Journal of Scientific Research 2019-09-02T16:01:58+00:00 Professor Hasan Ahmad Open Journal Systems <p>Published by the Faculty of Sciences, University of Rajshahi. Full-text articles available from <a title="Current issue of JSR" href="/index.php/JSR/issue/archive" target="_self">ARCHIVES</a>.</p><p>Journal of Scientific Research is included on <a title="DOAJ" href="" target="_blank">DOAJ</a>.</p> Accelerating Universe with Viscous Cosmic String in Quadratic Form of Teleparallel Gravity 2019-09-02T16:01:51+00:00 S. R. Bhoyar V. R. Chirde S. H. Shekh <p>In this paper, we have investigated Kantowaski-Sachs cosmological model with bulk viscous and cosmic string in the framework of Teleparallel Gravity so called <em>f(T)</em> gravity, where <em>T</em> denotes the torsion scalar. The behavior of accelerating universe is discussed towards the particular choice of<em> f(T) = Α(T) + β(T)<sup>m</sup>.</em> The exact solutions of the field equations are obtained by applying variable deceleration parameter which is linear in time with a negative slope. The physical behavior of these models has been discussed using some physical quantities. Also, the function of the torsion scalar for the universe is evaluated.</p> 2019-09-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## In-Situ Environmental Gamma Radiation Monitoring at Ramna Thana, Dhaka, Bangladesh 2019-09-02T16:01:43+00:00 M. S. Mian M. S. Rahman J. Islam K. N. Sakib M. M. Tasnim S. Yeasmin <p>Environmental gamma radiation dose rates were measured using a digital portable Gamma-Scout detector from April-May 2018. For this, total 22 monitoring points (MP) were selected in the outdoor environment in the area of Ramna Thana under Dhaka city. The MPs were marked-out using Global Positioning System (GPS) navigation. The GPS reading of the sampling locations were varied from E: 90<sup>o</sup>23.568' to E: 90<sup>o</sup>24.895' and from N: 23<sup>o</sup>44.031' to N: 23<sup>o</sup>45.018'. The measured dose rates due to natural radionuclides were ranged from 0.115 ± 0.042 µ<sup>-1</sup> to 0.186 ± 0.051 µSv.h<sup>-1</sup> with an average of 0.145 ± 0.044 µSv.h<sup>-1</sup>. The annual effective dose to the population from outdoor environmental gamma radiation was varied from 0.201 ± 0.073 mSv to 0.326 ± 0.090 mSv with an average of 0.255 <strong>± </strong>0.073 mSv. This kind of study is required to detect the presence of natural radionuclides and artificial radionuclides (if any) releasing from nuclear and radiological facilities in the country or from neighboring countries for normal operations or in case of accident/incident. From this study, it can be concluded that there is no radiation burden to the environment due to man-made sources.</p> 2019-09-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Minimax Estimation of the Scale Parameter of Laplace Distribution under Modified Linear Exponential (MLINEX) Loss Function 2019-09-02T16:01:35+00:00 M. R. Hasan <p>The main objective of this paper is to find the minimax estimator of the scale parameter of Laplace distribution under MLINEX loss function by applying the theorem of Lehmann (1950). The estimator is then compared with classical estimator like moment estimator with respect to mean square errors (MSEs) through R- Code simulation. The result has shown that the minimax estimator under MLINEX loss function is better than moment estimator for all sample sizes. Finally, mean square errors of different estimators corresponding to sample size are presented graphically.</p> 2019-09-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Characterization of Biofluid-Based Coolant-Mix Produced From Emulsified Groundnut Oils 2019-09-02T16:01:27+00:00 T. A. Yusuf O. Orihu T. D. Ipilakyaa <p>Coolants are generally heat transfer fluids used as cutting fluids for machining or engine cooling. They are generally mixture of various constituents and their chemistry is responsible for their performance, acceptability and shelf lives. With much known about the merit of agro-based materials, this study proposes the use of bio-waters in coolant-mix as a substitute for ordinary water commonly used as base fluids. Water extract from fermented ground maize (WEFGM) employed as bio-water was emulsified in bio-oils (groundnut oils) to form a complete bio-fluid based for the coolant to which other additives are added to form the test solutions. Replicate samples were formulated with similar standards using deionized WEFGM and deionized water for comparison at 5 and 10%vol of additives. Following various analytical tests, the developed coolant samples have concentration 2.33-2.58mg/L, total dissolved solids 31.2-73.2 g/L, pH 1.85-2.50, specific gravity 1.29-1.31 and viscosity 8.12-11.44 cSt. At both additive concentrations, the biofluid-based samples have proven better in terms of all these properties than water which is generally considered as the most suitable and being currently used as base fluid in most heat transfer applications.</p> 2019-09-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A Study on Deformation of Land and Loss of Vegetation Due to Mining at Barapukuria Coal Mine 2019-09-02T16:01:11+00:00 I. Abedin M. A. N. Abir A. Hussain G. Hasan <p>Barapukuria coal mine is the biggest coal mine in Bangladesh discovered in 1985. It has lease area around 10.53 square km with the total reserve of 390 million tons. Though it fulfils the major portion of demand of coal in Bangladesh nevertheless it has severe effect like deformation of topography of that surface area while extracting coal from mine and causes severe impact on vegetation on the coal mine vicinity. This is due to some poor design of extraction process. The intent and purpose of this research is to make an analysis of the influence of topography changes due to mining and impact on vegetation. To assess the effect of mining on vegetation and topography remote sensing technology, GIS and Landsat image were used. Our study confirms the deformation of topography and loss of vegetation due to mining. If this mining process continue it will create adverse effect on environment. The result is expected to be a reference for various parties to perform activities related to the mining of coal in Barapukuria coal mine.</p> 2019-09-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Some More Results on Total Equitable Bondage Number of A Graph 2019-09-02T16:01:03+00:00 S. K. Vaidya A. D. Parmar <p>The bondage number <em>b(G)</em> of a nonempty graph <em>G</em> is the minimum cardinality among all sets of edges <em>E<sub>0</sub>&nbsp;⊆ E(G)</em> for which <em>γ(G-E<sub>0</sub>) &gt; γ (G)</em>. An equitable dominating set <em>D</em> is called a total equitable dominating set if the induced subgraph &lt; <em>D</em> &gt; has no isolated vertices. The total equitable domination number <em>γ<sub>t</sub><sup>e</sup>(G)</em> of <em>G</em> is the minimum cardinality of a total equitable dominating set of G. If <em>γ<sub>t</sub><sup>e</sup>(G)</em> ≠ |<em>V(G</em>)| and &lt;<em>G-E<sub>0</sub></em>&gt; contains no isolated vertices then the total equitable bondage number <em>b<sub><sup>t</sup></sub><sup>e</sup>(G)</em> of a graph <em>G</em> is the minimum cardinality among all sets of edges <em>E<sub>0</sub> ⊆ E(G)&nbsp;</em>for which <em>γ<sub>t</sub><sup>e</sup>(G-E<sub>0</sub>) &gt; γ<sub>t</sub><sup>e</sup>(G)</em>. In the present work we prove some characterizations and investigate total equitable bondage number of Ladder and degree splitting of path.</p> 2019-09-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Foot Plantar Pressure Measurement Using Low Cost Force Sensitive Resistor (FSR): Feasibility Study 2019-09-02T16:00:55+00:00 A. Jor S. Das A. S. Bappy A. Rahman <p>Plantar pressure measurement is an essential and effective strategy in the assessment of foot musculoskeletal safety and footwear comfort. It is commonly applied in clinical gait analysis, sports and foot biomechanical studies. But most of the devices used for plantar pressure measurement are high cost and not readily available for the research. This study aims to present a low cost foot plantar pressure measurement system based on force sensitive resistor (FSR). The system is composed of low cost electronic instrumentation through FSR, arduino, LCD display, baseboard and a power bank. To verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the system, a linear load vs. pressure calibration test was made and a group of female participants performed static trials on heels of three different heights. Experimental results and comparative analysis showed that this system has stable performance in static measurements of plantar pressure.