Journal of Bio-Science <p>Published by the Institute of Biological Sciences, Rajshahi University Full text articles available</p> Institute of Biological Sciences, Rajshahi University en-US Journal of Bio-Science 1023-8654 Quantification of heavy metals in canned tomato paste sold in Ubani-Umuahia, Nigeria <p>In recent years there has been an increase in the contaminations of heavy metals on the environment. Government and private organization have shown their interest in the effect of dietary exposure to several heavy metals. These heavy metals have been implicated in the etiology of many diseases with high risk to humans. Canned tomatoes paste is one of the important health deterioting factors to human health in Ubani-Umuahia, Nigeria. In this study atomic absorption spectrophotometer was used to screen for nine heavy metals concentration in ten different brands of canned tomatoes paste sold at Ubani-Umuahia market in Nigeria. Human risk assessment was calculated using the collated data to evaluate the predictive risk of human health after the consumption of canned tomatoes paste. Results shows that lead and nickel were not detected in all the canned tomatoes. In comparison low concentrations of copper, iron, and manganese were notated but high concentrations of chromium and cadmium were detected in all the tested tomatoes pastes. Cobalt and zinc concentration was notated lower than permissible limit. The daily intake of copper, cobalt, manganese, chromium, cadmium, nickel, iron, zinc and lead were below their tolerable values in canned tomatoes. The predicted lifetime for carcinogens to occur was less than one (&lt;1). Copper, cobalt, iron, and zinc were below the acceptable value for non-cancer risk with HQ &lt;1.The risk of incurring cancer by ingesting canned tomatoes was within the lifetime predicted a range of (1.0E-6 to 1.0E-4). Finds suggest that prolong and persistent consumption of these heavy metals may cause toxicity and consequential heath challenges.</p> <p>J. bio-sci. 28: 1-11, 2020</p> RI Uroko VE Okpashi NE Etim AC Fidelia ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-28 2019-12-28 28 1 11 10.3329/jbs.v28i0.44705 Genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance of some yield contributing characters in lablab bean (Lablab purpureus L. Sweet) <p>Eleven genotypes of lablab bean were put into trial in four consecutive years to evaluate genetic variability among characters. Genotypic and phenotypic coefficient of variability, heritability and genetic advance as percent of mean were estimated for four yield contributing characters i.e. number of flowers per plant, number of pods per plant, average number of seed per pod and average pod weight (gm). The range of variation was highly pronounced in all the four characters. Without grouping the presence of wide range of variation in these characters indicate that they are quantitative in nature and are under polygenic in control. Mean with standard error showed differences between the varieties and co-efficient of variability in percentage (CV%) indicates certain degree of variability for the characters studied which are prerequisite in breeding research. Genotypes were found to be significantly different for all characters in analysis of variance. Low differences between PVC and GVC shows that these traits are less influenced by environment and the effect of heritable components were high. High heritability coupled with high genetic advance as percent of mean was recorded by number of flowers per plant, number of pods per plant and average pod weight (g) indicates additive action of genes controlling them.</p> <p>J. bio-sci. 28: 13-20, 2020</p> N Afsan AK Roy ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-28 2019-12-28 28 13 20 10.3329/jbs.v28i0.44706 In vitro screening for salt stress tolerance of native and exotic potato genotypes by morphological and physiological parameters <p>This study was performed on in vitro bioassay screening for salt tolerance of ten native and six exotic potato genotypes in Bangladesh. Single node was used to evaluate salinity tolerance especially on biomass production. Five different concentrations of NaCl (0 = control, 100, 150, 200 and 250 mM) were used in addition to MS medium and evaluated salt tolerant and sensitive genotype by various morphological and physiological parameters e.g. shoot and root length and its thickness, number of leaves and roots, fresh and dry weight of whole plant and water contents. The ANOVA, DMRT and correlation coefficient were found highly significant at p&lt;0.01 among