Journal of Advanced Veterinary and Animal Research <p>Journal of Advanced Veterinary and Animal Research is an international, peer-reviewed, quarterly, highly-indexed scientific journal publishing original research findings and reviews on all aspects of veterinary and animal sciences. 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(Prof. Nazmul H. Nazir, DVM, MS, PhD) (md) Thu, 13 Jun 2019 07:56:32 +0000 OJS 60 Risk assessment on rabies entry through hunting dog movement with semi-quantitative approach to Sumatera Island, Indonesia <p><strong>Objective: </strong>The objective of this study was to assess the risk of rabies entry through the movement of hunting dog from Garut District to Sumatera Island with a semi-quantitative approach.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>Rabies entry assessment used the standard risk analysis according to the World Organization for Animal Health, with a semi-quantitative approach referring to Australian Biosecurity. Risk estimation calculation used Microsoft Excel and probabilities were estimated using Monte Carlo stochastic simulation modeling with @Risk (Palisade Corporation).</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Risk estimation were considered as “very low” with a 0.02 (90%; 0.01–0.03) probability. The probability of undetected rabies-infected dog during Veterinary Certificate issuance [node probability (NP4)] was considered as the highest, with “moderate” likelihood and 0.63 (90%; 0.51–0.75) of probability value. The number of dog movement to Sumatera reached 27,000 heads per year which 5,050 heads of them come from Garut District. There were 2 of 100 dogs from Garut District entered to Sumatera possibly infected by rabies. The five highest parameters most determinant of the risk were dog vaccination before transported (0.66), dog obtained from other District (0.41), vaccination program (0.32), serologically test (0.27), and history of vaccination (0.23).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Risk estimation from assessing on rabies entry to Sumatera through hunting dogs movement from Garut District was considered “very low.” Risk mitigation is focused on the highest parameters that contribute the most to risk based on the results of the sensitivity analysis. Semi-quantitative likelihood evaluations can consider the volume of dog traffic which is an important issue in risk analysis which is not easy to get with a simpler qualitative approach.</p> <p>J. Adv. Vet. Anim. Res., 6(2): 148-157, June 2019</p> Amanatin Amanatin, Etih Sudarnika, Denny Widaya Lukman, I Wayan Teguh Wibawan ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 12 Jun 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of fermentation using Chrysonillia crassa and Monascus purpureus on nutritional quality, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities of used rice as a poultry feed ingredient <p><strong>Objective: </strong>This study was aimed at evaluating the effect of fermentation using <em>Chrysonillia crassa </em>and <em>Monascus purpureus </em>on nutritional qualities, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities of the used rice as a poultry feed ingredient.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>The used rice was soaked, steamed, and spread on a tray to cool. Suspension of <em>M. purpureus </em>or <em>C. crassa </em>was inoculated on the steamed used rice, and then mixed thoroughly. Afterward, the mixture was spread out on the tray, which was then covered with an aluminum foil. It was aerobically incubated for 7 and 4 days for the <em>M. purpureus</em>- and <em>C. crassa</em>-inoculated used rice, respectively. Subsequent to sun drying, the fermented used rice was grounded and analyzed.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Crude protein and ash contents were higher (<em>p </em>&lt; 0.05) in the used rice fermented with <em>C. crassa </em>or <em>M. purpureus </em>than in the unfermented. Conversely, carbohydrate content was lower (<em>p </em>&lt; 0.05) in the fermented compared with the unfermented. Gross energy and energy from fat were higher (<em>p </em>&lt; 0.05) in the used rice fermented with <em>M. purpureus </em>than the unfermented. Amino acids L-methionine, L-serine, L-glutamic acid, L-valine glycine, L-leucine, L proline, L-threonine, L-histidine, and L-Sistine were higher (<em>p </em>&lt; 0.05) in <em>M. purpureus</em>-fermented used rice than in <em>C. crassa</em>-fermented and the unfermented used rice. However, amino acids L-isoleucine, L- alanine, L-lysine, and L-tryptophan were higher (<em>p </em>&lt; 0.05) in the used rice fermented with both <em>C. crassa </em>and <em>M. purpureus</em>, compared with the unfermented. L-tyrosine content was higher (<em>p </em>&lt; 0.05) in <em>M. purpureus</em>-fermented used rice than in the unfermented. Furthermore, the antioxidant activities of the fermented products were higher (<em>p </em>&lt; 0.05) than that of the unfermented. In addition, the antimicrobial activities of the fermented products against <em>Staphylococcus aureus </em>were higher (<em>p </em>&lt; 0.05) than that of the unfermented used rice.