Journal of Scientific Research <p>Published by the Faculty of Sciences, University of Rajshahi. Full-text articles available from <a title="Current issue of JSR" href="/index.php/JSR/issue/archive" target="_self">ARCHIVES</a>.</p> <p>Journal of Scientific Research is included on <a title="DOAJ" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">DOAJ</a>.</p> en-US <p>© Journal of Scientific Research</p><p><a href="" rel="license"><img src="" alt="Creative Commons License" /></a></p><p>Articles published in the "Journal of Scientific Research" are Open Access articles under a <span id="OBJ_PREFIX_DWT52_com_zimbra_url" class="Object"><a href="" target="_blank">Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International license</a> </span>(CC BY-SA 4.0). This license permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited and initial publication in this journal. In addition to that, users must provide a link to the license, indicate if changes are made and distribute using the same license as original if the original content has been remixed, transformed or built upon.</p> (Professor Hasan Ahmad) (Md Fahmid Uddin Khondoker) Fri, 01 May 2020 07:15:06 +0000 OJS 60 Semi-Symmetric Metric Connection on Homothetic Kenmotsu Manifolds <p>The object of the paper is to study homothetic Kenmotsu manifold with respect to semi-symmetric metric connection. We discuss locally -symmetric homothetic Kenmotsu manifold and -projectively flat homothetic Kenmotsu manifold with respect to semi-symmetric metric connection. Finally, we construct an example of 3-dimensional homothetic Kenmotsu manifold to verify some results.</p> L. Thangmawia, R. Kumar ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 01 May 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Influence of Solar Wind Parameters on Equatorial Magnetic Observatories during Intense Geomagnetic Storms of the Year 2015 <p>Coronal mass ejection (CME) and Corotating interaction region (CIR), a dynamic phenomenon associated with the sun, is widely acknowledged as the main causative factor for the occurrence of the geomagnetic storms. In the present investigation, we studied the influence of solar wind parameters and interplanetary magnetic field (IMFBz) on two severe geomagnetic storms (Dst=&lt;-200 nT) occurred during March and June 2015 using magnetic data recorded at four low latitude Indian magnetic observatories namely Jaipur (Rajasthan), Desalpar (Gujarat), Alibag (Maharastra) and Hyderabad (Telangana). Residual H-component of magnetic field distinctly distinguish the different phases of storms. Solar wind density and pressure are more influencive factors during main phase of the magnetic storm with observed high MS coherence (&gt;0.8) with the H-comp. Dynamic spectrum of H-component of magnetic field at low latitudes and solar wind parameters reveals a burst-like nature during the main phase of these storms. During Ionospheric Disturbance Dynamo (Ddyn) for March Storm, it is observed that American sector has downward movement in H-component of magnetic field and prominent attenuation of EEJ in African and Indian sectors. Similarly, for June storm, downward H-component movement is observed in both the American and African sectors and attenuation of EEJ at Indian sector.</p> S. Joshi, K. M. Rao ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 01 May 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A Magnetized Dark Energy Type R/W Model with Polytropic Equation of State in Brans-Dicke Theory <p>In this paper, we study the spatially homogeneous Robertson-Walker cosmological models with magnetized isotropic dark energy like fluid in the scalar-tensor theory of gravitation proposed by Brans-Dicke. Variable cosmological constant ᴧ and Polytropic equation of state have been used to find exact solutions of the models with volumetric expansion and power-law relation. The Physical and dynamical behaviors of the models have been discussed using some physical quantities like energy density, pressure, and coefficient of bulk viscosity.