the genotypes. With salt stress condition highly positive correlation, co-efficient were found between stem length and internodal distance, leaves number, roots number, root length, dry weight of whole plant and fresh weight of whole plant. A dendrogram based on relative values of 10 morphological and physiological parameters of growth under salt conditions were led to clustering into four distinct group’s i.e. tolerant, moderately tolerant, sensitive and very sensitive. On the basis of stress tolerance trait indices (STTIs), Arun (92.78) and Ausha (80.27) showed as a highest salt tolerant, Jamalu (56.33) and Chollisha (57.03) showed the most salt sensitive potato cultivars. From this finding it may be concluded that in vitro screening with bioassay are relatively simple, rapid and convenient and these methods can be used for further advance biotechnological research on potato improvement.</p> <p>J. bio-sci. 28: 21-32, 2020</p> M Harun Or Rashid SMS Islam MA Bari ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-28 2019-12-28 28 21 32 10.3329/jbs.v28i0.44707 Isolation of bacteria from diesel contaminated soil for diesel remediation <p>This study is aimed at isolating bacterial species that inhabit diesel contaminated soil and also screened these isolates for the ability to be used for remediating diesel contaminated environment using their potential to degrade diesel as carbon and energy source. Top soil sample was collected from an ancient diesel-powered generator house in Minna, Nigeria, in a sterilized plastic container while diesel oil was obtained from local petrol bunk. Four bacterial isolates were isolated from the diesel contaminated soil sample and were screened for their ability to degrade diesel using mineral salt medium (MSM). The isolates with highest biodegradation potential were identified as Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus. The optimum pH (5, 6, 7 and 8) and hydrocarbon concentration (1%, 2%, 5% and 10%) of the isolate was determined by spectrophotometry and the result revealed that the optimum pH for biodegradation of diesel by Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus, was 7 (1.170) and 8 (1.745) respectively while the optimum hydrocarbon concentration degradation for both isolates was 5% (2.22) and 1% (2.37) respectively. The results of this study showed that these isolates were able to degrade diesel and can be useful for large scale bioremediation of diesel contaminated soils.</p> <p>J. bio-sci. 28: 33-41, 2020</p> OA Oyewole SS Leh Togi Zobeashia OE Oladoja IO Musa IT Terhemba ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-28 2019-12-28 28 33 41 10.3329/jbs.v28i0.44708 Management practices in the beel aquaculture system at Rajshahi, northwest Bangladesh <p>Open aquatic system such as beel is an important freshwater resource for agriculture and aquaculture.This study was conducted (July-December 2014) to describe the beel aquaculture management practices in the Hagla Beel at Bagmara upazila under Rajshahi district.The Beel fish farming area was 20.25 ha and irregular in shape with average depth 1.5 m. During the study period, the measured water quality parameters of the beel were within the suitable range for aquaculture. Eight genera of phytoplankton and eight genera of zooplankton were identified from the beel water body. Four native and 4 exotic fish species with sizes ranging from 0.15-1.11 kg were stocked for growing in the beel. At the end of culture period, the production of fish was 2,622.15 kg/ha and cost-benefit ratio (CBR) was 1:1.42. Environmental problems such as increasing of water temperature and decreasing of water level during summer, and parasitic diseases were some of the risks in beel fish farming system. The results of this study should be useful for beel aquaculture, and for the farmers and resource manager for harnessing maximum benefits from the beel resources in Bangladesh.