Journal of Advanced Veterinary and Animal Research https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/JAVAR <p>Journal of Advanced Veterinary and Animal Research is an international, peer-reviewed, quarterly, highly-indexed scientific journal publishing original research findings and reviews on all aspects of veterinary and animal sciences. Full text articles available.</p><p>JAVAR is included in the Directory of Open Access Journals (<a title="DOAJ" href="https://doaj.org/toc/2311-7710" target="_blank">DOAJ</a>)</p> en-US <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</p><p>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a title="CC-BY-NC" href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/" target="_blank">Creative Commons Attribution License</a> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</p><p>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</p>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See <a href="http://opcit.eprints.org/oacitation-biblio.html" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>). javar.editor@gmail.com (Prof. Nazmul H. Nazir, DVM, MS, PhD) banglajol.info@gmail.com (md) Fri, 12 Jun 2020 20:09:51 +0000 OJS 3.3.0.6 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Antimicrobial profile of multidrug-resistant Streptococcus spp. isolated from dairy cows with clinical mastitis https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/JAVAR/article/view/47504 <p><strong>Objective: </strong>The current investigation was designed to point out the prevalence of multidrug-resis­tant <em>Streptococcus </em>spp. causing acute clinical mastitis and their pattern of antibiotic resistance in dairy cows.</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods: </strong>Milk was sampled from 128 dairy cows with 191 infected quarters during the period from August 2017 to December 2018. Bacterial species were isolated from the milk samples and identified based on colony morphology and biochemical tests. Multiplex PCR was done for confirmatory detection of the <em>Streptococcus </em>spp. isolates.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The chief isolation percentages, from the sampled milk, were <em>Escherichia coli </em>(26%), then <em>Staphylococcus aureus </em>(23%), and <em>Streptococcus dysagalactiae</em>(23%), then <em>Streptococcus agalac­tiae</em>(20.1%), and finally coagulase-negative <em>Staphylococci </em>(7.7%). In confirmed PCR streptococci isolates, the antibiotic resistance genes have been detected, including macrolides antibiotic resis­tance genes (<em>ermB</em>and <em>mefA</em>genes), lincosamides antibiotic resistance genes (<em>linB</em>gene), and tetra­cycline resistance genes (<em>tetM</em>and <em>tetO</em>genes). Age, parity number, cleaning of bedding materials, cleaning of milking facilities, and utensils and udder cleaning practice were significant risk factors for multidrug-resistant streptococcal mastitis in dairy cows.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The results of this study explored the phenotypic and genotypic traits of <em>Streptococcus </em>spp. which constitute a usual cause of acute clinical mastitis in dairy cows. The <em>ermB</em>, <em>mefA</em>, <em>tetM</em>, and <em>tetO</em>antibiotic-resistant genes were identified in streptococci isolates from dairy cows’ milk with acute clinical mastitis, indicating a public health hazard. Thus, veterinary clinical breakpoints are needed to improve surveillance data, improve the hygiene regimen on the farms, and pro­mote the wise use of antimicrobials.</p> <p>Adv. Vet. Anim. Res., 7(2): 186-197, June 2020</p> Hala Abd El Menem Rizk Saed, Hussam Mohamed Mohamed Ibrahim Copyright (c) 2020 Hala Abd El Menem Rizk Saed, Hussam Mohamed Mohamed Ibrahim https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/JAVAR/article/view/47504 Thu, 11 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The effect of snakehead fish extract supplementation to first-line eradication regimen on macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) expression in rats induced by Helicobacter pylori infection https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/JAVAR/article/view/47506 <p><strong>Objective: </strong>This work was organized to assess macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) expression in snakehead fish extract supplementation to first-line eradication regimen in rats induced by <em>Helicobacter pylori </em>infection.