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>In conclusion, the used rice fermented using <em>C. crassa </em>and <em>M. purpureus </em>improved the nutritional quality, as well as the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the products.</p> <p>J. Adv. Vet. Anim. Res., 6(2): 168-173, June 2019</p> Turrini Yudiarti, Sugiharto Sugiharto, Isroli Isroli, Endang Widiastuti, Hanny Indrat Wahyuni, Tri Agus Sartono ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 13 Jun 2019 04:23:40 +0000 Toxicological studies and bioactivity-guided identification of antimicrobially active compounds from crude aqueous stem bark extract of Boswellia dalzielii <p><strong>Objective</strong>: The main objective of this study is to isolate, identify, and quantify the active antimicrobial compounds present in the crude aqueous stem bark extract of B. dalzielii using some common pathogenic microorganisms as well as toxicological profile.</p> <p><strong>Material and Methods</strong>: Crude aqueous stem bark extract of Boswellia dalzielii (CASEB) was partitioned by preparative thin layer chromatography (PTLC) using chloroform–methanol–water, 8:2:1 (v/v). The resulting bands were extracted using chloroform–methanol (50:50). The extract of each band was evaluated for antimicrobial activity on Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Salmonella typhi, and Candida albicans by disc diffusion. Compounds in the most antimicrobially bioactive fraction (MAAF) were identified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry (FT-IR), and gas chromatography- mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Toxicological profile of the CASEB was evaluated by studying its effect in albino Wister rats.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: PTLC produced five bands/fractions of which the MAAF was identified as RF2-fraction being active against all the isolates except E. coli and K. pneumoniae. HPLC of the MAAF revealed seven components; FT-IR revealed 17 functional groups; GC-MS revealed five compounds of which 93.18% are Oleic acid (44.88%), Squalene (34.16%), and n-Hexadecanoic acid (14.14%). The acute toxicity showed LD50 &gt; 3,000 mg/kg. Sub-chronic toxicity showed that higher doses of the CASEB caused significant changes in liver function indices and a fatty change with lymphocytic infiltration (sign of acute hepatitis) in the liver tissues, but none of these changes were observed in the kidneys.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The antimicrobially active compounds in CASEB were Oleic acid, Squalene, and n-Hexadecanoic acid. These can be further purified and used as precursors of new antimicrobial agents for treating infections especially those due to fungi and Pseudomonas spp. that are known to resist wide array of antimicrobial agents. The LD50 of CASEB is &gt;3,000 mg/kg in rats. However, long-term consumption of CASEB is associated with significant liver damage.</p> <p>J. Adv. Vet. Anim. Res., 6(2): 183-192, June 2019</p> Bahauddeen Salisu Dandashire, Abdulkadir Magaji Magashi, Bashir Abdulkadir, Muhammad Adamu Abbas, Mohammed Dauda Goni, Abdulmalik Yakubu ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 13 Jun 2019 04:23:58 +0000 Rapid detection of aflatoxin M1 residues in market milk in Aswan Province, Egypt and effect of probiotics on its residues concentration <p><strong>Objectives: </strong>The objectives of our study were to determine the presence of Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in market milk in Aswan province, Egypt and studying the effect of addition of some strains of probiotics microorganisms on AFM1 level in milk.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>Between July and October 2018, 90 market milk samples (15 Ultra Heat Treated (UHT) , 75 raw) were collected from different dairy shops in Aswan City, Egypt to be examined for AFM1 presence by rapid strip test and the results were confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The results revealed that all UHT milk samples were negative, while 37 (49%) raw milk samples were positive for AFM1 residues. All 37 positive milk samples were examined by HPLC to determine the level of AFM1. The results showed that the level of AFM1 ranged between 0.053 and 0.207 with mean ± SE of 0.1003 ± 0.008 ppb. Some probiotics strains were used to determine their effect on AFM1 by milk fermentation; the result showed that the probiotics have significant effect on the reduction of AFM1 level in milk (<em>p </em>&lt; 0.05). Also, Public health importance of AFM1 was discussed.