</p> <p>J. bio-sci. 28: 43-50, 2020</p> S Akter MR Ali MMR Mondol ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-28 2019-12-28 28 43 50 10.3329/jbs.v28i0.44709 Assessment of present environmental status of the Ratargul Swamp forest Sylhet <p>This study aims to find out the present environmental status and issues that have emerged in the recent time due to change in human activities, resource extraction and human dependency on the forest. This study is based on both qualitative and quantitative approach with Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) tools and random sampling of 260 respondents, six focus group discussions (FGDs), six key informants interviews (KIIs). The result suggests that about 90% of poor and middle-classhouseholds are depended on the income from tourism, agriculture or boat riding activities. Both the local people and tourists’activities are responsible for decreasing environmental condition by plastic pollution, land cover and land use change, water follows control, road and building construction and violence of rules and regulation. The south and east boundaries, and the center of the forest are mainly facing land use and land cover changes between the years of 2005 to 2018. For sustainable management, local communities should be aware of the importance of swamp forest and have to find out alternative income sources to reduce pressure on swamp forest in terms of resources extraction and forest degradation.</p> <p>J. bio-sci. 28: 51-57, 2020</p> T Siddika MAK Azad MH Sujan MM Hasan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-28 2019-12-28 28 51 57 10.3329/jbs.v28i0.44710 Evaluation of microbial quality and pathogenic potentiality of enterobacteria in poultry feeds <p>The present investigation has been carried out to assess the microbial safety and pathogenic potentialities of enterobacteria in poultry feeds. From the results it was observed that total aerobic plate count of poultry feeds samples were recorded as 2.8 × 10<sup>5 </sup>to 5.8 × 10<sup>9 </sup>cfu/g and 100% samples contained ≥10<sup>6 </sup>cfu/g while the highest mean of cfu was counted as log<sub>10 </sub>8.797/gm. Large number of coliforms were recorded in different poultry feed samples and the ranges of cfu were counted as 1.2 × 10<sup>4 </sup>to 5.2 × 10<sup>7</sup>/g while average 75% samples were contaminated with coliform bacteria with ≥10<sup>4 </sup>cfu/g and the highest mean of cfu was counted as log<sub>10 </sub>6.10<sup>3</sup>/g. The ranges of cfu of Escherichia coli were 1.03 × 10<sup>2 </sup>to 1.09 × 10<sup>5</sup>/g and 70% samples contained ≥10<sup>2 </sup>cfu/g while the highest mean of cfu was counted as log<sub>10 </sub>4.493/gm. But the ranges of cfu of total Salmonella sp. were recorded as 1.02 × 10<sup>1 </sup>to 5.25 × 10<sup>4</sup>/g and 50% samples contained ≥10<sup>2 </sup>cfu/g and the highest mean of cfu was counted as log<sub>10 </sub>3.665/g. Total 29 enterobacterial isolates were isolated from the feed by using selected media. On the basis of morphological characteristics and biochemical test results the isolates were identified as Salmonella sp., Shigella sp., Klebsiella sp., Citrobacter sp., Proteus sp., Enterobacter sp. and Escherichia coli. These isolates were tested on blood agar medium and only seven isolates showed positive β-hemolytic activity.In virulence efficacy test, only hemolytic positive isolates were ingested to chicken and observed that E. coli (SGE-1), Klebsiella sp. (SSE-6) and Salmonella sp. (JSS-9) isolates were highly toxic because the experimental chickens were died after 3 days of ingestion of the bacteria, two isolates showed loose motion symptom after 15 days while other isolates showed little sickness. All the selected isolates showed positive hem-agglutination reactivity in poultry RBC. The results indicate that the poultry feeds were highly contaminated with pathogenic enterobacteria which are risk to public health.</p> <p>J. bio-sci. 28: 59-68, 2020</p> S Islam N Tanjila MF Begum ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-28 2019-12-28 28 59 68 10.3329/jbs.v28i0.44711 Performance evaluation of different machine learning algorithms in presence of outliers using gene expression data <p>Classification of samples into one or more populations is one of the main objectives of gene expression data (GED) analysis. Many machine learning algorithms were employed in several studies to perform this task. However, these studies did not consider the outliers problem. GEDs are often contaminated by outliers due to several steps involve in the data generating process from hybridization of DNA samples to image analysis. Most of the algorithms produce higher false positives and lower accuracies in presence of outliers, particularly for lower number of replicates in the biological conditions. Therefore, in this paper, a comprehensive study has been carried out among five popular machine learning algorithms (SVM, RF, Naïve Bayes, k-NN and LDA) using both simulated and real gene expression datasets, in absence and presence of outliers. Three different rates of outliers (5%, 10% and 50%) and six performance indices (TPR, FPR, TNR, FNR, FDR and AUC) were considered to investigate the performance of five machine learning algorithms. Both simulated and real GED analysis results revealed that SVM produced comparatively better performance than the other four algorithms (RF, Naïve Bayes, k-NN and LDA) for both small-and-large sample sizes.