Journal of the Bangladesh Agricultural University <p>JBAU is an official publication of the Bangladesh Agricultural University Research System (BAURES), BAU, Mymensingh-2202. Full text articles available.</p><p>For submission of manuscripts and details of JBAU, please visit the <a title="JBAU" href="" target="_self">website of JBAU</a>.</p><p>Indexed in Master Journal List &amp; Zoological Records (<em>Thomson Reuters</em>), CAB Abstracts, Crossref, Google Scholar, BanglaJOL, TEEL, JournalTOCs, OAJI, ROAD, IDEAS, AgEcon Research, Genamics JournalSeek.  </p> en-US <p><strong>© </strong>2003-2017 Bangladesh Agricultural University Research System.</p><p><a href="" rel="license"><img style="border-width: 0;" src="" alt="Creative Commons Licence" /></a><br />Journal of the Bangladesh Agricultural University is licensed under a <a href="" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</p><p>JBAU is an Open Access journal. All articles are published under the CC-BY license which permits the use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.</p> (Prof. Dr. Md. Alamgir Hossain) (Md Fahmid Uddin Khondoker) Tue, 31 Dec 2019 11:05:04 +0000 OJS 60 Extraction and fractionation of subproteome from root tips of Hyoscyamus albus <p>Identification and quantification of different metabolites under stress, especially protein, is a vital way to understand plant adaptation mechanism. We established an efficient protein extraction method from the tiny amount (100 mg) of root tips of non-model medicinal plant <em>Hyoscyamus albus</em>, using bead-beating cell disruption, TRIzol extraction, and sequential chemical protein solubilization. <em>H.</em> <em>albus </em>is very well known for biosynthesized of different secondary metabolites like hyoscyamine, tropane alkaloids and scopolamine. Our method is rational for sample preparation even in small-scale proteomics of recalcitrant tissue and allows proficient, reproducible and impurity-free protein extraction. This method allows high-quality 2DE in mini-gel format (25 µg of protein/gel) for hydrophilic and hydrophobic sub-proteomes and is compatible to high-sensitive matrix-assisted laser/desorption ionization quadrupole ion trap time-of-flight (MALDI-QIT-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS). A protocol using TRIzol is more effective and reproducible to sequential chemical extraction of both hydrophilic and hydrophobic membrane proteins. We also demonstrated cell disrupted together with dithiothreitol <em><strong>(</strong></em>DTT) and polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP) is more useful to prevent polymerization of the phenolic compound than commonly used added DTT and PVPP with TRIzol reagent. Despite the unavailability of genomic sequence database, the efficacy of the protocol was also confirmed by MS/MS ion searches.</p> <p><!--StartFragment --></p> <p><span style="font-size: 9px;"><strong><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', Italic; color: #000000;">J Bangladesh Agril Univ 17(4): 430–436, 2019</span></strong></span></p> Jebunnahar Khandakar, Md Abdul Muktadir, Md Shafiqul Islam, Kenichi Yamaguchi, Tatsuya Oda, Yoshie Kitamura ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 31 Dec 2019 10:17:04 +0000 Genetic diversity analysis of some local biodiesel plant (Jatropha curcas L.) in Bangladesh <p>The present study was conducted to analyze genetic diversity among biodiesel producing plant <em>Jatropha curcas</em> genotypes using six RAPD primers. The <em>J. curcas </em>samples were collected from ten agro climatic regions in Bangladesh. The six primers produced 31 DNA bands. All the DNA bands (31) showed 100% polymorphism. Overall gene frequency of 10 genotypes of <em>J. curcas </em>was ranged from 0.10 to 0.90. The average Nei’s gene diversity and Shannon’s Information Index for all loci were estimated 0.2994 and 0.4650, respectively. The gene diversity value was ranged from 0.18 to 0.50 and Shannon’s Information Index was ranged from 0.3251 to 0.6931. Inter-germplasm similarity indices (Si) ranged from 5.56 to 66.67% with an average of 33.906%. The similarity coefficient range varied from 0.00 to 0.971. The UPGMA dendogram constructed from Nei’s (1972) genetic distance group indicated segregation of the ten <em>J. curcas </em>germplasms into three main clusters. Cluster I, II and III possessed 8, 1 and 1 germplasms, respectively. This study revealed that at least three different <em>J. curcas </em>genotypes are available in Bangladesh. The RAPD technique is, however, found to be useful in studying genetic variation among <em>J. curcas </em>genotypes of different regions in Bangladesh.</p> <p><!--StartFragment --></p> <p><span style="font-family: Times New Roman,Italic; font-size: 9px; color: #000000;">J Bangladesh Agril Univ 17(4): 437–445, 2019</span></p> Fahmida Khatun, Md Mahfuzur Rahman, Md Ahasun Habib, Md Shahidul Haque, Harun-or Rashid, Sumitra Saha, Arrafy Rahman ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 31 Dec 2019 10:17:13 +0000 Bioefficacy of Trichoderma species against important fungal pathogens causing post-harvest rot in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) <p>Tuber rot disease constitutes a serious threat to sweetpotato production worldwide, causing economic losses to farmers. &nbsp;This study evaluated an eco-friendly approach using four biological control agents, <em>Trichoderma viride, T. harzianum, T. hamatum</em> and <em>T. pseudokoningii</em> for the management of post-harvest tuber rot disease of sweetpotato. Field surveys for infected tuber samples were conducted four across major sweetpotato states in Nigeria. Rot severity in inoculated tubers was evaluated over a storage period of four months and <em>Trichoderma</em> species isolated from the rhizosphere were bioassayed for the production of metabolites to evaluate the mechanism of antibiotic production for the control of rot pathogens using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy<em>.</em> A total of 24 metabolites were produced by the <em>Trichoderma</em> species and the abundances were species dependent. <em>Trichoderma</em> species significantly (p&lt;0.05) inhibited rot in treated tubers at 4 months after storage. However, <em>T. harzianum</em> was most effective, reducing mycelia growth of the rot pathogens by 54.6-77.3% <em>in vitro</em> and 47.2-68.8% reduction of rot incidence <em>in vivo</em>. The efficacy of <em>Trichoderma</em> species used in this study recommends their use as alternative therapy to synthetic fungicides in the management of post-harvest rot in sweetpotato.