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Presence of AFM1 in 49% of examined raw milk samples indicate widespread occur­rence of AFM1 in market milk in Aswan province, Egypt which considered possible hazards for consumers, while the absence of AFM1 from UHT milk indicates that type of milk is safer. So, regular monitoring of AFM1 in market milk is necessary for evaluating their contamination status. Mixed starter culture of <em>Lactobacillus bulgaricus </em>and <em>Streptococcus thermophilus </em>could be used as a biological agent for the reduction of AFM1 in milk.</p> <p>J. Adv. Vet. Anim. Res., 6(2): 197-201, June 2019</p> Asem Mohammed Zakaria, Yahia Abbas Amin, Osama Safwat Fawzy Khalil, Ehab Yahya Abdelhiee, Mohammed Morsi Elkamshishi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 13 Jun 2019 06:21:58 +0000 Variation over time in wing size and shape of the coastal malaria vector Anopheles (Cellia) epiroticus Linton and Harbach (Diptera: Culicidae) in Samut Songkhram, Thailand <p><strong>Objective: </strong><em>Anopheles </em>(<em>Cellia</em>) <em>epiroticus </em>Linton &amp; Harbach, a coastal mosquito (also called a brack­ish mosquito), is a secondary vector species of malaria distributed throughout eastern and south­ern regions of Thailand. This research aimed to investigate the differences of wing size and shape of this female <em>Aonpheles </em>species in Samut Songkhram Province, Thailand occurring over time between 2015 and 2017.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>Coordinates of 13 landmarks were selected and digitized. Centroid size (CS) was used to estimate wing size. Shape variables were used to estimate wing shape and were calculated from the Generalized Procrustes Analysis following principal components of the par­tial warp. The statistically significant differences of the average wing size based on CS and wing shape based on Mahalanobis distances in each year were estimated using the non-parametric permutation testing with 1,000 cycles after Bonferroni correction with a significance level of 0.05 (<em>p </em>&lt; 0.05).</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The <em>A. epiroticus </em>population in year 2016 had the highest average (3.61 mm), and the population in year 2017 had the lowest (3.47 mm). In this study, there was no difference in the size of wing between <em>A. epiroticus </em>population in the years 2015 and 2016 (<em>p </em>&gt; 0.05). The <em>A. epiroticus </em>population in year 2017 was significantly smaller than the population in the years 2015 and 2016 (<em>p </em>&lt; 0.05). All pairwise comparisons of wing shape Mahalanobis distances were significantly different in year 2017 compared with 2015 and 2016 (<em>p </em>&lt; 0.01).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>These results indicate differences of wings occur over time that affect the morpho­logical variability of <em>A. epiroticus</em>. The differences in weather conditions in each year affect the adaptive and morphological changes of mosquitoes in coastal areas.</p> <p>J. Adv. Vet. Anim. Res., 6(2): 208-214, June 2019</p> Tanawat Chaiphongpachara, Sedthapong Laojun ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 13 Jun 2019 06:34:12 +0000 Evaluation of anesthesia produced by ketofol in acepromazine- or medetomidine-sedated dogs <p><strong>Objective: </strong>A randomized, blinded clinical study was conducted to evaluate ketofol (Ketamine + Propofol combination) anesthesia in 12 entire male mongrel dogs sedated with either aceproma­zine (ACP) or medetomidine.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>Group A (6) dogs were pre-medicated with ACP and Group B (6) dogs with medetomidine. Anesthesia was induced and maintained using ketofol (ketamine and propo­fol). Routine open pre-scrotal castration was performed. Sedation score and ease of arousal were assessed and recorded. Duration and depth of anesthesia were evaluated using apnea and the absence of palpebral and pedal reflexes, attempts to stand up, and muscle tremors and post-operative pain. Simple statistics were compared using Student <em>t</em>-test and Mann–Whitney test (<em>p </em>&lt; 0.05).</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Medetomidine-sedated dogs had higher sedation scores compared to ACP-sedated dogs. Medetomidine-ketofol produced significantly (<em>p </em>&lt; 0.05) longer duration of anesthesia (24.5 ± 3.1 min) compared to ACP-ketofol (10.0 ± 4.4 min). Sixty-seven percent of dogs anesthetized with ACP-ketofol required top up with ketofol to complete the castration. However, none of the Med-ketofol anesthetized dogs required top up. Med-ketofol produced a more profound depth of anes­thesia and smoother recovery from anesthesia compared to ACP-ketofol. Med-ketofol (median score 6) attained better overall post-operative analgesia compared to ACP-ketofol (median score 7), though not statistically significant (<em>p </em>= 0.25). Although both protocols provided adequate anes­thesia for castration, top up was required to complete the operation in more than half of ACP-ketofol anesthetized dogs, making Med-ketofol a better protocol.