</p> 2019-09-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A Few Methods for Estimating Life Expectancy 2019-09-02T16:00:39+00:00 M. Phukon M. I. Ahamed <p>In this paper, firstly, an extensive empirical investigation is done by fitting linear regressions exhaustively to observe the pattern and nature of linear relationships of life expectancies of each age-group with that of all other age-groups in fifty-four Sample Registration System (SRS) life tables of Assam state of India. Secondly, two second degree polynomial regression models have been proposed for estimating life expectancies at birth (<em>e</em><sub>0</sub>). Both the models have been empirically illustrated in fifty-four SRS life tables of India and fifty-four SRS life tables of each of 16 major Indian states. The estimated values of <em>e</em><sub>0</sub> are examined in relation to estimated values of the same by some other methods and <em>e</em><sub>0 </sub>values available in SRS tables of the years 2001-05 and 2011-15. Moreover, <em>e</em><sub>0 </sub>values for all districts of Assam are estimated by using one of the proposed polynomial regressions together with some indirect techniques of estimation.</p> 2019-09-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Wave Energy Up Conversion of Plasma Wave in Inhomogeneous Ionosphereic Plasma 2019-09-02T16:00:31+00:00 P. N. Deka S. Gogoi <p>Different types of instabilities are observed in the thermodynamically nonequilibrium Earth's ionosphere. Effective energy exchange process among waves may takes place through nonlinear interaction modes because of availability of free energy. We consider gradients in density and magnetic field is present in the system which support drift wave turbulence. In this study we concern on the wave energy up conversion of electrostatic nonresonant lower hybrid wave through plasma maser instability in the mid-altitude ionospheric region. We have formulated the growth rate of lower hybrid wave by Vlasov-Poisson mathematical frame and estimated its value by observational data.</p> 2019-09-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Synthesis, Characterization and Biological Evaluation of Ciprofloxacin-p-nitrobenzoylated and Its Transition Metal Analogues 2019-09-02T16:01:58+00:00 M. G. Rabbani M. R. Islam <p>Six novel transition metal complexes of ciprofloxacin-<em>p</em>-nitro benzoyl derived from ciprofloxacin have been synthesized to find out their medicinal evaluation. It has been characterized by different techniques, i.e., UV-Vis, IR, NMR and mass spectrometry together with elemental analysis and molar conductivity. All the compounds were screened for their antimicrobial activities by the disc diffusion method. Cytotoxicity was also made against brine shrimp lethality assay. The antimicrobial activity of the analogues compared with the parent was evaluated against three Gram-positive, seven Gram-negative bacterial strains and three fungi. The synthesized compounds demonstrated a variety of antibacterial profiles among which most of the analogues showed a comparable or better activity compared to the ciprofloxacin. Moreover, unlike ciprofloxacin, most of the derivatives were also found to show antifungal activity. Interestingly, all the derivatives possessed an enhanced activity in comparison to the ciprofloxacin against <em>Candida albicans</em>. Regarding cytotoxicity, most of the derivatives showed to a greater degree cytotoxic agent compared to ciprofloxacin.