</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods: </strong>A total of 28 manly rats were haphazardly isolated equally into four groups. Group-1 was the control negative, and groups-2–4 were <em>H. pylori</em>-infected groups. Group-2 was the control positive. Groups-3 and 4 were treated with first-line eradication regi­men and first-line eradication regimen supplemented with snakehead fish extract, respectively. Immunoreactive scores (IRS) of MIF expression and eradication testing procedure were carried out. The comparison and difference between groups were analyzed by Kruskal–Wallis and <em>post hoc </em>Mann–Whitney U-test. A value of <em>p </em>&lt; 0.05 was considered to be a limit of significance.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The average IRS of MIF expression in group-2 was the highest among other groups (<em>p </em>&lt; 0.05). Group-4 (supplemented by snakehead fish extract) had a lower median value IRS of MIF expression compared to group-3 [1.0 (0.0–2.0) <em>vs. </em>3.5 (2.0–6.0), <em>p </em>= 0.004].</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>MIF expression was higher in rats induced by <em>H. pylori </em>infection. Snakehead fish extract supplementation to first-line eradication regimen significantly reduces more MIF expres­sion compared to a single administration of first-line eradication regimen in rats induced by <em>H. pylori </em>infection.</p> <p>Adv. Vet. Anim. Res., 7(2): 209-217, June 2020</p> OK Yulizal, Aznan Lelo, Syafruddin Ilyas, Raden Lia Kusumawati Copyright (c) 2020 OK Yulizal, Aznan Lelo, Syafruddin Ilyas, Raden Lia Kusumawati https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/JAVAR/article/view/47506 Thu, 11 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Measurement of the tibial plateau angle of normal small-breed dogs and the application of the tibial plateau angle in cranial cruciate ligament rupture https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/JAVAR/article/view/47507 <p><strong>Objective: </strong>In Korea, small dogs are more common than large breeds. This study was performed to measure the influence of body weight, sex, breed, age, and cranial cruciate ligament rupture (RCCL) on the tibial plateau angle (TPA) in small-breed dogs.</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods: </strong>A total of 274 dogs (221 normal dogs and 53 RCCL dogs) were selected for this study based on medical records. The TPA was measured from stifle joint radiographs. The dogs were divided according to body weight, sex (male and female; normal and neutered), age, breed, and RCCL, and the TPAs of the dogs were compared.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>In general, the TPAs of male dogs were significantly (<em>p </em>&lt; 0.05) higher than those of female dogs, and those of healthy neutered dogs were higher than those of healthy intact dogs. The TPA had a tendency to increase along with the animal’s age but was not significantly different among the four age groups. In general, the TPA of RCCL dogs was 27.12° ± 0.62°, which was significantly higher (<em>p </em>&lt; 0.001) than that of normal dogs (20.21° ± 0.32°), indicating that an increased TPA is associated with a higher risk for RCCL. Similar results were also observed among dogs with similar body weights, breeds, and ages for male and female RCCL dogs.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>This study suggested that the sex and neutering status of dogs could affect the TPA. This study also confirmed the use of TPA in the veterinary clinic as a possible indicator of RCCL, as the TPA is higher in RCCL dogs than in normal dogs.</p> <p>Adv. Vet. Anim. Res., 7(2): 220-228, June 2020</p> Beom Seok Seo, In Seong Jeong, Zhenglin Piao, Minju Kim, Sehoon Kim, Md Mahbubur Rahman, Nam Soo Kim Copyright (c) 2020 Beom Seok Seo, In Seong Jeong, Zhenglin Piao, Minju Kim, Sehoon Kim, Md Mahbubur Rahman, Nam Soo Kim https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/JAVAR/article/view/47507 Thu, 11 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Inspection of real and imputed genotypes reveled 76 SNPs associated to rear udder height in Holstein cattle https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/JAVAR/article/view/47517 <p><strong>Objective: </strong>This paper presents the obtained result of a study that realizes to associate a set of real and imputed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) genotypes to the rear udder height in Holstein cows.</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods: </strong>Forty-six Holstein cows from an arid zone of Mexico were phenotyped and genotyped for this study. Blood samples were used for DNA extraction, genotyping was per­formed with the Illumina BovineLD Bead chip which interrogates 6,912 SNPs genome-wide, and imputation was performed using the Findhap software. After QC filters, a total of 22,251 high quality and informative SNPs were inspected.