</p> M. Dewri ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 01 May 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Study of the Structural, Magnetic and Transport properties of La<sup>3+</sup> Doped Cu-Zn Ferrite <p>Crystalline La doped Cu-Zn ferrite with compositions Cu<sub>0.15</sub>Zn<sub>0.85</sub>La<sub>x</sub>Fe<sub>2-x</sub>O<sub>4</sub> [ x = 0.00, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06 and 0.08] were synthesized by using conventional solid state reaction method technique. X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD),</p> <p>Crystalline La doped Cu-Zn ferrite with compositions Cu<sub>0.15</sub>Zn<sub>0.85</sub>La<sub>x</sub>Fe<sub>2-x</sub>O<sub>4</sub> [x = 0.00, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06 and 0.08] were synthesized by using conventional solid state reaction method technique. X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD), scanning electron micrographs (SEM), hysteresis loop (M-H) curves and frequency dependent resistivity were employed to inspect the effect of La<sup>3+</sup> doping on the structure, microstructure, magnetic and transport properties of the specimens. All the specimens exhibited fcc type cubic spinel structure where the particle size were within 500-1600 nm range. Magnetically ferromagnetic phenomenon was found for all the samples where the effect of La<sup>3+ </sup>doping consequence on the variation of various parameters like saturation magnetization (M<sub>s</sub>), coercivity (H<sub>c</sub>) and remanent magnetization (M<sub>r</sub>). The resistivity tuned by frequency for all the samples presented the decreasing phenomenon with the increase of applied frequency.</p> K. Nahar, M. A. Hossain, P. Roy, M. N. I. Khan, S. S. Sikder ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 01 May 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A New Class on Ng<sup>#</sup> α-Quotient Mappings in Nano Topological Space <p>The primary intend of this article is to define a new class of mappings called <em>Ng<sup>#</sup></em> α-quotient mappings in nano topological space. The intention is to analyze characterizations and inter relationship of <em>Ng<sup>#</sup></em> α-quotient mappings with nano <em>T<sub>g</sub></em><sub>#</sub><sub>α</sub>-space, <em>Ng<sup>#</sup></em> α-continuous, <em>Ng<sup>#</sup></em> α-open, <em>Ng<sup>#</sup></em> α-irresolute, <em>Ng<sup>#</sup></em> α-homeomorphism and nano α-quotient mapping. Also several properties of strongly <em>Ng<sup>#</sup></em> α-quotient mapping are derived and the relationships among them are illustrated with the help of examples. Their interesting composition with strongly Ng<sup>#</sup> α-irresolute are established. The concept of Ng<sup>#</sup> α-quotient mapping is explored and composition of mappings under strongly Ng<sup>#</sup> α-quotient mapping and Ng<sup>#</sup> α-quotient mapping are discussed. Furthermore, to emphasize Ng<sup>#</sup> α-quotient mapping a few examples are considered and derived in detail.</p> V. Kokilavani, S. Visagapriya ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 01 May 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A Preliminary Study of Groundwater Conditions in a Transitional Environment of Niger Delta using Direct – Current Soundings <p>The study area Burutu lies within the transitional environment of the Niger delta. The area is sectioned by a compact network of rivers and creeks, which maintain a fragile but dynamic balance between saline, estuarine and freshwater surface bodies. Twenty direct current resistivity soundings were carried out to provide adequate information on the spatial lithological variation and groundwater conditions in Burutu. Resistivity contrasts and water analysis were used as a means of characterizing probable lithology and water type present within the pore spaces of aquiferous units. The results revealed spatial development of the aquifer architectural facies that follows a trend of mostly sand with little clay in the south to sand with abundant of clayey facies in the north near the Forcados River. The groundwater conditions indicated that salty/brackish water constituting about 4 % of water present was confined to the bank of the Forcados River and extend laterally landwards to about 120 m. Further away from the river bank, the water was mostly poor to good quality freshwater. The depth to the freshwater constituting about 96 % groundwater present varied from about 49.0 – 63.3 m near the Forcados River and became as shallow as 1.6 m in inland areas.