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The study recommends the use of Med-ketofol anesthesia for castration in a dog, and post-operative analgesia to be administered with either protocol, but more so in ACP-ketofol anesthetized dogs undergoing castration.</p> <p>J. Adv. Vet. Anim. Res., 6(2): 215-221, June 2019</p> Moses Njino Wamaitha, Eddy M Mogoa, John D Mande ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 13 Jun 2019 06:34:24 +0000 Jicama (Pachyrhizus erosus) fiber prevents excessive blood glucose and body weight increase without affecting food intake in mice fed with high-sugar diet <p><strong>Objective: </strong>Jicama (<em>Pachyrhizus erosus</em>) fiber has been documented to exert an immunomodu­latory effect both <em>in vitro </em>and <em>in vivo</em>. However, its beneficial effect against metabolic syndrome remains unknown. This study aimed to reveal whether the jicama fiber (JF) could prevent the development of diabetes and obesity caused by a high-sugar diet (HSD).</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>The JF was isolated from its tuberous part and subsequently used as a supplemental diet for adult male Bagg and Albino (BALB)/c mice fed with a HSD. Four different diet paradigms including normal diet, HSD (30% sucrose), and HSD in combination with 10% and 25% of JF, respectively, were deployed continuously for 8 weeks. Furthermore, the blood glucose level, glucose tolerance, body weight, food and water consumption as well as epididymal white adipose tissue (WAT) and interscapular brown adipose tissue (BAT) mass were determined.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Our results revealed that supplementation of 25% JF could significantly prevent the blood glucose increase, excessive body weight gain, and glucose intolerance in mice fed with HSD. Moreover, 10% and 25% JF blunted the HSD-induced WAT mass gain but failed to counteract the depletion of BAT mass. Furthermore, the fiber supplementation elicited a minimum effect on rhythm and total food and water intake.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The JF could effectively sustain blood glucose homeostasis as well as improve body weight and WAT mass profile against the development of diabetes and obesity caused by HSD.</p> <p>J. Adv. Vet. Anim. Res., 6(2): 222-230, June 2019</p> Putra Santoso, Astri Amelia, Resti Rahayu ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 13 Jun 2019 06:34:32 +0000 Anti-trypanosomal activity of crude root extract of Leptadenia hastata (Pers) decne in Wistar rats infected with Trypanosoma brucei brucei and associated hematological changes <p><strong>Objective: </strong>An <em>in vivo </em>study was carried out to evaluate the possible anti-trypanosomal activity of <em>Leptadenia hastata </em>crude root extract with also its associated hematological changes particularly the packed cell volume (PCV) in experimental <em>Trypanosoma brucei brucei </em>infection using Wistar rats.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>Thirty Wistar rats comprising of both males and females were categorized into six separate groups starting from A to F. Wistar placed in Group A and Group B were inoculated with <em>T. brucei brucei </em>and administered crude root extract of <em>L. hastata </em>at 100 and 200 mg/kg, respectively, as the treatment. Group C was infected with the parasite but untreated, while Group D was not infected with the parasite and was not treated. The remaining Groups E and F were inoculated with the parasite using diminazene diaceturate at 3.5 and 7.0 mg/kg, respectively. The extract was administered enterally when parasitemia was detected. Standard laboratory techniques were employed to determine parasitemia and PCV after collection of blood samples every 2 days via the tail vein.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Infected Groups (A, B, C, E, and F) showed a pre-patent period 2 days post infection (P.I) with mean parasitic counts of 3.93 ± 2.38, 2.46 ± 2.20, 0.67 ± 0.77, 4.60 ± 4.45, and 1.53 ± 1.44, respectively, which continued unabated in groups treated with the extract.The pack cell volume did not decline significantly in the in Groups A and B. Acute toxicity study revealed the absence of any clinical or behavioral changes suggesting toxicity.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>There was no effect on parasitemia of Wistar rats infected with the parasite after adminis­tration of 100 and 200 mg, respectively, using the extract as the treatment. PCV of the groups infected remained fairly constant with the control groups throughout the study with the extract being non-toxic.</p> <p>J. Adv. Vet. Anim. Res., 6(2): 241-246, June 2019</p> Samson Anjikwi Malgwi, Mohammed Kyari Zango, Albert Wulari Mbaya, Gamgong Dennis, Falmata Kyari, Kyari Abba Sanda, Stephen Bitrus Balami, Abwari David Bwala ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 13 Jun 2019 07:47:15 +0000 Antibacterial efficacy of ethanolic extract of Camellia sinensis and Azadirachta indica leaves on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli <p><strong>Objective: </strong>This study aims at investigating the antibacterial potential of ethanolic extract of <em>Camellia sinensis </em>(common name: Green tea) and <em>Azadirachta indica </em>(common name: Neem) leaves on methicillin-resistant <em>Staphylococcus aureus </em>(MRSA) and shiga-toxigenic <em>Escherichia coli </em>(STEC).