</p> <p>J. bio-sci. 28: 69-80, 2020</p> M Shahjaman MM Rashid MI Asifuzzaman H Akter SMS Islam MNH Mollah ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-28 2019-12-28 28 69 80 10.3329/jbs.v28i0.44712 Estimation of genetic variability, heritability and correlation for some quantitative traits in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) <p>Seventeen genotypes of wheat were used in this study the results showed significant differences in respect of yield and other yield contributing characters. Highest phenotypic and genotypic coefficients of variations were observed in plant height and lowest values were observed in spike length in both cases.Heritability estimated was found to be high in case of grain yield/plant and this was followed by 100 grain weight. Significant positive correlation was found in plant height with number of fertile tillers/plant and grain yield/plant, fertile tillers/plant with spike length, spike length with grain yield and grain yield with 100 grain weight. Negative correlation was found in plant height with 100 grain weight. Plant height, fertile tillers/plant, spike length and 100 grain weight appeared to be the effective criteria for improvement of yield of wheat.</p> <p>J. bio-sci. 28: 81-86, 2020</p> FMA Haydar MS Ahamed AB Siddique GM Uddin KL Biswas MF Alam ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-28 2019-12-28 28 81 86 10.3329/jbs.v28i0.44713 Application of plant extracts for pest management in tea: a study on tea leaf’s thrips, Scirtothrips bispinosus <p>Medicinal plant extract contains bioactive molecules and these molecules are benefited to mitigate, eradicate or cure diseases. In advent to search for new medicinally important plant, the current paper deals to select the most effective and promising plants which are suitable for controlling tea leaf’s thrips (Scirtothrips bispinosus) based on extracts concentration and death affect over time. To fulfill the specific objectives, five medicinal plants extracts viz. Ipomoea crassicaulis, Lantana camara, Ipomoea hederaceaa, Glycosmis arborea, and Justicia gendarussa had been used with four different concentrations. From statistical analysis using One-way ANOVA and post hoc test, it was found that Ipomoea crassicaulis and Lantana camara are the most promising of all the experimented plants extracts based on both time and concentration. In the study, average mortality was found 0.47, 1.67, 1.93 and 2.53 for concentration of 1%, 5%, 10% and 15% respectively. Analysis based on different concentrations reveals that average mortality of thrips increases significantly with the increase of concentrations. Coefficient of variance was found minimum for Ipomoea crassicaulis and Lantana camara plants with range of 5.44 to 6.71 based on time and concentration. So, it could be concluded that these two plants are the most effective plants for controlling the tea thrips. For the other plants, ranks were found as Ipomoea hederaceaa, Glycosmis arborea and Justicia gendarussa respectively as well.</p> <p>J. bio-sci. 28: 87-93, 2020</p> MAK Azad I Ahmad A Mainuddin ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-28 2019-12-28 28 87 93 10.3329/jbs.v28i0.44714 Prevalence and PCR based molecular characterization of goat pox virus from field outbreaks of Multan and Bahawalnagar, Pakistan <p>This study was designed to check the prevalence and PCR-based molecular characterization of goat pox virus (GTPV) in the Multan and Bahwalnagar regions of Punjab, Pakistan. Capripox virus (CPPV) is the cause of goat pox (GTP) and sheep pox (SPP) disease, it highly affects the morbidity and mortality rate of goats and sheep. In this study, the 80 tissues and blood samples of goats were collected on age basis from the goat farms, slaughter houses, tanneries and domestic animals. The epidemiological data was also collected. The collected samples were processed for DNA extraction. We characterized the goat pox virus (GTPV) with specific primers of P32 gene by PCR. Then each amplified product was analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis visualized by UV fluorescence light. This study showed that Infants of goats (2-10 months) in Multan showed 25% while adult goat in Multan showed 14.2 % positive results. In Bahawlnagar, the affected infants of goats (2-10 months) found were 31.25% while adult infected goats were 11.1%. Both primers were equally effective for the characterization of unknown samples. The most effected goats were adult female and infants.