</p> K. E. Aweto ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 01 May 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Solving Some Oscillatory Problems using Adomian Decomposition Method and Haar Wavelet Method <p>In this research, we presented two classical numerical techniques to solve some oscillatory problems arised in various applications of sciences and engineering. Adomian decomposition method (ADM) and Haar wavelet method (HWM) are utilized for this purpose. Some numerical examples have been performed to illustrate the accuracy of the present methods.</p> I. Haq, I. Singh ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 01 May 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Conventional and Inverse Magnetocaloric Effect in Ni-Rich Ni-Mn-Ga and Ni-Mn-Sn Heusler Alloy: A Comparison <p>Magnetic and magnetocaloric effect of Ni-rich Ni<sub>52</sub>Mn<sub>34</sub>Sn<sub>14 </sub>(Ni-Mn-Sn) and Ni<sub>54</sub>Mn<sub>17</sub>Ga<sub>29</sub> (Ni-Mn-Ga) Heusler alloys have been investigated up to a magnetic field of 5T and within a temperature range of 4.2 – 325 K. In this study, we report a systematic comparison between Ni-rich Ni<sub>52</sub>Mn<sub>34</sub>Sn<sub>14</sub> and Ni<sub>54</sub>Mn<sub>17</sub>Ga<sub>29</sub> alloys in the light of their magnetocaloric effect (MCE). In both the samples, a large magnetic entropy change was observed (~96 J kg<sup>-1</sup> K<sup>-1</sup> &nbsp;for Ni-Mn-Ga), but for the alloy Ni-Mn-Sn the MCE becomes negative/inverse. From various magnetic measurements it have been observed that in Ni-Mn-Sn alloy the martensite to austenite transition accompanied by lower to higher magnetization whereas for Ni-Mn-Ga alloy reverse situation occurred. The different type of magnetocaloric effect, i.e. inverse and direct can be explained by considering magneto-crystalline anisotropy and different state of magnetization of the martensite and austenite phase of the alloys.</p> D. Pal ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 01 May 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Group Acceptance Sampling Plans for Resubmitted Lots UnderType II Generalized Half Logistic Distribution <p>In this research article, we build-up a group acceptance sampling plan (GASP) for a resubmitting lot when the lifetime of a product follow the&nbsp; Type II Generalized half-logistic distribution (GHLD).&nbsp; The design parameters of the group acceptance sampling plan for the resubmitted are determined by fixing the experiment termination time and the numbers of testers at the stated producer’s and consumer’s risks both satisfy at the same time. We contrast the proposed GASP with the ordinary group sampling plan and the results are demonstrated with a live data set.</p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em></p> G. S. Rao, S. Jilani, A. V. Rao ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 01 May 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Numerical Investigation of Two-Dimensional Oldroyd-B Fluid Flows Over A Straight Rectangular Domain <p>In this paper, non-Newtonian viscoelastic Oldroyd-B fluid flows in two-dimensional rectangular domain is numerically investigated, where the flow between two rigid walls is driven by a pressure difference along -direction (horizontal). The numerical results of the nonlinear system of partial differential equations are obtained by decoupling the system into Navier-Stokes system and tensorial transport equation. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations are done by using the finite element method. The numerical simulations are presented in terms of the contours of velocity, pressure and extra stress tensor. The Hood-Taylor finite element method is used for the approximation of the velocity and the pressure while the discontinuous Galerkin method is used to approximate the stress tensor. All the meshes and simulations are carried out by the general finite element solver FreeFem++, which has been found as a potential tool to provide a reasonably good numerical simulations of complicated flow behavior.