</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>Fresh leaves were processed and extracted by 99% ethanol and recon­stituted with 50% ethanol before testing. Disk diffusion and broth microdilution methods were used to determine zone diameter of inhibition (ZDI) and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), respectively. Nutrient agar plate was used to estimate the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC).</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Maximum ZDI value was observed for green tea against MRSA (7.5 mm) and minimum for neem (4.9 mm). Moreover, the highest ZDI against STEC was also for green tea and the com­bination of green tea and neem (4.5 mm). The MIC values of green tea extract were 15.625 and 31.25 mg/ml against MRSA and STEC, respectively, whereas the MIC of neem was 31.25 and 125 mg/ml, respectively. The combination had similar MIC (46.87 mg/ml) against both organ­isms. Green tea showed the lowest MBC values, 31.25 and 62.5 mg/ml, against MRSA and STEC, respectively. However, MBC of neem and the combination against MRSA and STEC were found &gt;250 mg/ml, &gt;500 mg/ml and 93.75 mg/ml, &gt;375 mg/ml, respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Green tea and neem leaves showed good antimicrobial effects and can be used to explore novel antimicrobial compounds against MRSA and STEC.</p> <p>J. Adv. Vet. Anim. Res., 6(2): 247-252, June 2019</p> Md Asief Hossain Zihadi, Marzia Rahman, Sudipta Talukder, Md Mehedi Hasan, Samsun Nahar, Mahmudul Hasan Sikder ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 13 Jun 2019 07:53:49 +0000 Dose-dependent response to phytobiotic supplementation in feed on growth, hematology, intestinal pH, and gut bacterial load in broiler chicken <p><strong>Objective: </strong>The present study was aimed to evaluate dose-dependent effects of phytobiotic (Galibiotic) supplements in feed on growth performance, hematological parameters, intestinal pH, and gut bacterial population in broiler chick.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>A total of 50 ten day old broiler chicks were divided into five groups, namely, Group A as control (without galibiotic), Group B (galibiotic at 1 gm/kg feed), Group C (gal­ibiotic at 2 gm/kg feed), Group D (galibiotic at 5 gm/kg feed), and Group E (galibiotic at 10 gm/kg feed). All the birds were reared for 42 days and samples were collected before and after sacrifice.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Live body weights showed no significant differences between the groups but overall feed conversion ratios (FCRs) of treatment groups were significantly low in Group E having the lowest. Blood samples collected for hematology differed significantly (<em>p </em>&lt; 0.01) among the different groups. Intestinal pH was lower in treatment groups with Group E having the lowest. Cecal total viable count was highest in Group A and lowest in Group E. The cecal coliform count was low in all the treatment groups.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Along with previously published report, it may conclude that the phytobiotic could be used as an alternative to antibiotics due to positive growth performance, lower FCR, carcass quality, and improved gut health of broiler chicks.</p> <p>J. Adv. Vet. Anim. Res., 6(2): 253-259, June 2019</p> Md Mustafijur Rahman Ripon, Md Harunur Rashid, Md Moshiur Rahman, Md Faisal Ferdous, Md Shafiul Arefin, Aminatu Abubakar Sani, Muhammad Tofazzal Hossain, Muslah Uddin Ahammad, Kazi Rafiq ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 13 Jun 2019 07:55:26 +0000 Preservation of semen from Kintamani Bali dogs by freezing method <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To explore the effect of glycerol at different concentrations using different extenders on DNA fragmentation and motility of frozen-thawed Kintamani Bali dog spermatozoa.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>Sample was collected from four mature Kintamani Bali dogs. Each ejacu­late was prepared for cryopreservation with two different semen extenders; egg yolk Tris extender and coconut water-based extender. For each extender, three different glycerol concentrations were used; 4%, 6%, and 8%. Each of the six aliquots was loaded into 0.5 ml cryotube, placed on a styrofoam box 5 cm over liquid nitrogen for 10 min, and immersed in liquid nitrogen up to 8 min. Then, the frozen cryotubes were transferred into liquid nitrogen container. The cryotubes were thawed in a water bath at 38.5°C for 120 sec. After equilibration and thawing, each sample was assessed for motility parameters and for DNA fragmentation.