</p> <p><!--StartFragment --></p> <p><span style="font-size: 9px;"><strong><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', Italic; color: #000000;">J Bangladesh Agril Univ 17(4): 446–453, 2019</span></strong></span></p> Victor Ohileobo DANIA ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 31 Dec 2019 10:17:19 +0000 Quantifying postharvest loss of brinjal: A farm level study in Bangladesh <p>Brinjal (Eggplant) is a very common and popular horticultural crop in Bangladesh. This study reports on quantification of farm level postharvest loss of brinjal in two intensive growing districts Jamalpur and Rangpur of Bangladesh. It also outlines the determinants of brinjal postharvest loss and problems of brinjal farmers. A total of 144 farmers were considered for the study from purposively selected four villages. Total postharvest loss was quantified by evaluating quantitative and qualitative losses of brinjal. Farmers were found well acquainted with a range of postharvest practices such as definite point and stage of brinjal harvesting, sorting, grading and packaging. Morning was the most preferred time for harvesting and selling of brinjal in the survey areas. Distance selling and motor driving van for local selling were used by 25% and 23% of the respondents. Physical damage and physical appearance were the two basic criteria for grading of brinjal at farm level. Among the problems, absence of storage and lower prices of brinjal scored highest PFI 208 and 181, respectively from the possible range of 0 to 216. Farm level postharvest loss of brinjal was 13.90% of total production where full damages accounts for 9.16% alone. Infested by insect and rotten were the primary causes of full damages of brinjal in the survey area. The 4.73% of the total postharvest loss was due to partial damages of brinjal where skinning and bruising constitutes the maximum share. Due to postharvest loss brinjal farmers have to incur financial loss of Tk. 709.05 per decimal of brinjal cultivation. Total harvested amount, farmer’s education, packaging and selling place were found significant factors for postharvest loss of brinjal in the survey area. It is recommended that government, research institution and Department of Agricultural Extension (DAE) should work jointly to educate farmers against postharvest loss of brinjal in Bangladesh.</p> <p><!--StartFragment --></p> <p><span style="font-size: 9px;"><strong><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', Italic; color: #000000;">J Bangladesh Agril Univ 17(4): 454–460, 2019</span></strong></span></p> Mashrufah Khatun, Muhammad Shahrukh Rahman ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 31 Dec 2019 10:17:36 +0000 Genetic diversity analysis in cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) germplasm using RAPD marker <p><em>Anacardium occidentale</em> L., commonly known as cashew nut, belongs to the family Anacardiaceae.&nbsp; It is regarded as a high valued fruit nut crop world-wide. Potential of this economically important nut&nbsp; is under-utilized in Bangladesh in spite of having all favorable agro-climatic conditions. The objective of the present investigation was to characterize six cashew accessions using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Four random primers <em>viz.</em> OPE-02, OPE-18, OPK-03 and OPB-15 were used to amplify DNA segments. A total of 33 reproducible bands were obtained, out of which 11 were monomorphic and 22 were polymorphic. On average 74.12% polymorphism was observed. . Primers OPB-15 and OPK-03 yielded 100% polymorphism and OPE 02 and OPE 18 produced 33.33% and 63.16 % polymorphism, respectively. Cluster analysis revealed two main distinct groups, first group included GP-1 and the second consisted of five genotypes <em>viz.</em> GP-2, GP-3, GP-4, GP-5and GP-6 The major cluster- II was further subdivided into two minor clusters i.e. minor cluster- III and IV. Minor cluster- III contained only one genotype GP-4. Minor cluster- IV consists of four rest genotypes. The genetic distance between the groups was found low and varied from 0.002 to 0.0308. Maximum genetic distance was observed between GP-1 and GP-2cashew germplasm and minimum between GP-5 and GP-6. The low genetic distance which is unusual for this out crossing long-lived tree species, indicates the probability of having common ancestry among the germplasm or may be due to the use of a narrow range of populations for the investigation.</p> <p><!--StartFragment --></p> <p><span style="font-size: 9px;"><strong><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', Italic; color: #000000;">J Bangladesh Agril Univ 17(4): 461–465, 2019</span></strong></span></p> T Bhadra, AZM Obaidullah, Mst Sabiha Sultana, M Ahmed, MM Islam ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 31 Dec 2019 10:17:50 +0000 Concordance of antioxidant and anti-Inflammatory activity in Xylocarpus granatum (Koen) <p><em>Xylocarpus granatum, </em>a common mangrove plant is traditionally used for the treatment of diarrhoea, cholera, fever, dyslipidemia, inflammation, etc. The present study was carried out to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential of the ethanolic extract of <em>X. Granatum </em>by various <em>in vitro</em> methods such as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay,&nbsp; reducing power assay, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and β-carotene bleaching inhibition assay. Total phenolic and flavonoid content were determined. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by <em>in vitro</em> human RBC membrane stabilizing assay and <em>in vivo</em> mice paw edema test. Ethanolic leaf extract (S2) of <em>X. granatum</em> showed significant scavenging effect on DPPH scavenging with a value of IC<sub>50</sub> 165.95µg/ml. In addition, it showed significant reducing potential with a value of 59.04 mM of ferrous equivalent per ml in FRAP assay and in reducing power assay the EC<sub>50</sub> value was determined as 241.61μg/ml . The ethanolic leaf extracts exhibited 72.3% β-carotene bleaching inhibition. The total phenolic and flavonoid content of the extract were 66μg/ml gallic acid equivalent and 47.66μg/ml quercetin equivalent per gram of dry extract, respectively. The extract also exhibited 52.63% and 51.05% protection of RBC membrane in hypotonicity and heat induced lysis inhibition, respectively. Significant reduction of mice paw edema (36.34% in 20 μg/kg bw concentration) was observed in the extract. The results revealed that the leaf extract of<em> X. granatum </em>possesses strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential.</p> <p><!--StartFragment --></p> <p><span style="font-family: Times New Roman,Italic; font-size: 9px; color: #000000;">J Bangladesh Agril Univ 17(4): 466–475, 2019</span></p> Md Emdadul Islam, SM Mahbubur Rahman, Md Hossain Sohrab, Rana Biswas, Mohammad Shaef Ullah, Kazi Didarul Islam ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 31 Dec 2019 10:18:00 +0000 Bioactivity analysis of Sarcolobus globosus Wall., a mangrove plant of the Sundarbans <p>The aspiring prospect for bioactive metabolites has guided this very study to screen for antioxidant, antibacterial and cytotoxic activities of leaf, and bark extracts of Sundarbans mangrove plant, <em>Sarcolobus globosus</em> that might lead to novel drug, agrochemicals and neutraceuticals. Methanolic bark extract of <em>S. globosus </em>revealed the highest antioxidant properties among all the extracts in DPPH free radical scavenging activity (IC<sub>50</sub>:26.04 µg/ml), reducing efficiency (EC<sub>50</sub>:77.72 µg/ml), total phenolic content (47.25 ± 0.002mg GAE/g of extract), total flavonoid content (101 ± 0.003 mg GAE/g of extract) and total tannin content (93.5 ± 0.007 mg GAE/g of extract). Free radical scavenging activity and reducing power are significantly correlated with total phenol, flavonoid and tannin content. For evaluation of antibacterial activity, Gram positive bacteria (<em>Bacillus megaterium, Staphylococcus aureus, </em>and <em>Micrococcus </em>sp<em>.</em>) and Gram negative bacteria (<em>Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Vibrio cholerae, Salmonella paratyphi, Pseudomonas </em>sp.<em>, </em>and <em>Proteus </em>sp<em>.</em>) were used in disc diffusion bioassay. Both extracts possessed significant (P &lt; 0.05) inhibition competency against most of the bacteria. Test for cytotoxic activity was carried out by means of brine shrimp lethality bioassay and the chloroformic bark extract demonstrated greater cytotoxicity (LC<sub>50</sub>19.487 µg/ml) than standard vincristine sulphate (LC<sub>50 </sub>26.68 µg/ml). Further exploration is required focusing especially the bark extract that could be utilized as source and template for the synthesis of new potential pharma and agrochemicals.</p> <p><!--StartFragment --></p> <p><span style="font-size: 9px;"><strong><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', Italic; color: #000000;">J Bangladesh Agril Univ 17(4): 476–482, 2019</span></strong></span></p> Afiya Aunjum, Rana Biswas, Mohammad Shaef Ullah, Md Morsaline Billah, Md Emdadul Islam, Kazi Didarul Islam ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 31 Dec 2019 10:18:13 +0000 Efficacy of three biopesticides against cucurbit fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptera: Tephritidae) and yield of bitter gourd <p>The cucurbit fruit fly, <em>Bactrocera cucurbitae </em>((Diptera : Tephritidae)) is a significant threat to different cucurbits. The efficacies of three biopesticides viz. Spinosad, Abamectin and Lecanicillium muscarium either by an individual or their combined application were evaluated against the insect attack and yield of bitter gourd (<em>Momordica charantia</em> L). Two sprays at 10-day interval were applied, and data were collected at 3, 5, 7 and 10 days after treatments (DATs), and finally the cumulative means were calculated based on following parameters:&nbsp; percent fruit infestation and healthy fruits, number of healthy and infested fruits per sq. meter and yield of marketable and infested fruits (ton/ha). All the biopesticides both in individual and combined forms significantly reduced the infestation of the fly at variable levels compared to control. The individual application of Spinosad had provided moderate efficacy. The combination of Spinosad and <em>L. muscarium</em> was the most effective approach to produce the highest percent of healthy fruits (83.32) and the lowest fruit infestation (16.68) protecting most top percent (54.21) of fruits from infestation. The maximum number of marketable fruits per m<sup>2 </sup>were (13.67), the highest marketable yield (5.15 ton/ha) and the lowest infested yield (0.17 ton/ha) also were obtained from this combined treatment. The fruit yield increased almost twice over control. These suggest that there might be an additive or synergistic action between Spinosad and <em>L. muscarium</em> admixture. However, the Abamectin with <em>L. muscarium </em>treatment did not increase yield, and other parameters significantly suggesting the incompatibility or an antagonistic effect between them. Therefore, based on the findings of the present study, the combination of Spinosad and <em>L. muscarium</em> could be suggested for the management of the cucurbit fruit fly infesting bitter gourd fruits and increasing the yield.</p> <p><!