Journal of Bio-Science Published by the Institute of Biological Sciences, Rajshahi University Full text articles available en-US (Dr. S M Shahinul Islam) (Md Fahmid Uddin Khondoker) Wed, 18 Jul 2018 13:01:38 +0000 OJS 60 Microbiological quality assessment of raw salad vegetable sold in Minna metropolis, Nigeria <p>Vegetables are edible part of plants. A total of twenty five raw salad vegetables were collected and the microbiological assessment was made using pour plate method. The analysis was carried out on carrots, cucumber, cabbage, lettuce and tomatoes. The results obtained from this study revealed that the total heterotrophic viable bacterial counts, coliform counts and fungal counts for all the salad vegetables ranged from 1.4 × 10<sup>6 </sup>- 6.2 × 10<sup>6 </sup>cfu/g, 1.1 × 10<sup>6 </sup>- 3.3 × 10<sup>6 </sup>cfu/g and 2.1 × 10<sup>3 </sup>- 4.5 × 10<sup>5 </sup>cfu/g respectively. The data were subjected to One Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) test which showed that there was significant difference (p &lt;0.05) in the microbial load of each of the raw salad vegetables samples. The microbial isolates identified were <em>E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella </em>sp<em>.</em>, <em>Pseudomonas </em>sp., <em>Aspergillus niger</em>, <em>Mucor </em>sp., <em>Penicillium </em>sp., <em>Aspergillus flavus </em>and <em>Fusarium </em>sp<em>. Staphylococcus aureus and Aspergillus niger </em>were predominant. This suggests that salad vegetables used in this study are of public health concern because, they harbours microorganisms that could be hazardous to human health. Hence consumers should practice appropriate hygiene during the preparation of salad for consumption.</p><p>J. bio-sci. 25: 01-07, 2017</p> JD Bala, FA Kuta, NU Adabara, AS Adedeji, UM Oyedum, G Murtala ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 18 Jul 2018 13:00:32 +0000 A comparative study of biomarker gene selection methods in presence of outliers <p>The main purpose of gene expression data analysis is to identify the biomarker genes by comparing the gene expression levels between two different groups or conditions. There are several methods to select biomarker genes and many comparative studies have been performed to select the appropriate method. However, they did not consider the problems of outliers in their data sets though it is very essential to select the method from robustness point of view due to outliers may occur in the different steps of the gene expression data generating process. In this paper, it is evaluated the performance among five popular statistical biomarker gene selection methods viz. T-test, SAM, LIMMA, KW and FCROS using both simulated and real gene expression data sets in absence and presence of outliers. In the simulated data analysis, it was demonstrated the performance of these methods in terms of different performance measures such as TPR, TNR, FPR, FNR and AUC and based on these measures, it was found that in absence of outliers, for both small-and-large sample cases all the methods perform almost similar. Whereas, in presence of outliers, for small-sample case only the FCROS method perform well than other methods. From a real colon cancer data analysis, it was elucidated that FCROS method identified additional 59 genes that were not detected by the other methods and most of them belongs to the different cancer related pathways.</p><p>J. bio-sci. 25: 9-16, 2017</p> M Shahjaman, N Kumar, AA Begum, SMS Islam, MNH Mollah ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 18 Jul 2018 13:00:40 +0000 Cross-sectional anatomy of leaf blade and leaf sheath of cogon grass (Imperata cylindrica L.) <p>Histology of leaf blade and sheath of cogon grass (Imperata cylindrica L.) Beauv., indicated typical C<sub>4 </sub>Kranz anatomy. Cells of adaxial epidermis were smaller and bulliform cells were present on the adaxial epidermis. The shape of bulliform cells was bulbous; 3-7 cells were present in a group and 3-5 folds larger than epidermal cells. Three types of vascular bundles in respect of size and structure were extra large, large and small and they were part of leaf blade histology. These three sizes of vascular bundles were arranged in successive manner from midrib to leaf margin. Leaf sheath bundles were of two types: large and small. Extra large bundles were flanked by five small and four large bundles but small bundles were alternate found to be with large typed bundles. Extra large bundles were of typical monocotyledonous type but the large type had reduced xylem elements and the small typed was found to be transformed into treachery elements. Small be bundles occupied half the thickness of the