</p> 2019-09-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Study the Effect of Heating Process on Nutritional, Phytochemical and Antioxidant Activity of Mandarin Peel: Implication for Waste Management 2019-09-02T16:01:19+00:00 M. Shafiq S. Firdous Q. Irfan S. J. Khan A. Qadir <p>The aim of present study was to explore nutritional value of mandarin peel (waste product) and utilize it in feed or an alternative to synthetic supplements as it is a powerful source of vitamin C and polyphenolic contents. Mandarin peels were dried by placing them at three different heating systems (Sun, vacuum oven and microwave drying) and extraction was carried out using four different solvent systems (methanol, ethanol, acetone and aqueous). Present results showed that mandarin peels retain best nutritional quality on electric oven drying followed by sun drying and microwave drying systems. A significant amount of ascorbic acid was found as sun drying (18.34 mg) &gt; electrical oven drying (17.49 mg) &gt; microwave oven drying (15.22 mg) per 100 g of sample. Highest antioxidant activity of mandarin peels was observed in ethanolic extraction of electrical oven drying (89.38±0.7%). Maximum value of total phenolics content (TPC) was present in electrical oven dried (189±0.9 mg gallic acid equivalent /100 g) and sun dried sample (171.1±0.9 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g) of ethanolic extraction. Total Flavonoid content (TFC) was present highly in ethanolic extraction of sun dried sample (376.55±0.7 mg quercetin equivalent/100 g).</p> 2019-09-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Potential of Functionalized-Rice-Husk Ash for Purification of Tannery-yard Liming Effluent 2019-09-02T16:00:47+00:00 M. Abdulla-Al-Mamun B. R. Goush <p>The natural rise-husk charcoal was made by burned in a furnace at 230 °C. Carboxylic group (-COOH) was functionalized onto the charcoal by using oxalic acid in situ process. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and morphology by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) demonstrated that the COOH-group was successfully functionalized on the charcoal and the particles were porous. The COOH-activated charcoal was applied for liming effluent treatment through a filtration media. Eight environmental load parameters was determined by the standard method. The results were compared with the standard permissible limits set by Inland Surface Water-Bangladesh Standards (ISW–BDS-ECR, 1997). It has been observed that the rice husk based activated carbons dramatically reduce the pollutants to permissible level. The removal efficiency of pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC), Total Suspended Solids (TSS), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Biological Oxygen Demand in 5 days at 20 °C (BOD<sub>5</sub>), Chemical Oxygen demand (COD), Total Alkalinity, S<sup>2-</sup> from liming effluent up to 40.0%, 85.89%, 98.8%, 81.32%, 96.74%, 78.6%, 97.15% and 79.61% respectively. In conclusion, the liming effluent simply recycled by filtration process and can be used for industrial purpose.</p> 2019-09-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Synthesis, Crystal Structure, Mesophase Behaviour and Optical Property of Azo-ester Bridged Compounds 2019-09-02T16:00:24+00:00 M. R. Karim M. R. K. Sheikh M. S. Islam N. M. Salleh R. Yahya <p>Azo-ester mesogen containing two liquid crystalline compounds <strong>C1-C2</strong> having polymerizable acrylate functional group as the terminal were designed and synthesized. The chemical structures and purity of the synthesized compounds were confirmed by different spectroscopic techniques such as FT-IR, <sup>1</sup>H NMR and <sup>13</sup>C NMR.&nbsp; X-ray crystal structure showed that compound <strong>C1</strong> exhibited more stable <em>E</em> configuration with two bulky groups in the opposite sides of the N=N double bond motifs. The 1, 2-diphenyldiazene fragment in the structure of <strong>C1 </strong>is essentially planar with RMS deviation from planarity of 0.0555 Å. Analysis of the crystal packing of compound<strong> C1</strong> revealed its intriguing supramolecular sheet-like multilayer molecular packing stabilized by C-H…O interaction involving the phenyl and acryloyl hydrogen with the carbonyl oxygen and alkoxy oxygen atoms. Thermogravimetric investigation demonstrated that both of the compounds exhibited excellent thermal stability and their thermal degradation was influenced by the terminal substituent. The DSC and POM studies confirmed that compounds <strong>C1-C2</strong> exhibited enantiotropic liquid crystalline mesophase behaviour. Optical investigations demonstrated that both of the compounds showed strong absorption band around 300-420 nm and exhibited blue fluorescence emission.</p> 2019-09-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##