--StartFragment --></p> <p><span style="font-family: Times New Roman,Italic; font-size: 9px; color: #000000;">J Bangladesh Agril Univ 17(4): 483–489, 2019</span></p> Md Mahfuzur Rahman, Mohammad Tofazzal Hossain Howlader, Khandakar Shariful Islam, Md Niaz Morshed ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 31 Dec 2019 10:28:57 +0000 Effects of salinity stress on seed germination and seedling growth of tomato <p>Salinity is a major constraint in crop production in saline prone areas of Bangladesh. Therefore, a study was carried out in order to investigate the effect of different levels of NaCl salinity stress on seed germination and seedling growth of tomato. This study was consisted with five varieties of tomato (BARI Tomato-2, BARI Tomato-3, BARI Tomato-4, BARI Tomato-14, and BARI Tomato-15) and four levels of NaCl salt solution (0, 50, 100 and 150 mM). Seeds were placed in petridish for germination and the seedlings were allowed to grow for ten days. Results showed that percent seed germination decreased with increasing salt concentration in the germinating media. The highest seed germination (68.25%) was recorded in untreated control (0 mM) condition and the lowest in 150 mM salt solution ((5.92%). In combination of variety and salt concentration, BARI Tomato-2 gave the highest germination (88.33%) under 0 mM salinity condition and the lowest (2.92%) in BARI Tomato-3 with 150 mM salt solution. However, percent germination, germination coefficient, radicle and plumule length, seedling vigor index, fresh weight of plumule and radicle, mean germination time, germination index decreased with increasing salt concentration as compared to untreated control condition. The findings indicated that BARI Tomato- 2, BARI Tomato-4 and BARI Tomato-15 were relatively tolerant to salt stress than BARI Tomato-3 and BARI Tomato-14.</p> <p><!--StartFragment --></p> <p><span style="font-family: Times New Roman,Italic; font-size: 9px; color: #000000;">J Bangladesh Agril Univ 17(4): 490–499, 2019</span></p> Purba Chakma, Md Mokter Hossain, Md Golam Rabbani ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 31 Dec 2019 10:29:07 +0000 Growth and yield of tomato as affected by organic and inorganic fertilizers <p>Unscrupulous use of synthetic fertilizers are not only increasing cost of tomato production but also decreasing tomato yield and quality, deteriorating soil health and environment. Organic manures can produce quality product as well as maintain soil health.&nbsp; Considering this verity an experiment was carried out at the Dr. Purnendu Gain Field Laboratory of Agrotechnology Discipline, Khulna University, Khulna to evaluate the performance of tomato crop under application of different organic and inorganic fertilizers. The experiment was designed in RCBD using two varieties (BARI Tomato-14 and BARI Tomato-15) and eight treatments [i) 100% Recommended fertilizer dose (RFD) for N, P and K; ii) 100% cowdung (CD); iii) 100% poultry manure (PM); iv) 100% vermi-compost (VC); v) 100% Mustard oil cake (MOC); vi) 100% organic manures (25% of each of CD , PM , VC and MOC); vii) 80% organic manure (20% of each of CD, PM, VC and MOC) + 20% RFD; viii) 60% organic manure (15% of each of CD, PM, VC and MOC) + 40% RFD].The tallest plant (77.5 cm) with maximum fruit length (5.98 cm), maximum number of flower clusters plant<sup>-1 </sup>(16.24), number of flowers cluster<sup>-1 </sup>(13.07), number of fruit clusters plant<sup>-1 </sup>(8.20) and number of fruits cluster<sup>-1 </sup>(6.97) were observed from combined effect of 60% organic manures with 40% RFD in BARI Tomato-15. On the contrary, this treatment produced maximum fruit diameter (6.29cm), maximum weight of individual fruit (91.43g) and the highest yield (87.17 t/ha) in BARI tomato-14. From economic point of view, maximum net return (Tk. 841345) as well as benefit cost ratio (5.11) was also observed from 60% organic manure + 40% RFD<sub>. </sub>Thus, BARI tomato-14 with combination of organic manures (60%) and inorganic fertilizers (40%) provided better performance concerning growth, yield and economic aspects.</p> <p><!--StartFragment --></p> <p><span style="font-family: Times New Roman,Italic; font-size: 9px; color: #000000;">J Bangladesh Agril Univ 17(4): 500–506, 2019</span></p> Kakon Saha, Md Yamin Kabir, Chhoa Mondal, Md Abdul Mannan ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 31 Dec 2019 10:29:14 +0000 Performance of hybrid rice grown from separated tillers <p>The experiment was conducted at the Agronomy Field Laboratory, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh during July to November 2016 to investigate the performance of separated tillers of hybrid rice variety Dhani Gold. The experiment comprised three times of tiller transplantation <em>viz.</em> 3, 4 and 5 week aged tiller seedlings and four levels of number of tiller seedlings transplanted hill<sup>-1</sup> <em>viz. </em>2, 3, 4 and 5 tiller seedlings hill<sup>-1</sup> laid out in a split plot design with 3 replications. The highest plant height was obtained when 3-week aged tiller seedlings were transplanted at the rate of 3 tiller seedlings hill<sup>-1</sup>. The highest number of total tillers hill<sup>-1</sup> and number of effective tillers hill<sup>-1</sup> were found when 3-week aged tiller seedlings were transplanted with 5 tiller seedlings hill<sup>-1</sup>. The highest grains panicle<sup>-1</sup> was obtained when 4-week aged tiller seedlings were transplanted with 5 tiller seedlings hill<sup>-1</sup>. The highest grain yield was found when 3-week aged tiller seedlings were transplanted with 5 tiller seedlings hill<sup>-1</sup>. The lowest grain yield was found when 5-week aged tiller seedlings were transplanted with 2 tiller seedlings hill<sup>-1</sup> in hybrid rice variety Dhani Gold. Based on the findings of the present study it may be concluded that 3-week old tiller seedlings of Dhani Gold should be transplanted at the rate of 4 or 5 tiller seedlings hill<sup>-1</sup> for higher yield. Thus present study confirms the potentiality of growing hybrid rice from separated tillers in case of unavailability of seedlings or to minimize the seed cost of high value hybrid rice seeds.</p> <p><!--StartFragment --></p> <p><span style="font-family: Times New Roman,Italic; font-size: 9px; color: #000000;">J Bangladesh Agril Univ 17(4): 507–513, 2019</span></p> FN Kamarum Munira, Md. Parvez Anwar, Sabina Yeasmin, Md. Harun Or Rashid, Mst Farzana Rahman, Israt Urmee ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 31 Dec 2019 10:29:25 +0000 Effect of buprofezin on the growth, development and morphometric parameters of Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Order: Lepidoptera, Family: Noctuidae) adult <p>The experiments were conducted to know the efficacy of Buprofezin (Award 40 SC), an insect growth regulator against 2<sup>nd</sup> instar larvae of <em>Spodoptera litura</em> (Fabricius) under laboratory conditions (insect rearing was done at room temperature and relative humidity that is 26<sup>0</sup>C-30<sup>0</sup>C and 65-80% relative humidity) at three different concentrations viz. 200, 400, and 600 ppm through three different application methods like