flat portion of leaf blade topped by large bulliform cells of the adaxial epidermis. Extra large and large bundle had been extended to upper and lower epidermis. Kranz mesophyll completely encircled the bundle sheath and radiated out into ground tissue. Midrib was projected in abaxial direction and had a central vascular bundle with large and small bundles on either side of it along the abaxial regions. The midrib vascular bundle was devoid of chlorenchymatous bundle sheath and was of non-Kranz type. Continuous sub-epidermal sclerenchyma girders were noted as adaxial hypodermis. Anatomical traits exhibited an important adaptive defense against draught and saline stress of the plant. Quantitative measurement of various anatomical traits indicated strong variations among them.</p><p>J. bio-sci. 25: 17-26, 2017</p> SN Sima, AK Roy, MT Akther, N Joarder ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 18 Jul 2018 13:00:48 +0000 Studies on antioxidant potential, phytochemical properties and toxicity of four popular medicinal plants of Bangladesh <p>Medicinal plant extract has long been used successfully in ‘unani’ or ‘ayurvedic’ medicine. Medicinal plant extract contains bioactive molecules and activity of these molecules may help to mitigate, eradicate or cure diseases. In the advent for the search for new medicinally important bioactive molecule, the current paper deals with the anti-oxidative, cytotoxic and phytochemical analysis of <em>Scoparia dulcis </em>leaf and root, <em>Curculigo orchioides </em>root, <em>Pandanus fascicularis </em>root and <em>Baccaurea sapida </em>leaf extract. Aqueous and methanolic extracts were made for each of the extracts where they posses significant antioxidative properties. High activities were seen in <em>P. fascicularis </em>and <em>S. dulcis </em>plant extract where IC50 values were 21.87 μg/ml and 173.36 μg/ml respectively. In toxicity test, only <em>P. fascicularis </em>extracts showed lethality in a dose-dependent manner where the LD50 value was 25.64 μg/ml. By the phytochemical analysis, it was found that each of these plant species possesses glycosides, protein, carbohydrates, alkaloid, flavonoid etc. which are pharmacologically active biomolecules. These important properties of those plants showed an indication that these plants can further be tested for the utilization in therapeutic purpose or in cosmetic industry.</p><p>J. bio-sci. 25: 27-37, 2017</p> N Rashid, AA Paul, S Islam, SA Sajib, K Nasirujjaman, KMF Hoque, MA Reza ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 18 Jul 2018 13:00:56 +0000 Present status of fish availability in Ruhul Beel, northern Bangladesh <p>This study was conducted in Ruhul <em>Beel</em>, Pabna, northern area of Bangladesh to know the availability of different fish species. Samples were collected fortnightly from the fishermen catch captured in different points of the <em>Beel </em>during January to December, 2013. During this study a total of 37 fish species under 9 orders and 19 families were recorded from the study area. Cypriniformes was the most dominant order constituting 32.43% of the total fish populations followed by the Siluriformes (27.02%), Perciformes (21.62%), Channiformes (5.4%) and Clupeiformes (2.7%). On the contrary, Beloniformes, Cyprinodontiformes, Osteoglossiformes and Tetraodontiformes were the least numerous orders constituting only 2.71% each of the total fish populations. Among the available fish species, 37.84% were very rare, 35.14% were rare, and 21.61% were found throughout the year in a small amount while only 5.41% were available throughout the year in a large amount. About half of the fish species available in the Ruhul <em>Beel </em>is threatened to extinct according to IUCN Bangladesh. The results of this study will provide important baseline data on availability of fish species, which will be helpful for the sustainable management and conservation of fisheries diversity in the Ruhul <em>Beel </em>as well as in the open water- bodies of Bangladesh.