 Md Rezaul Karim, Meherun Nesa Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Optimal Control Strategy to Reduce the Infection of the Pandemic HIV Associated with Tuberculosis in Bangladesh <p>Tuberculosis (TB) associates with HIV/AIDS at any stage of the total infection period. In recent years, HIV and TB have become the leading causes of death due to infectious and long lasting disease. On the basis of the characteristics of disease transmission of HIV and TB, we formulate a mathematical model. The model consists of ten compartments with nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The model is locally asymptotically stable in case of disease free equilibrium point when basic reproduction number is less than unity and locally asymptotically stable in case of endemic equilibrium point when the basic reproduction number is greater than unity. We apply optimal control theory to the co-infection model in the form of Pontryagin’s Maximum Principle by introducing the treatment control and the vaccination control to decrease the transmission of the disease burden. Finally, we perform the numerical simulations of the optimal control model to observe the dynamics of the system in support of analytical findings.</p> <p>J. of Sci. and Tech. Res. 3(1): 103-114, 2021</p> MHA Biswas, SA Samad Copyright (c) 2021 MHA Biswas, SA Samad Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000