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The results showed the detection of 76 significant SNPs throughout the complete genome. Significant SNPs fall inside 111 Quantitative Loci Traits related to protein percentage, milk yield, and fat, among others, in chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 19, 20, 21, 23, 26, 27, and 29. Similarly, results confirm that a genotype imputation is a convenient option for genome-wide covering when selecting economic traits with low-density real SNP panels.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>This study contributes to establishing a low-cost and profitable strategy for applying genomic selection in developing countries.</p> <p>Adv. Vet. Anim. Res., 7(2): 234-241, June 2020</p> Mirvana Gonzalez, Rafael Villa, Carlos Villa, Victor Gonzalez, Martin Montano, Gerardo Medina, Pad Mahadevan Copyright (c) 2020 Mirvana Gonzalez, Rafael Villa, Carlos Villa, Victor Gonzalez, Martin Montano, Gerardo Medina, Pad Mahadevan https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/JAVAR/article/view/47517 Fri, 12 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Normal anatomical and diagnostic imaging techniques of the musculotendinous structures of the ostrich (Struthio camelus) foot https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/JAVAR/article/view/47518 <p><strong>Objective: </strong>The objective of this work was to study the normal musculotendinousstructures of the ostrich foot.</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods: </strong>Ten African apparent healthy adult female ostriches (<em>Struthiocamelus</em>) were slaughtered, and the pelvic limbs were separated from the ankle joint. The different biomed­ical scanning techniques including radiography, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasonography were achieved. Then, the ostrich feet were freshly dissected.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The radiographs and CT images showed the bony components of the ostrich foot that revealed the presence of long tarsometatarsus and phalanges of the only developed third and fourth toes. The third digit was the longest and possessed four phalanges, whereas the shorter fourth toe contained five phalanges. The ostrich foot consisted mainly of tendons in addition to several small associated muscles. The extensor structures were the extensor digitorum longus tendon, Mm. extensor propriusdigiti III, and extensor brevis digiti III and IV. On the other hand, the flexor structures were the flexor digitorum longus, flexor hallucis longus, flexor perforansetperforatusdigiti III, and flexor perforatusdigiti III and IV tendons. Furthermore, fibularis lon­gus tendon and two muscles (Mm. abductor digiti IV and lumbricalis) were related to the flexor tendons.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The combination between the dissecting anatomy and the different biomedical scan­ning techniques was of value in describing the normal anatomical course of the musculotendi­nous structures of the ostrich foot, which aids in the diagnosis of any clinical abnormalities in these structures.</p> <p>Adv. Vet. Anim. Res., 7(2): 242-252, June 2020</p> Eman AA Mahdy, Mustafa Abd El Raouf Copyright (c) 2020 Eman AA Mahdy, Mustafa Abd El Raouf https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/JAVAR/article/view/47518 Fri, 12 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The impact of different levels of L-methionine (L-Met) on carcass yield traits, serum metabolites, tibial characters, and profitability of broilers fed conventional diet https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/JAVAR/article/view/47520 <p><strong>Objectives: </strong>The experiment was undertaken to investigate the performances of broilers with respect to meat yield traits, leg bone quality, blood metabolites, and economic profitability fed conventional diets supplemented with L-methionine (L-Met).