</p><p>J. bio-sci. 25: 39-44, 2017</p> SS Maya, MMR Mondol ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 18 Jul 2018 13:01:04 +0000 Barrier and physical properties of arrowroot starch-carrageenan based biofilms <p>The demand of environmentally friendly packaging materials to overcome the high use of plastic led to increase of research effort on the development of biodegradable plastic from sustainable packaging. In this research, carrageenan films containing of arrowroot starch in the polymer blend were obtained using polyethylene glycol as plasticizer. The objective is to study the effect of different concentrations of arrowroot starch (20%, 40%, 60%, 80% of carrageenan based) on barrier property (water vapor transmission rate), mechanical properties (thickness, tensile strength and elongation at break), solubility in water and whiteness index of the obtained biofilm samples. The result shows that all of them have good transparency, with 60% of concentration gives the highest Whiteness Index. The concentration of arrowroot starch that shows the best resistance to tensile strength is 40%, as well as in thickness values. Concentration of 80% shows the lowest water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) permeability with 85.12 g/m2.24h, while the lowest water solubility is obtained from 60% concentration with 60.49% solubility. The recommended level of arrowroot starch to be incorporated in the process of arrowroot starch-carrageenan-based film is 60% of carrageenan.</p><p>J. bio-sci. 25: 45-56, 2017</p> - Giyatmi, S Melanie, D Fransiska, M Darmawan, HE Irianto ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 18 Jul 2018 13:01:09 +0000 A novel computational approach for toxicogenomics biomarker discovery in drug development pipeline <p>In the early stage of drug development process, it is urgent to judge the toxicity effect of some common chemical compounds (CCs) that is not yet well investigated. Biomarker genes (BGs) and dose of CCs can help to draw a deduction about a drug for safety assessment. Classical toxicology method uses large number of samples to extract clinical results which is both time consuming and costly. However, conventional molecular methods can perform to identify only BGs and fail to detect source factor influencing these BGs. The aim of this study is to propose a suitable algorithm that can identify more promising and essential toxicity biomarkers related to some common CCs for safety assessment of new drugs. The glutathione is an effective metabolite of detoxification process in liver. Glutathione depletion analysis is one of the major key research areas in drug development pipeline. In this paper, we studied glutathione depletion analysis of some reported CCs (acetaminophen, methapyrilene and nitrofurazone). We develop an algorithm combining ANOVA and principal component analysis (PCA) using visualization technique to find biomarker genes and associated glutathione depleting CCs and their corresponding doses. There are numerous numbers of genes in the glutathione metabolism pathway regulated as differentially expressed (DE) genes due to the toxic effect of these CCs and proposed algorithm identify only five genes (Mgst2, Gclc, G6pd, Gsr and Srm) that are also foremost genes in the glutathione metabolism pathway. Proposed algorithm states that high dose of all the CCs are responsible for glutathione depletion, nevertheless middle dose of acetaminophen and nitrofurazone also cause glutathione depletion. The proposed algorithm has an additional benefit over the conventional method to discover new chemical entities toxicity.</p><p>J. bio-sci. 25: 57-66, 2017</p> MM Rana, MN Hasan, MS Ahmed, MNH Mollah ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 18 Jul 2018 13:01:16 +0000 Metroglyph analysis in Trichosanthes dioica (Roxb.) <p>Morphological variation in eighteen lines of pointed gourd (<em>Trichosanthes dioica </em>Roxb.) was determined by Metroglyph method showing their genetic relationship. Assessment of variability of pointed gourd may help for successful utilization of its different attributes in developing suitable genotypes for yield and stability. A total of twelve quantitative characters were used for analyzing genetic variation. Arbitarily the clusters were found in the diagram but not in consolidated form. Cluster I was represented only by two lines. Almost similarly cluster II was found to be comprised of only three lines. On the contrary, cluster III contains thirteen lines of pointed gourd, although they were found to be located scattered showing their great morphological variations.</p><p>J. bio-sci. 25: 67-72, 2017</p> MA Kabir, G Kabir ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 18 Jul 2018 13:01:24 +0000 Antibacterial activity of Synsepalum dulcificum leaf extract against Listeria monocytogenes and its comparison with Strobilanthes crispus and Morus alba <p>Abstract not available</p><p>J. bio-sci. 25: 73-75, 2017</p> H Wasoh, S Tajuddin, M Halim, AR Mohd Hairul, MZM Sobri, AFB Lajis, MT Yusof, AB Ariff ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 18 Jul 2018 13:01:28 +0000 Antifeedant effect of water-soluble anthraquinone pigment of Kerria lacca <p>Abstract not available</p><p>J. bio-sci. 25: 77-81, 2017</p> G Shamim, DM Pandey, KK Sharma, R Ramani ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 18 Jul 2018 13:01:34 +0000