direct or topical, indirect or leaf-dip and combined. The experiment was laid out in complete randomized design (CRD) with three replications and ten 2<sup>nd</sup> instar larvae of <em>Spodoptera litura</em> were used for each replication. Results revealed that this growth regulator strongly arrested the growth and development of <em>S. litura</em> (Fabricius) from larval stage to adult. The treated data were recorded after adult emergence and compared with untreated control adult. The results clearly showed that Buprofezin had significant effect on the inhibition of adult weight; wing length and width compared to control and consequence were clearly dose, time and method dependent. As well as we are hopeful because we found some abnormal adult from the treated larvae that may increase the potentiality of Buprofezin as an excellent tool of IPM. The maximum, 54.53% adult weight reduction was recorded from 600 ppm of Buprofezin through combined application method which was followed by leaf-dip (46.41%) and topical application method (39.86%). Similarly, 23.13% wing length and 22.27% wing width were inhibited when larvae were treated with 600 ppm through combined application method compared to control. The 2<sup>nd </sup>best result was found from 400 ppm and leaf-dip application method. The dose, 200 ppm and topical application method was found to be less effective compared to the rest of the two doses or two application methods. So this is the demand of the current situation to evaluate this selective bio-rational molecules against <em>S. litura </em>as the alternatives of conventional insecticides to combat resistance development, effective larval control, inhibition of growth and development, to keep the&nbsp; natural enemies safe and fit these molecules in IPM packages individually or combindly.</p> <p><!--StartFragment --></p> <p><span style="font-family: Times New Roman,Italic; font-size: 9px; color: #000000;">J Bangladesh Agril Univ 17(4): 514–520, 2019</span></p> Mst Rokeya Khatun, Gopal Das, Kazi Shahanara Ahmed, Hisashi Kato- Noguchi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 31 Dec 2019 10:29:41 +0000 Effect of crop establishment methods on the yield of boro rice <p>Yield and yield penalty as well as economic suitability of various high yielding varieties needed to be assessed by different crop establishment methods before promoting a sustainable crop establishment method in Bangladesh. There for, an experiment was conducted at the Agronomy Field Laboratory, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh during November 2017 to June 2018 to study the effect of crop establishment methods on the yield and economics of <em>boro</em> rice. The experiment comprised of two factors; factor A: methods of crop establishment viz. dry direct seeding, unpuddle transplanting, AWD (Alternate Wetting and Drying) and puddle transplanting; factor B: rice cultivars viz. BRRI dhan28, BRRI dhan58, BRRI dhan74 and BRRI hybrid dhan3. The experiment was laid out in a split-plot design with three replications where method of crop establishment was assigned to the main plot and rice cultivar was assigned to the sub plots. The results showed that plant height, number of total tillers hill<sup>-1</sup>, effective tillers hill<sup>-1</sup>, number of grains panicle<sup>-1</sup>, grain yield, straw yield and harvest index were significantly influenced by crop establishment methods. The highest grain yield (5.54 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) was obtained in puddle transplanting method due to production of higher number of effective tiller hill<sup>-1</sup> and higher number of grains panicle<sup>-1</sup>. Among varieties, the highest grain yield (4.80 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) was obtained in BRRI hybrid dhan3. The highest grain yield (6.21 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) was found in puddle transplanting with BRRI dhan28, while the lowest grain yield (2.80 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) was produced in dry direct seeding with BRRI dhan28. From the economic analysis it is observed that the highest BCR (benefit cost ratio) was observed in puddle transplanting with BBRI dhan28. Puddle transplanting with BRRI dhan28 might be recommended for obtaining higher grain yield and higher BCR of <em>boro</em> rice.</p> <p><!--StartFragment --></p> <p><span style="font-family: Times New Roman,Italic; font-size: 9px; color: #000000;">J Bangladesh Agril Univ 17(4): 521–525, 2019</span></p> Afrina Rahman, Md Abdus Salam, Md Abdul Kader ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 31 Dec 2019 10:29:50 +0000 Taxonomic diversity of broad-leaf weeds at Bangladesh Agricultural University campus and their ethno-botanical uses <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family: 'Agency FB','sans-serif'; color: black;">An intensive survey and literature review was furnished to study taxonomic diversity and ethno-botanical uses of broad-leaf weeds available in BAU campus. Availability of 107 broad-leaf weed species has been identified and those belong to 78 genera and 38 families. Among the families, Fabaceae is best-represented with 13 weed species followed by Euphorbiaceae and Amaranthaceae (seven species in each), Solanaceae (six species), Convolvulaceae and Polygonaceae (five species); 17 families are represented by two to four species while 15 families by single species in each. The genera viz. Desmodium, Ludwigia and Solanum, are represented by four species in each followed by Amaranthus, Ipomoea, Lindernia, Persicaria and Senna three species in each; however, most of the genera are represented by one or two species in each. Three distinct phenology (flowering periods) viz. October-March (52), April-September (40) and all the year-round (15), were observed among identified weed species and the knowledge on phonological development would be helpful to know soil seedbank potential for their effective management. These weed species possess many ethno-botanical uses e.g., medicinal value, consumed as vegetable, feed, fodder, etc. This study provides information on ethno-botanic uses, taxonomic diversities and phenology of the broad-leaf weeds for their effective management.