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The addition of 6% glycerol to extenders revealed the most effective addition of glycerol on motility and sperm DNA fragmentation after equilibrium and post-thawing.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>It is concluded that both extenders with the addition of 6% glycerol are safe to be used as an extender in Kintamani Bali dog semen preservation, and DNA fragmentation of Kintamani Bali dog spermatozoa was not influenced by the freezing procedure.</p> <p>J. Adv. Vet. Anim. Res., 6(2): 158-162, June 2019</p> I Ketut Puja, Ni Made Sawitri, Nisa Maharani, Luh Gde Sri Surya Heryani, Anak Agung Gde Oka Dharmayudha, I Wayan ico Fajar Gunawan ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 12 Jun 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Phenotypic detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in village chickens from poultry markets in Maiduguri, Nigeria <p><strong>Objective: </strong>The study was carried out to detect the carriage of methicillin-resistant <em>Staphylococcus aureus </em>(MRSA) and their antimicrobial susceptibilities in village chickens sold at Maiduguri poultry markets using phenotypic characterization.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>This was a cross-sectional study where 120 samples comprised 50% each of Nasal and cloacal swabs, were, respectively, collected from live village chickens sold at Maiduguri poultry markets and examined for the presence MRSA based on bacterial culture, biochemical characteristics, growth on oxacillin resistant screening agar base, and antimicrobial susceptibility tests.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The study revealed an overall occurrence of 38.33% S. <em>aureus </em>and 32.60% MRSA, respectively. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was carried out on MRSA positive isolates against seven antimicrobials. All the isolates (100%) exhibited resistance against cefoxitin, whereas the least antimicrobial resistance was recorded against erythromycin and streptomycin each with 26.6%, respectively. In the same way, the highest antibiotic susceptibility in this study was observed against erythromycin (60%) and least susceptibility was against vancomycin and streptomycin with 20% each. A varying intermediate antibiotic susceptibility ranging from 13.33% to 53.33% was observed. Multiple-drug resistance patterns were exhibited by MRSA isolates from this study with 73.3% of the isolates exhibiting resistance to two or more antibiotics.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>This study has shown the carriage of MRSA by village chickens which calls for serious public health concern and concludes that these birds might have acquired these pathogens from the environment or infected humans since they normally receive no less medical attention.</p> <p>J. Adv. Vet. Anim. Res., 6(2): 163-167, June 2019</p> Iliya Dauda Kwoji, Solomon Jauro, Jasini Athanda Musa, Yusuf Madaki Lekko, Sabo Isa Salihu, Hassan Abdullahi Danchuwa ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 12 Jun 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Effects of calpastatin gene polymorphism on hematology and selected serum biochemical parameters in Awassi lambs <p><strong>Objective: </strong>This study was conducted to investigate the effect of <em>Msp</em>I polymorphism in the calpastatin (CAST) gene on hematology and selected serum biochemical parameters in Awassi lambs.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>CAST genotypes of 31 Awassi lambs were determined using polymerase chain reaction—restricted fragment length polymorphism method. Hematology, serum biochem­ical analyses, serum levels of triiodothyronine, thyroxine, and cortisol were determined using rou­tine laboratory procedures.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Two CAST genotypes were detected with frequencies of 0.65 and 0.35 for MN (three major bands of 622, 336, and 268 bp) and NN (two major bands of 336 and 268 bp), respectively. Allele frequencies were 0.49 and 0.51 for M and N alleles, respectively. Animals with MN <em>MspI </em>CAST genotype had significantly (<em>p </em>&lt; 0.05) higher neutrophil percentage and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio but, significantly (<em>p </em>&lt; 0.05) lower lymphocyte percentage and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio than NN <em>MspI </em>CAST genotype. Serum T3 and cortisol concentrations were significantly (<em>p </em>&lt; 0.05) higher in MN <em>MspI </em>CAST genotype than the NN <em>MspI </em>CAST genotype.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Results of this study indicate that CAST gene heterozygous individuals are healthier than homozygous individual, which may explain the superiority of the CAST gene heterozygous animals in growth performance.