Comparison between effects of Clonazepam and Dexmedetomidine as sedative in elective Caesarean section under Subarachnoid anaesthesia
Keywords:Clonazepam, Dexmedetomidine, Sedation, Subarachnoid anaesthesia.
Background: Regional anaesthesia has become an important anaesthetic technique now a days. Theuse of spinal (subarachnoid) anaesthesia is often limited by the unwillingness of patients to remainawake during surgery. Pharmacologically induced tranquility improves acceptance of regionaltechnique. This study compares Clonazepam and Dexmedetomidine in terms of onset and recovery ofsedation, haemodynamic effects, respiratory effects and adverse effects of both the drugs during electiveCaesarian section under spinal anaesthesia.
Materials and Methods: This randomized clinical trial included 60 ASA (American Society ofAnaesthesiologists) grade I patients between age 20-40 years undergoing elective Caesarean sectionsunder Subarachnoid anaesthesia during the period January 2022 to June 2022. Patients wererandomly allocated to one of two groups: Clonazepam group (Group C, n=30), who received Clonazepamin a single dose of 0.015mg/kg and Dexmedetomidine group (Group D, n=30), who receivedDexmedetomidine in a single dose of 2mcg/kg. Spinal anaesthesia was conducted by injecting ahyperbaric solution of 0.5% bupivacaine 3ml through a 25G spinal needle at L3-4 level. All parameterswere documented at 5 min intervals until arousal of the patient. The onset of sedation i.e. time from iv(intravenous) injection of Clonazepam or Dexmedetomidine to closure of eye lids (OAA/S score of 3) andthe arousal time from sedation i.e. time from closing of the eye lids to OAA/S score of 5 ( patient isawake clinically) were noted. Any complication during operation was documented. The patient’ssatisfaction with the sedation was assessed by the 5 point ‘Likert verbal rating scale.’
Results: There was no significant difference of mean blood pressure and mean heart rate between thetwo groups at different time intervals (P>0.05). Time of onset of sedation was significantly delayed inDexmedetomidine group (P<0.05). Duration of sedation was comparable between the two groups (Pvalue 0.326). Incidence of peroperative complications were comparable between the two groups (P>0.05).
Conclusion: Although onset of sedation was significantly delayed in Dexmedetomidine group,duration of sedation was not significantly different between Clonazepam and Dexmedetomidine insingle dose technique for sedation during Caesarean section. Haemodynamic effects and adverse effectsof two drugs were comparable. Thus it is recommended that either Clonazepam or Dexmedetomidinecan be used for sedation during subarachnoid block for Caesarean section.
JBSA 2022; 35 (2) : 30-36