</span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family: 'Agency FB','sans-serif'; color: black;"><!--StartFragment --></span></p> <p><span style="font-family: Times New Roman,Italic; font-size: 9px; color: #000000;">J Bangladesh Agril Univ 17(4): 526–538, 2019</span></p> Most Morsada Khatun, Md Ashik Mia, AKM Golam Sarwar ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 31 Dec 2019 10:30:00 +0000 Changes in root porosity and water soluble carbohydrates in rice (Oryza sativa L.) under submergence stress <p>Submergence stress at early vegetative stage is one of the most important constraints in the productivity of rice in Bangladesh. Submergence causes yield loss of rice at Aman season in Bangladesh and therefore, it is necessary to develop submergence tolerant rice cultivars. A pot experiment was conducted at the net house of Department of Crop Botany, Bangladesh Agricultural University, during Aman season from July to December, 2017 to evaluate the changes in root porosity and water soluble carbohydrates (WSCs) associated with submergence tolerance in rice. The experiment consisted of two factors—(i) Rice cultivars (Binadhan-11, Binadhan-12, BRRI dhan51 and BRRI dhan52 as tolerant and BRRI dhan49 as susceptible) and(ii) Submergence stress: Submergence for 14 days at vegetative stage and control. Submergence stress was imposed by dipping of pots into a water tank with about 90 cm depth of water while the control plants are maintained in the pot house of the field laboratory. The plants were sampled at seven days interval during submergence to determine the changes in root porosity and to examine the contribution of shoot reserves for their survival. The root porosity was measured by pycnometer method and water soluble carbohydrate was measured by the anthrone method. Tolerant cultivars showed greater root porosity development in both control and stress condition but the susceptible cultivar showed significantly lower root development in stress condition. Higher root porosity might help tolerant cultivars to survive in submergence stress more efficiently. Tolerant rice cultivars had high initial soluble carbohydrate than the susceptible one. Under submergedcondition, the tolerant cultivars showed slow depletion of water soluble carbohydrate compared to susceptible cultivar. Higher carbohydrate contents in tolerant cultivars might act as buffer stock during submergence for their better survival and growth.</p> <p><!--StartFragment --></p> <p><span style="font-family: Times New Roman,Italic; font-size: 9px; color: #000000;">J Bangladesh Agril Univ 17(4): 539–544, 2019</span></p> Md Juiceball Hassan, Md Masudul Karim, Md Amirul Islam, Md Habibur Rahman Pramanik, Md Alamgir Hossain ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 31 Dec 2019 10:30:08 +0000 Morpho-phenological traits and yield performance of rice cultivars as affected by submergence stress <p>Complete submergence up to 1-2 weeks of low land rice crops during flash floods occurs in large areas of South-East Asia including Bangladesh, resulting in increased mortality of plants as well as low productivity of rice crops. A pot experiment was conducted at the Net House, Department of Crop Botany, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, during Aman season from July 2017 to December 2017 to evaluate morphological and phenological traits associated with submergence tolerance in rice. The experiment consisted of two factors—Rice cultivars (Binadhan-11, Binadhan-12, BRRI dhan51 and BRRI dhan52 as tolerant and BRRI dhan49 as susceptible) and submergence stress for 14 days at vegetative stage and control. Submergence stress was imposed by dipping of pots into a water tank with about 90 cm depth of water. After desubmergence, the plants were grown with proper care till maturity. Control plants are maintained in the pot house of field laboratory. Leaf greenness was measured after desubmergence to physiological maturity. The tolerant cultivars maintain higher leaf greenness for a long time than the susceptible cultivar after desubmergence. Reduction of grain filling rate and yield was significantly higher in susceptible cultivar than the tolerant cultivars. Among the five cultivars, BRRI dhan51 contributed the highest yield under stress treatment. Submergence tolerant rice cultivars (Binadhan-11, Binadhan-12, BRRI Dhan51 and BRRI Dhan52) had maintained higher tiller number, 1000-grain weight and the higher number of grains per panicle during submergence, as compared to susceptible rice cultivar BRRI Dhan49.</p> <p><!--StartFragment --></p> <p><span style="font-family: Times New Roman,Italic; font-size: 9px; color: #000000;">J Bangladesh Agril Univ 17(4): 545–550, 2019</span></p> Md Masudul Karim, Md Juiceball Hassan, Md Habibur Rahman Pramanik, Md Alamgir Hossain ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 31 Dec 2019 10:30:15 +0000 Growth, carcass characteristics and organ development of goat kids fed different levels of cow milk <p>This study was conducted to determine the effect of feeding different levels of cow milk on growth, hematological parameters, carcass characteristics, rumen and testicular development of goat kids. Eighteen Black Bengal kids were randomly allocated to three groups on the basis of milk feeding levels, 10% (n=6), 15% (n=6), and 20% (n=6) of liveweight. The average liveweight of each group was 2.40 kg. The milk was fed at regular intervals daily up to 13 weeks of age when they were weaned. Blood samples were collected at 8 weeks of age to determine different blood components. At 16 weeks of age kids were sacrificed to examine carcass characteristics, rumen and testes development. Increasing levels of milk improved liveweight gain of kids. Kids fed 20% milk were heavier (7.78 ±0.37kg) at slaughter than others. Numbers of red blood cells were significantly higher in the 15% milk fed group than 20% milk fed group. Carcass weight and dressing percentage of meat did not differ significantly among the groups. Histological examination revealed that rumen papillae length (707.00 ± 37.07µm) and width (430.23 ± 29.86µm) were significantly higher in 20% milk fed kids than others. The sizes of right testicles were significantly wider in 20% milk fed kids than that of 10% groups of kids. In conclusion, cow milk could be fed to kids at the rate of 20% of their liveweight for maximum growth and organ development.