</p> K. M. Helal ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 01 May 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Fixed Point Results on Multiplicative Semi-Metric Space <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>In this paper we introduce the notion of the Multiplicative Semi-Metric Space and proved common fixed point theorems. We establish fixed point theorems for four self-maps which can be extended to derive common fixed point theorems involving any finite number of mappings in Multiplicative Semi Metric Space. Further examples are discussed to show that compatible mappings of type-E, weakly compatible mappings and reciprocally-continuous mappings are weaker forms of compatible mappings and continuous mappings respectively. The main objective of this article is to prove the unique common fixed point theorems and employing the notion of the compatible mappings of type-E, reciprocally-continuous mappings in the Multiplicative Semi Metric Space. Our result generalizes the concept of Multiplicative Metric Space as it does not involve the multiplicative triangle inequality.</p> B. Vijayabaskerreddy, V. Srinivas ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 01 May 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Synthesis and Characterization of Some NH-Analogues of Ciprofloxacin on Antibacterial, Antifungal, and Cytotoxic Activities <p>Present work includes synthesis of five NH-analogues of ciprofloxacin,&nbsp;<strong>2</strong>-<strong>6</strong>&nbsp;have been prepared to find out their medicinal assessment, for instance, antibacterial, antifungal, and cytotoxicity. The structure of the analogues has been confirmed by FT- IR, <sup>1</sup>H-NMR, <sup>13</sup>C-NMR, mass spectral data and elemental analysis. The compounds were screened for their antimicrobial activities by the disc diffusion method. Cytotoxicity was also tested against brine shrimp lethality assay. The antimicrobial activity of the analogues compared with the parent was evaluated against three Gram-positive, five Gram-negative bacterial strains and three fungi. The synthesized compounds showed diverse antimicrobial profile among which derivatives,&nbsp;<strong>2</strong>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<strong>3 </strong>possessed enhanced activity in contrast to the ciprofloxacin. Additionally, unlike ciprofloxacin, most of the derivatives were also found to show antifungal activity against&nbsp;<em>Candida albicans</em>. Regarding cytotoxicity, most of the derivatives exhibited better cytotoxic activity than ciprofloxacin.</p> M. G. Rabbani, M. R. Islam ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 01 May 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Study of Refractive Indices and Its Theories for Mixtures of N, N-Diethylethanamine and Acetates <p>This paper reports the refractive indices ( ) of <em>N,N</em>-diethylethanamine + methyl acetate, ethyl acetate, propyl acetate, butyl acetate and pentyl acetate at 298.15 K and at different composition range. The various empirical correlations like Arago-Biot (AB), Gladstone-Dale (GD), Lorentz-Lorenz (L-L) Heller (H), Weiner (W), Newton (Nw) and Erying-John (E-J) were applied to experimental data for estimating theoretical value of refractive indices. For an equimolar mixture, the predicted deviation in refractive index values is consistent well with the experimental data. It has been found that the interactions between amine and different esters decrease when carbon chain length in ester increases. Also refractive indices are affected with change in temperature. To evaluate the standard deviation, RK polynomial equation was fitted to the measured refractive indices data.</p> P. Tyagi, K. Kumar, M. Rani, N. Sabharwal ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 01 May 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Meat Quality of Land Crab, <i>Cardiosoma armatum</i> (Herklots, 1851) Fattened with Trash Fish and Formulated Diet <p>Meat quality in terms of its nutritional value, is a major factor when considering dietary items. This study highlighted the proximate and mineral compositions in the meat of Land Crab, <em>Cardiosoma armatum</em> (Herklots, 1851) fed with Trash Fish (Natural feed) and formulated diet for three (3) months. The meat proximate composition of both crabs fed the two different diets was similar, and there was no significant difference in the crude protein, fat and fiber contents of the meat (p &gt; 0.05). The diets had no significant effects on magnesium, sodium, potassium and phosphorus contents of the meat. Crabs fed formulated diet had significantly higher calcium content of 20428.52±0.10 mg/100 g, compared with the crabs fed with Trash Fish of 18541.83±0.10 mg/100 g (p &lt; 0.05). The pattern of mineral contents in both crabs was calcium &gt; phosphorus &gt; magnesium &gt; sodium &gt; potassium. This study suggested no negative effects of formulated diet on the meat quality. Therefore, formulated diet could be used for fattening of Land Crabs.