</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods: </strong>Day-old broiler chicks (<em>n </em>= 144) of either sex were used to conduct the experiment from d1 to 33 days in a battery cage rearing system. Birds were distributed randomly into four dietary treatments, i.e., D0 (DL-Met), D1 (0.20% L-Met), D2 (0.25% L-Met), and D3 (0.30% L-Met) in a completely randomized design. Broiler chicks were fed complete starter ration for the first 2 weeks and then test diets were supplied <em>ad libitum </em>from d15 to 33 days. All the formu­lated rations had the same calorie and proteinous values. Similar housing, feeding, and rearing management were provided to the birds for all the experimental period. Data on carcass yield traits, such as dressing %, thigh, breast, back, drumstick, shank, neck, and wing weights, etc, were measured on the last day of the trial. Blood serum profile (total protein, glucose, albumin, uric acid, creatinine, and triglycerides), right tibial bone traits (bone weight, bone width), and mineral concentrations (Ca% and P%) were also assessed on the last day of the experiment. The economic profitability of broilers fed on the L-Met diet was also measured in this study.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The results revealed that except for dressing % (<em>p </em>&lt; 0.05) and back weight (<em>p </em>&lt; 0.01); all other meat characteristics measured this study were found similar (<em>p </em>&gt; 0.05) between treatments. The highest dressing % and back weight were observed in the D3 group and the lowest being in D0. Blood serum metabolites did not differ (<em>p </em>&gt; 0.05) among treatments. Leg bone traits of broilers were found similar (<em>p </em>&gt; 0.05) between treatments. Higher profit (<em>p </em>&lt; 0.01) and lower production cost (<em>p </em>&lt; 0.05) were observed in the birds fed the D3 diet than other treatments.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>It can be inferred that broilers might show improved dressed yield and profitable broiler production fed on L-Met supplemented diet (D3).</p> <p>Adv. Vet. Anim. Res., 7(2): 253-259, June 2020</p> Nasima Akter, Md Saiful Islam, Sharmin Zaman, Ishrath Jahan, Mohammad Abul Hossain Copyright (c) 2020 Nasima Akter, Md. Saiful Islam, Sharmin Zaman, Ishrath Jahan, Mohammad Abul Hossain https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/JAVAR/article/view/47520 Fri, 12 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The impact of phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor (sildenafil citrate) on some hippocampal neurotransmitters, oxidative stress status, minerals, and anxiety-like behavior in rats https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/JAVAR/article/view/47522 <p><strong>Objective: </strong>The purpose of this work was to investigate the effect of phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE-5) inhibitor sildenafil citrate (SC) on the level of brain hippocampal neurophysiological parameters (inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmitters), oxidant/antioxidant status, minerals, and anxiety-like behavior using albino male rats.</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods: </strong>A total of 24 albino male rats were allocated to three separate groups (each one had eight rats): control and SC 5 and 10 mg/kg treatments via i.p. infusion every 3 days for 12 injections. For the behavior of anxiety evaluation, the elevated plus maze test was conducted 1 day after the last treatment, and then all the rats were killed. For serum separation, the blood samples were taken, and hippocampus was dissected from the brain and stored frozen until analysis.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Both doses of sildenafil significantly improved brain hippocampal neurotransmitter [nor­epinephrine, serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine), and gamma-aminobutyric acid] values accompa­nied by a decreased dopamine level. Interestingly, the SC higher given dose (10 mg/kg) increased the malondialdehyde level with the reduction of the antioxidant parameters [reduced glutathione (GSH) level, catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities] although the lower dose of SC did not cause oxidative stress. Serum and brain hippocampal K, Cu, and Se concentrations were also increased with SC treatments. Moreover, the test of elevated plus maze revealed an anxiolytic impact of sildenafil.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>It was concluded that SC improved the parameters of some hippocampal neurotrans­mitters and minerals accompanied by anxiolytic impact with the test of elevated plus maze, with a state of oxidative stress revealed with the higher dose of SC which was not recorded with the lower dose.</p> <p>Adv. Vet. Anim. Res., 7(2): 281-289, June 2020</p> Mona Hafez Hafez, Sara Elsayed El Kazaz Copyright (c) 2020 Mona Hafez Hafez, Sara Elsayed El Kazaz https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/JAVAR/article/view/47522 Fri, 12 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Primiparous and multiparous Friesland, Jersey, and crossbred cows’ behavior around parturition time at the pasture-based system in South Africa https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/JAVAR/article/view/47523 <p><strong>Objective: </strong>The objective of the study was to assess the behavioral attributes of primiparous and multiparous Friesland, Jersey, and Crossbred cows around calving time in a pasture-based dairy system.