</p> <p>J. Adv. Vet. Anim. Res., 6(2): 193-196, June 2019</p> Khaleel Ibrahem Jawasreh, Zuhair Bani Ismail ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 13 Jun 2019 06:21:51 +0000 Evaluation of wound healing potential of pomegranate (Punica granatum) whole fruit extract on skin burn wound in rats (Rattus norvegicus) <p><strong>Objective</strong>: This research was conducted to study the wound healing process of whole fruit pomegranate extract (punica granatum) standardized with 40% ellagic acid ointment for deep second- degree burn wound of skin in the rat (Rattus norvegicus).</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods</strong>: Powder of standardized pomegranate extract (SPE) with 40% ellagic acid was processed to become ointments. Twenty-five male rats, weighed 150–180 gm at 3 months of age, were randomly divided into five groups. After anesthetized, stainless circle plate with 1 cm of diameter in 85°C was contacted firmly toward right gluteal of rat skins for 5 sec in order to create deep second-degree burn wound. Control groups consist of (T0) cream base and (T1) 1% silver sulfadiazine. Treatment groups consist of (T2) 2.5% SPE, (T3) 5% SPE, and (T4) 10% SPE. Histopathological preparation used hematoxylin-eosin stained skin samples. Histological observations were performed using the optics microscope against collagen, the number of polymorphonuclear cell (PMN) infiltration, the degree of angiogenesis, and re-epithelization. The results were statistically compared between groups.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Microscopic observation on the wound healing process on the collagen, PMN infiltration, angiogenesis, and re-epithelization showed that topical administration of 10% SPE in burns gives the best result. This is characterized by a high density of collagen with a good arrangement, which is accompanied by a complete and mature epithelium, low number of inflammatory cells, and angiogenesis. This may be caused by the compounds in the pomegranate extract, which have the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-bacterial effects.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: This study reveals that 10% SPE accelerates the healing of deep second-degree burn wound. Thus, pomegranate standardized with 40% ellagic acid is a promising herb for the healing of burn wound of skin.</p> <p>J. Adv. Vet. Anim. Res., 6(2): 202-207, June 2019</p> Bambang Sektiari Lukiswanto, Alya Miranti, Sri Agus Sudjarwo, Hardany Primarizky, Wiwik Misaco Yuniarti ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 13 Jun 2019 06:22:05 +0000 Antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococci isolated from bovine mastitis in Algeria <p><strong>Objective: </strong>This work aimed to determine the resistance and/or the susceptibility to antibiotics of staphylococci isolated from cattle with mastitis in the North of Algeria.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>The disk diffusion method was carried out to reveal the antibiotic resis­tance in accordance to the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards guidelines in the Mueller-Hinton agar.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Coagulase-negative <em>Staphylococci </em>(CNS) isolates showed more resistance to Cefoxitin, Amoxicillin + Clavulanic Acid, Vancomycin, Trimethoprime Sulfamethoxazole, Clindamycine, Neomycin, and Erythromycin than Coagulase-positive <em>Staphylococci </em>(CPS). CPS were more resis­tant to Penicillin and Tetracycline as compared to CNS strains; however, all these strains presented sensitivity to Gentamicin and neomycin.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The <em>Staphylococci </em>showed high resistance to the beta-lactam antibiotics. As far as the authors know, these molecules are used with or without control in different protocols to prevent and cure the mastitis in Algeria.</p> <p>J. Adv. Vet. Anim. Res., 6(2): 231-235, June 2019</p> Radhwane Saidi, Nora Mimoune, Ratiba Baazizi, Mohamed Hocine Benaissa, Djamel Khelef, Rachid Kaidi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 13 Jun 2019 07:14:02 +0000 Exploration of anthelmintic activity of Cassia spp. extracts on gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep <p><strong>Objective: </strong>This study aimed to explore the phytochemical constituents and anthelmintic activities of four <em>Cassia </em>spp. leaves against <em>Haemonchus contortus</em>.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>The extracts were prepared from four species of <em>Cassia </em>spp. (<em>C. siamea</em>, <em>C. fistula</em>, <em>C. surattensis</em>, and <em>C. spectabilis</em>). Phytochemical screening of the extract was done based on the Harborne method. Evaluation of the anthelmintic activities against <em>H</em>. <em>contortus </em>was done <em>in vitro </em>using infective larvae (L<sub>3</sub>) migration inhibition assay (LMIA). Measurement of larvae migrating was conducted through a nylon filter with a pore size of 20 μm. The doses of <em>Cassia </em>spp. extract implemented were 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/ml.