</p> G. OLuwole, R. O. Moruf, A. O. Lawal-Are ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 01 May 2020 00:00:00 +0000 <i>In Vitro</i> Assessment of Antioxidant, Thrombolytic, Antimicrobial Activities of Medicinal Plant <i>Pandanus odoratissimus L.</i> Leaves Extract <p>The present study was carried out to investigate phytochemical, antioxidant; antimicrobial, thrombolytic activity and estimate total phenolic, total flavonoid content of <em>Pandanus odoratissimus </em>(<em>p.odoratissimus</em>) leaves of methanol extract. In thrombolytic activity, aqueous soluble fraction (AQSF) exhibited highest percentage (46.58 %) of potential to lyse blood clot compared to standard drug streptokinase (69.52 %). In antimicrobial assay, dichloromethane soluble fraction (DCMSF) explored the highest diameter of clear zone of inhibition against both gram positive (19.60 ± 0.12 mm) and gram negative (20.00 ± 0.20 mm) bacteria compared to standard antibiotic, Kanamycin (50.00 ± 0.19). Levels of antioxidant were determined by DPPH assay followed by calculated IC<sub>50</sub> values of different Kupchan extracts. The methyl soluble fraction (MSF) showed the lowest level of IC<sub>50</sub> value (36.70 ± 0.32 µg/mL) in comparison to ascorbic acid (12.48 ± 0.09 µg/mL) while MSF disclosed the maximum level (62.19 ±&nbsp; 0.26 mg of GAE/g of extract) of total phenolic content in the extracts of <em>P. odoratissimus. </em>This study was conducted to validate the <em>P. odoratissimus </em>leaves used as a folk medicine such as, antioxidant, thrombolytic, and antimicrobial potential.</p> F. I. Penu, S. M. Ivy, F. Ahmed, J. Uddin, M. S. Hossain, Z. K. Labu ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 01 May 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Isolation and Characterization of Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria from Urinary Tract Infection on Diabetic Mellitus Patients <p>Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease-which occurs when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin, or when the body cannot effectively use the insulin it produces. This leads to an increased concentration of glucose in the blood (hyperglycemia). Diabetes mellitus is one of the most challenging health problems in India. The present study was investigated for isolation and characterization of antibiotic-resistant bacteria from urinary tract infection on diabetic mellitus patients. The 118 diabetic urine samples were collected and UTI bacteria using HiChrome UTI Agar was isolated. The diabetic UTI isolates were confirmed as <em>Escherichia coli</em>, <em>Klebsiella pneumoniae</em>, <em>Pseudomonas&nbsp;aeruginosa</em>, <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>, <em>Staphylococcus saprophyticus</em>, <em>Proteus mirabilis</em> and <em>Klebsiella aerogenes</em> based on morphological and biochemical characteristics. Our study identified that almost all the bacteria were highly sensitive to Cefoperazone/Sulbactam (75/30 mcg), Gentamicin (10 mcg), Meropenem (30 mcg), Piperacillin/Tazobactam (100/10 mcg) and Nitrofurantoin (100 mcg) antibiotics. Interestingly <em>Klebsiella aerogenes </em>alone was found to be more resistant to the entire antibiotics used in this study. The antibiotic resistant <em>Klebsiella aerogenes</em> is one of the biggest treats to human health, antibiotic resistance occurs naturally, but misuse of antibiotics in humans is accelerating the process.