</p> <p><strong>Material and methods</strong>: A total of 120 pregnant cows were used in the study, comprising of 40 cows per genotype in different parities [A-primiparous (<em>n </em>= 10), B-2 to 4 (<em>n </em>= 10), C-5 and 6 (<em>n </em>= 10), and D-7 and 8 (<em>n </em>= 10)] and kept in a maternity paddock. Five observers monitored cows from the onset of parturition until the calves were fully expelled, recording the frequency and duration of lying, standing, and walking bouts, calf licking, and suckling.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>There were differences (<em>p </em>&lt; 0.05) observed in the behavioral patterns around the time of calving. Jersey multiparous cows spent (<em>p </em>&lt; 0.05) significantly most of their time (20.50 ± 3.10) in lying position as compared to the other genotypes. The Jersey cows also spent most (<em>p </em>&lt; 0.05) of their time (48.00 ± 0.34) in a standing position during the calving period. Friesland cows spent (<em>p </em>&lt; 0.05) most of their time (12.00 ± 1.19) exhibiting either stepping or walking attributes as compared to Jersey and Crossbred cows. The Jersey genotype spent significantly (<em>p </em>&lt; 0.05) more time (123.00 ± 10.43) in expelling their calves compared to the other genotypes. There was a significant (<em>p </em>&lt; 0.05) interaction between genotypes and parity on time spent by cows on licking their calves. There was a significant difference (<em>p </em>&lt; 0.05) observed between the genotypes of the primiparous cow.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The primiparous cows spent most of their time in standing and the least amount of time in other activities throughout the trial due to the lack of maternal experience. The current study revealed that behavioral activities differ according to genotype and parity.</p> <p>Adv. Vet. Anim. Res., 7(2): 290-298, June 2020</p> Mpisana Zuko, Ishmael Festus Jaja Copyright (c) 2020 Mpisana Zuko, Ishmael Festus Jaja https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/JAVAR/article/view/47523 Fri, 12 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Nutritional characterization of various classes of Egyptian beef luncheon https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/JAVAR/article/view/47524 <p><strong>Objectives: </strong>The present work was conducted to investigate the nutritional profile of the highly consumed beef luncheon in Egypt. Besides, the potential health hazards associated with the con­sumption of luncheon were highlighted.</p> <p><strong>Material and methods: </strong>A total of 60 beef luncheon samples were collected from Egyptian mar­kets. They were classified into three classes: A, B, and C based on their prices. The collected samples were examined for their chemical composition by determining moisture, protein, fat, ash, carbohydrate, and energy percentage. The contents of trace elements were also investigated<strong>.</strong></p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The obtained findings showed a comprehensive dissimilarity in the chemical composition. According to the fresh weight base, moisture, protein, fat, ash, and carbohydrate fluctuated from 56.97 to 64.52, 3.50 to 16.10, 4.73 to 13.39, 3.30 to 3.51, and 11.32 to 27.44% w/w, respectively. The highest price class A Egyptian beef luncheon had more accepted nutritive value and dietary energy content. All the examined classes were low in calcium, potassium, zinc, and magnesium. The target hazard quotient indicated that the trace elements did not present any risks for con­sumers except for sodium. High phosphorous content and high phosphorus–protein ratio were observed in all categories which had a harmful health effect, hence named “new cholesterol.”</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Based on the information, this study is the leading work that deeply investigated the chemical composition of the Egyptian luncheon classes, and the obtained data could be beneficial to update the nutritional knowledge used by dietitians and the responsible for nutrition assess­ment and surveillance by the government.