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Tannins, alkaloids, phenol hydroquinone, flavonoids, steroids, triterpenoids, and sapo­nins were present in all the extracts, whereas alkaloids were absent in <em>C</em>. <em>fistula</em>. No triterpenoids were found in <em>C. surattensis </em>and <em>C. spectabilis</em>. Movement of <em>H</em>. <em>contortus </em>larvae was significantly inhibited after exposure to <em>Cassia </em>extracts at various dosage levels (<em>p </em>&lt; 0.05). The test results using LMIA on L<sub>3</sub> <em>H</em>. <em>contortus </em>showed the lowest inhibition in the negative control. Among the species of <em>Cassia</em>, the <em>C</em>. <em>surattensis </em>(at 200 mg/ml) showed the highest (<em>p </em>&lt; 0.05) inhibition level on the larvae. The latter result corresponded to the effect of albendazole.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Compared to other <em>Cassia </em>spp., <em>C</em>. <em>surattensis </em>exhibited the highest inhibition against L3 <em>H</em>. <em>contortus</em>. However, the inhibition effect of <em>C</em>. <em>surattensis </em>was still lower as compared to albendazole.</p> <p>J. Adv. Vet. Anim. Res., 6(2): 236-240, June 2019</p> Sri Wahyuni, Sunarso Sunarso, Bambang Waluyo Hadi Eko Prasetiyono, Fadjar Satrija ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 13 Jun 2019 07:14:12 +0000 Application of real-time polymerase chain reaction using species specific primer targeting on mitochondrial cytochrome-b gene for analysis of pork in meatball products <p><strong>Objective: </strong>This study aimed to design specific primers derived from mitochondrial <em>cytb </em>of <em>Sus Scrofa </em>(1F1R primer) used in the pork meatball analysis using real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>Such designed primers were validated and these included specificity of primer, linearity, and sensitivity of the method as well as the repeatability test. The primers were specifically affirmed in the fresh tissue of chickens, cows, pigs, and goats. The linearity and sensi­tivity of the method was conducted by measuring the amplification curve from a series of dilution (0, 1, 1, 10, 100, 1,000, and 10,000 pg/μl of DNA) extracted from 100% pork meatball formulation. The repeatability test was conducted by determining the cycle threshold (<em>Ct</em>) values of RT-PCR amplification from 100% pork meatball formulation as many as six times.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Primer of 1F1R (forward: 5<strong>′</strong>-ACG CGA TAT AAG CAG GTA AA-3<strong>′</strong>; reverse: 5<strong>′</strong>-CTG CTT TCG TAG CAC GTA TT-3<strong>′</strong>) was specific in analyzing the presence of pork in meatball formulation at 47.1°C, which was optimum annealing temperature. The DNA identification was able to use the primers by RT-PCR with 1 pg as the limit of detection, efficiency value was 242.58%, and the coeffi­cient of determination value (<em>R</em><sub>2</sub>) was 0.956. The coefficient of variance was 4.13%. The developed method was also fruitfully applied to analyze commercial meatballs.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>RT-PCR method using specific primers targeting on mitochondrial gene (1F1R primer) could be used as the standard method for identification of pork in food samples intended for halal authentication studies.</p> <p>J. Adv. Vet. Anim. Res., 6(2): 260-265, June 2019</p> Salmah Orbayinah, Hari Widada, Adam Hermawan, Sismindari Sudjadi, Abdul Rohman ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 13 Jun 2019 07:53:57 +0000 Epitope-based vaccine as a universal vaccination strategy against Toxoplasma gondii infection: A mini-review <p>Despite the significant progress in the recent efforts toward developing an effective vaccine against toxoplasmosis, the search for new protective vaccination strategy still remains a challenge and elusive goal because it becomes the appropriate way to prevent the disease. Various exper­imental approaches in the past few years showed that developing a potential vaccine against the disease can be achievable. The combination of multi-epitopes expressing different stages of the parasite life cycle has become an optimal strategy for acquiring a potent, safe, and effective vaccine. Epitope-based vaccines have gained attention as alternative vaccine candidates due to their ability of inducing protective immune responses. This mini-review highlights the current status and the prospects of <em>Toxoplasma gondii </em>vaccine development along with the application of epitope-based vaccine in the future parasite immunization as a novel under development and evaluation strategy.</p> <p>J. Adv. Vet. Anim. Res., 6(2): 174-182, June 2019</p> Khalid Hajissa, Robaiza Zakaria, Rapeah Suppian, Zeehaida Mohamed ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 13 Jun 2019 04:23:49 +0000