</p> <p><!--StartFragment --></p> <p><span style="font-family: Times New Roman,Italic; font-size: 9px; color: #000000;">J Bangladesh Agril Univ 17(4): 551–559, 2019</span></p> Asma Khatun, Md Bodruzzaman Sarker, Md Ahidul Islam, Md Sadakatul Bari, Md Ruhul Amin, Mohammad Moniruzzaman ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 31 Dec 2019 10:30:25 +0000 Effect of gamma irradiation on shelf life and quality of indigenous chicken meat <p>The experiment was conducted on fresh indigenous chicken meat treated with 0 (non-irradiated), 1, 2 and 3 kGy&nbsp; <sup>60</sup>Co gamma irradiation and stored for 0, 30 and 60 days at -20ºC to investigate the effects on proximate components, sensory attributes, and physicochemical, biochemical and microbial changes in meat quality. Data were analyzed under 4x3 factor CRD design of experiment in GLM procedure of SAS statistical package. The results showed that irradiation groups had significantly (p&lt;0.05) higher color and tenderness of meat compared to that of non-irradiated group. The 2 kGy group showed significantly (p&lt;0.05) higher Dry matter (DM) and Ether extract (EE) whereas the cooking loss, Free fatty acid (FFA), Peroxide value (PV),&nbsp; and Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels were higher in 3 kGy irradiated group. With the advancement of storage periods pH significantly (p&lt;0.05) decreased. The 2 kGy irradiation group showed significantly (p&lt;0.05) lower numbers of Total viable count (TVC), Total coliform count (TCC), Total yeast and mold count (TYMC) compared to non-irradiated group. From this study, it may be concluded that the 2 kGy irradiated group had positive effects on sensory evaluation, biochemical and microbial qualities of indigenous chicken meat to increase the shelf life and the quality of indigenous chicken meat.</p> <p><!--StartFragment --></p> <p><span style="font-family: Times New Roman,Italic; font-size: 9px; color: #000000;">J Bangladesh Agril Univ 17(4): 560–566, 2019</span></p> Anisul Islam, Md Sadakuzzaman, Md Anwar Hossain, Md Mujaffar Hossain, Md Abul Hashem ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 31 Dec 2019 11:02:17 +0000 Rice marketing system, profitability and middlemen’s role in two districts of Bangladesh <p>The study attempts to identify the rice marketing channels, market actors and their marketing functions in Bogura and Gaibandha districts in Bangladesh. The paper also examines the rice marketing cost and margin and highlight major obstacles of market actors. Primary data were collected from 25 middlemen by using pretested semi-structured interview schedule in 2017. Rice millers, wholesalers and retailers were the major market’s actors in the study areas. Most of the rice millers buy paddy directly from the farmers by using their agent. After processing rice, rice millers sell rice to the wholesalers, and retailers. Rice millers marketing costs were higher in the Bogura district (Tk.569.8/40kg) than Gaibandha district (Tk.526.0/40kg). However, retailers’ marketing costs were higher in Gaibandha district (Tk.43.0/40kg) than Bogura district (Tk.39.1/40kg). Among all intermediaries, marketing margins was highest for rice millers which were Tk. 227.5/40kg. Middlemen have no sufficient capital for investment. Therefore, Government, Non Government Organizations and other institutional credit should be available to them at the reasonable interest rate.</p> <p><!--StartFragment --></p> <p><span style="font-family: Times New Roman,Italic; font-size: 9px; color: #000000;">J Bangladesh Agril Univ 17(4): 567–573, 2019</span></p> AH Siddiquee, HM Sammy, MR Hasan ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 31 Dec 2019 11:02:24 +0000 Measuring food and nutrition security of enclave people of Kurigram district in Bangladesh <p>This study aims at assessing and analyzing the core food security indicators to enhance food and nutrition security of enclave people. A survey was conducted using structured questionnaire covering 120 households. Primary data were collected during July to December 2018. Middle aged persons are found to be the heads of households, average age is 48.87 years, family size is 4.38 persons, average education of household’s head is 3.55 years of schooling and dependency ratio is 0.67. The total value of family assets before enclave exchange was BDT 124752 and after enclave exchange it becomes BDT 178177. Their total land area before and after enclave exchange are respectively 75.85 and 77.60 decimal. Average annual family income is BDT 114799. Total income increases significantly with the increase in income from agriculture and labor selling activities. The yearly family expenditure increases significantly with the increase in food expenditure and total land size. The annual family expenditure is BDT 134363. Average daily per capita consumptions of rice, potato, vegetables and all food items are respectively 417.59, 75.35, 114.06 and 792.06g. Daily per capita calorie and protein intakes are respectively 1788 kcal and 55 g which are relatively lower compared to the national level. People consume almost all 12 categories of food items and average household dietary diversity score is 11.50. Food security decreases with the increase in family size and increases with the increase in food cost. Absolute poverty is 89% and hard-core poverty is 55% on the basis of direct calorie intake method. Absolute and hard-core poverty are 68% and 52% respectively on the basis of cost of basic needs method. As a policy option, the government should support and take the development initiatives of people, enhance food security status and upscale the nutrition condition of people living in the enclave.</p> <p><!