</p> <p>J. bio-sci. 28: 95-103, 2020</p> A Ijaz F Jabeen A Ashraf S Naz ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-28 2019-12-28 28 95 103 10.3329/jbs.v28i0.44715 Effects of planting method on yield and yield attributing characters in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) <p>The experiment was conducted to study the effect of planting method on yield and yield attributing characters in chickpea. A randomized complete block design was adopted for the experiment with three replications. Four variety viz. BAU-1, BINA Chola-4, BINA Chola-5 and BINA Chola-9 and two planting method i.e. line sowing and ridge sowing were used in the experiment. The highest seed yield (1.81 ton/ha) was obtained from BINA Chola-4 and the lowest one (1.31 ton/ha) was found in BARI Chola-9. The seed yield was higher in ridge sowing (1.57ton/ha) and the lower (1.53 ton/ha) in line sowing. The highest seed yield (1.83 ton/ha) was obtained from BINA Chola-4 with ridge sowing and the lowest (1.30 ton/ha) was obtained from BARI Chola-9 in line sowing. It is concluded that ridge sowing is better than line sowing for the yield of chickpea.</p> <p>J. bio-sci. 28: 105-110, 2020</p> MS Alam FMA Haydar A Hoque ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-28 2019-12-28 28 105 110 10.3329/jbs.v28i0.44716 Genetic diversity analysis based on morphological characters in mulberry (Morus spp.) <p>Mulberry genetic resource is increasingly being recognized as one of the basic key component for sustainable silk production under changing climatic condition. In this investigation, analysis of multivariate was done to assess the diversity in 20 mulberry genotypes (includes indigenous and exotic) for leaf yield and its growth attributes. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed the presence of significant variation among genotypes for the parameters measured. Wide range and variance among the genotypes indicated the presence of variability for the traits on which selection can be practiced. For cluster analysis classified 20 genotypes into four divergent groups and greater genetic distance was detected among the members of cluster I and II and cluster II and III. The members of these divergent clusters may be combined in future breeding programmes to obtain genotypes with combined leaf yield and more branches per plant. The results showed that the germplasm having a wide genetic diversity thus the genotypes viz., BSRM64, BSRM66, BSRM63, BSRM65, BSRM45 and BSRM56 can serve as a promising donors for improving the leaf productivity of mulberry.</p> <p>J. bio-sci. 28: 111-119, 2020</p> MS Rahman SMS Islam ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-28 2019-12-28 28 111 119 10.3329/jbs.v28i0.44717 Prevalence and Clinicomycological studies of Otomycosis: A review <p>Otomycosis is a chronic ear disease of external auditory canal and it is more prevalent in warm, humid and dusty environment, although it is now found throughout the world. The most commonly found causative agents as of fungal species are Aspergillus and Candida along with preponderance of various fungal and bacterial species has also been reported. The aim of this review is to focus on the prevalence of causal agents of otomycosis in the global context and its clinical management. A total of 63 research articles have been reviewed, which deals prevalence of otomycosis. Its clinicomycological studies both separately and altogether with folk medicine in relation to treatment of otomycosis were also reviewed. Findings of various reports revealed that the Aspergillus and Candida species are the main causal agents of otomycosis. But many reports indicate that a few of other fungal species along with bacteria particularly Staplylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are also responsible for accelerating this disease in human all over the world. In many reports, improper self-cleaning of ear has been found as major predisposing factor of otomycosis. This review suggests that health education, improvement of socioeconomic status and health caring facilities should be increased for reducing prevalence of otomycosis. However, more research needs to be carried out because of its severe parallel effects to the human health.</p> <p>J. bio-sci. 28: 121-135, 2020</p> KK Nipa AHM Kamal A Imtiaj ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-28 2019-12-28 28 121 135 10.3329/jbs.v28i0.44718