</p> M. Kumar, L. Prince ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 01 May 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Response Surface Optimization for Antioxidant Extraction from Jackfruit (<i>Artocarpus heterophyllus</i> Lam.) Seed and Pulp <p>The maximum yield of antioxidant activity of freeze-dried jackfruit seeds and pulps was optimized in experimental conditions using response surface methodology. Temperature (°C), time (min) and solvent types (mL) were selected as three independent variables. DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical), TPC (total phenolic content) and FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power) were considered for the antioxidant activity. DPPH, TPC and FRAP values of seed ranged from 45-67.90 %, 2.27-5.42 mg GAE/100 g DM and 63.30-156.39 mg AAE/100 g DM, respectively while those of pulp were 49-72.14 %, 2.109-5.02 mg GAE/100 g DM and 54.90-298.00 mg AAE/100 g DM respectively. The response surface optimization revealed that the optimum conditions for maximum antioxidant activity in seeds were at 65 °C, 10 min and acetone as solvent with 8.76 % DPPH, 2.81 mg GAE/100 g DMTPC, 149.99 mg AAE/100 g DM FRAP and 0.99 desirability whereas that of pulp were at 50°C, 10 min and acetone as solvent with 45.42 % DPPH, 3.06 mg GAE/100 g DMTPC, 129.05 mg AAE/100 g DM FRAP and 0.99 desirability. Extraction of antioxidants from jackfruit seed and pulp can be performed more efficiently up to the maximum yield by maintaining the optimum conditions pinpointed in this study.</p> M. A. Hossain, M. S. S. Evan, M. S. Moazzem, M. Roy, W. Zzaman ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 01 May 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Vermicompost for Mitigation of Surfactant Contamination in Surface Water <p>Surfactants are the most important pollutants of surface water which should be removed for the safety of aquatic life. The potentiality of vermicompost for the removal of surfactant contamination in surface water was studied by measuring surfactant concentration, pH and conductivity for nine days in six trials with different proportions of soil, vermicompost and phosphate keeping the surfactant concentration constant. The trials T<sub>1</sub>, T<sub>2</sub>, T<sub>3</sub>, T<sub>4</sub> and T<sub>5 </sub>were considered as simulated ponds and T<sub>0</sub> as control. The surfactant concentration, electrical conductivity and pH were found to change upon the application of vermicompost. The surfactant degradation rate of vermicompost amended systems was significantly higher than the control system.&nbsp; Surfactant was almost completely depleted in vermicompost amended systems within the monitoring period. The presence of phosphate increases the surfactant removal efficacy of vermicompost. The pH values for vermicompost amended systems were almost constant near 7. The electrical conductivity of vermicompost amended systems was found to increase with time whereas that for the control systems was almost constant. Therefore, vermicompost can be considered as an excellent amendment as they have the ability to remove surfactant in surface water correcting the pH and increasing the availability of nutrients of the systems.</p> M. A. Islam, S. Sarker, M. S. Nasrin, M. A. Hoque, M. S. Islam, M. N. Islam ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 01 May 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Volumetric Properties of Secondary Butanol and Tertiary Butanol in Water and Aqueous Micellar Systems of Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate <p>The apparent molal volumes of <em>sec</em>-butanol and <em>t</em>-butanol in water and in aqueous micellar system of sodium dodecyl sulphate have been determined from density measurements at different surfactant concentrations and temperatures. The partial molal volumes of the alcohols in aqueous micellar system at infinite dilution, V<sub>2</sub><sup>0</sup> (mean, mic) were obtained from apparent molal volume data and compared with the corresponding values in aqueous solvent,&nbsp;V<sub>2</sub><sup>0</sup>&nbsp; (mean, aq). The standard partial molal expansibilities, E<sub>2</sub><sup>0 </sup>(mean) of the alcohols were evaluated from V<sub>2</sub><sup>0</sup> (mean) data at various temperatures. The transfer apparent molal volumes,&nbsp;∆φ<sub>tr</sub><sup>0 </sup>for the alcohols from water to surfactant-water system are determined from apparent molal volume data. The sign and magnitude of these parameters are used to analyze the location of the solubilizate (alcohols) in the micellar system and the nature of interactions between alcohols and the micellar aggregates.</p> J. Alauddin, S. Pande, S. C. Mohanta, M. Alauddin ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 01 May 2020 00:00:00 +0000