--StartFragment --></p> <p><span style="font-family: Times New Roman,Italic; font-size: 9px; color: #000000;">J Bangladesh Agril Univ 17(4): 574–582, 2019</span></p> Sunjina Noor Ria, Khandaker Md. Mostafizur Rahman, Mohammad Mujaffar Hossain, Md Shihab Rana ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 31 Dec 2019 11:02:31 +0000 Combine Harvester: Impact on paddy production in Bangladesh <p>Due to migration of agricultural labor in non-farm sectors and increasing climate vulnerability it is a great challenge to keep pace of food production for the exponential growth of population in Bangladesh. For following the traditional paddy harvesting methods, significant amount of field losses has been occurred in every year. The study was conducted to evaluate performance of combine harvester in comparison to manual harvesting of paddy and identify the impact on agricultural production system in Bangladesh. The experiment was conducted at <em>Wazirpur</em> Upazila of <em>Barisal</em> district during <em>Aman-</em>2018 paddy harvesting using a combine harvester and also, manual harvesting was conducted at the same location. Financial analysis of combine harvester over manual method was carried out for comparison. Cost savings in mechanical harvesting of paddy were found 57.61% for using combine harvester over manual harvesting. Similarly, labors savings for using combine harvester was found 70% over manual harvesting. The estimated BCR of combine harvester is found 1.55. The break-even use of combine harvester is 35 ha/yr which indicates a combine harvester must operate above 35 ha/yr to have profit. The combine harvester will run on fully profit basis if it could be used after that minimum hectares. The average total harvesting losses (including harvesting, threshing and cleaning) were also found 1.61% and 6.08% for using combine harvester and manual harvesting, respectively. The losses of paddy will be reduced 4.47% using combine harvester over manual harvesting. The above results revealed that manual harvesting is a labor and cost involving system. On the other hand, mechanical harvester like combine harvester is a time, labor and cost saving system along with reducing harvesting losses. As a result, total paddy production might be increased, and which will help to contribute significantly to the development of livelihood status of rural community of Bangladesh.</p> <p><!--StartFragment --></p> <p><span style="font-family: Times New Roman,Italic; font-size: 9px; color: #000000;">J Bangladesh Agril Univ 17(4): 583–591, 2019</span></p> Md Kamrul Hasan, Md Rostom Ali, Chayan Kumer Saha, Md Monjurul Alam, Md Enamul Haque ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 31 Dec 2019 11:02:43 +0000 Design and fabrication of an aerator cum oxygen accumulator for live fish transport <p>Bangladesh secured the third position in freshwater fish and fisheries product producing country where around 4.134 million metric ton of fish is extracted annually. Fish transporting in traditional method reduces fish freshness and thus causes serious economic loss. Further, for live fish transportation, maintaining water quality is a challenge, with the course of time, oxygen, pH and temperature of water deteriorate. Considering this issue, a study was undertaken to construct simple, low energy consumed aerator-cum-oxygen accumulator for live fish transport. A 12-volt 3-ampere DC motor operated 1100 GPH bilge pump was modified with the venturi principle to construct the aerator. The experiment was conducted to evaluate its performance for live fish transport and compared with the results in a condition of with and without an aerator. 45 (forty-five) numbers of Rohu fish (<em>Labeo Rohita</em>) with an average weight of 378 g were put in a tank of 650 liters for this experiment.&nbsp; After six hours of the test, different parameters were measured in both conditions. With the device, dissolved oxygen and pH level were found as 9.3 mg/l and 7.8 and without the device, dissolved oxygen and pH level were found 6.2 mg/l and 7.1, respectively in six hours of operation. On the other hand, without the device, the dissolved oxygen level decreased from 6.5 mg/l to 2.2 mg/l and pH level increased from 8.30 to 9.70 in six hrs of the test. Besides, by using, the device mortality rate of fishes was zero but without the device, the mortality rate was 11.11%. Water temperature changing was insignificant during the experiment. Results indicate that for reducing losses of fish and increase the income of fisherman, this device might be suitable for live fish transport.</p> <p><!--StartFragment --></p> <p><span style="font-family: Times New Roman,Italic; font-size: 9px; color: #000000;">J Bangladesh Agril Univ 17(4): 592–598, 2019</span></p> Sazzad Mahmud Rifat, Muhammad Ashik-E-Rabbani, Md Samiul Basir, AKM Nowsad Alam ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 31 Dec 2019 11:02:49 +0000 Utilization of Jamun seed powder in composite cake formulation <p>The study is concerned with the evaluation of the nutritional and functional properties of Jamun seed powder (JSP) extracted from fresh Jamun and to develop cakes by incorporating JSP with wheat flour (WF). The chemical analysis showed that JSP had 6.30% moisture, 6.24% protein, 2.19% ash, 1.18% fat, 84.09% carbohydrate and 371.94 Kcal energy/100 g of powder whereas WF contained 12.90% moisture, 11.00% protein, 1.35% ash, 1.50% fat, 73.01% total carbohydrate and 349.54 Kcal energy/100 g of powder. Four cake samples were prepared by using different proportion combination of WF and JSP such as A (100% WF), B (90% WF and 10% JSP), C (80% WF and 20% JSP) and D (70% WF and 30% JSP). The nutritional components of four cake samples gave the range of moisture 16.92-25.56%, protein 6.34-8.56%, ash 1.50-2.60%, fat 16.01-22.42% and total carbohydrate 41.96-58.13%. Weight (g) of processed cakes were increased whereas other physical attributes such as volume, height, specific volume were decreased due to supplementation of JSP. The increased level of JSP powder substitution changed the crust color of cakes from light brown to blackish and also changed the crumb color from brownish to reddish. Sensory evaluation indicated that the sample B (10% JSP and 90% WF) was the most acceptable by the panelists than those of other cakes. Above all, the study gave an indication that Jamun seed powder can be used as a good replacement of wheat flour in production of cakes which can help to get higher energy, mineral and carbohydrate.</p> <p><!--StartFragment --></p> <p><span style="font-family: Times New Roman,Italic; font-size: 9px; color: #000000;">J Bangladesh Agril Univ 17(4): 599–605, 2019</span></p> Mushtari Akter Marufa, Pabitra Chandra Das, Abdullah Iqbal ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 31 Dec 2019 11:03:01 +0000