</p> <p>Adv. Vet. Anim. Res., 7(2): 299-307, June 2020</p> Mohamed Abdelfattah Maky, Mustafa Sadek, Obeid Shanab, Hala Abdel Mohsen Mahmoud, Ibrahim Farag Rehan Copyright (c) 2020 Mohamed Abdelfattah Maky, Mustafa Sadek, Obeid Shanab, Hala Abdel Mohsen Mahmoud, Ibrahim Farag Rehan https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/JAVAR/article/view/47524 Fri, 12 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Diagnostic performance of ultrasonography in clinical management of dairy cattle identified with left-sided ping sounds https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/JAVAR/article/view/47525 <p><strong>Objectives: </strong>Left displaced abomasum (LDA) is a common postparturient condition of high yielding dairy cattle. The diagnosis of LDA is challenging and has historically been based on findings that are not specific to the condition. The objective of the current study was to investigate the diag­nostic performance of ultrasonography (USG) in the clinical management of dairy cows identified with left-sided ping sound <em>postpartum</em>.</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods: </strong>Cows with reduced appetite <em>postpartum </em>and had audible left-sided ping sounds on abdominal auscultation were eligible to be prospectively recruited onto the study. The results of clinical findings and abdominal USG were recorded along with milk β-hydroxybutyrate levels, pH levels of abomaso/rumenocentesis samples, and findings on exploratory laparotomy. The diagnostic performance of USG and other clinical investigations was assessed by calculating the test sensitivity and specificity using exploratory laparotomy as a gold standard test.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>A definitive diagnosis of LDA was made in 23 cows, 8 cows were diagnosed with peritoni­tis, and 4 cows with frothy tympany. The USG findings that were consistent with LDA were present in all cattle diagnosed with LDA at exploratory laparotomy. The USG findings over the past three intercostal space characteristics of LDA, however, were also present in five cases subsequently diagnosed with peritonitis and in all cases diagnosed with frothy tympany on exploratory lapa­rotomy. The pH of abdomaso/rumenocentesis samples yielded the highest diagnostic accuracy (97.14%) as a single test in the current study.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>USG over the left abdominal wall despite being a highly sensitive test for the diagno­sis of LDA has limitations as a diagnostic tool due to suboptimal specificity.</p> <p>Adv. Vet. Anim. Res., 7(2): 308-313, June 2020</p> Shaimaa M Gouda, Ahmed M Abdelaal, Mohamed Gomaa, Magdy M Elgioushy, Walid Refaai, Rebecca R Mouncey, Shebl E Salem Copyright (c) 2020 Shaimaa M Gouda, Ahmed M Abdelaal, Mohamed Gomaa, Magdy M Elgioushy, Walid Refaai, Rebecca R Mouncey, Shebl E Salem https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/JAVAR/article/view/47525 Fri, 12 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Dynamics of somatic cell count and intramammary infection in lactating dairy cows https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/JAVAR/article/view/47526 <p><strong>Objective: </strong>The influence of intramammary infection (IMI) and types of bacteria was assessed on somatic cell count (SCC) in dairy cows’ milk with respect to breed, age, parity, stage of lactation, milk production, and mammary quarter location.</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods: </strong>After recording data in a structured questionnaire, 360 samples of quar­ter milk were collected. The samples were subjected to SCC and isolation and identification of bacteria. The data were analyzed to find out the significant influence of independent factors on SCC and IMI.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The infected quarters had a significantly higher mean SCC (210.52 × 103 cells/ml) compared to uninfected ones (32.72 × 103 cells/ml). The mean SCC was the highest for IMI with <em>Enterobacter</em>spp. (338.00 × 103 cells/ml) followed by <em>Bacillus </em>spp. (319.20 × 103 cells/ml), coagulase-negative <em>Staphylococci </em>(CNS) (268.17 × 103 cells/ml), <em>Staphylococcus aureus </em>(218.31 × 103 cells/ ml), and <em>Escherichia coli </em>(200.75 × 103 cells/ml) and the lowest for <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa </em>(66.33 × 103 cells/ml). Milk of rear quarters had a significantly higher SCC than the front quarters<strong>. </strong>SCC increased with increasing age, parity, and lactation stage regardless of whether cows are infected or not. The IMI was more prevalent in rear quarters (42.2%) and cows at early (≤7 days) lactation (100.0%). Cows having a parity of ≥5 and crossbred and high yielding (&gt;5 l) cows had also a higher rate of IMI of 38.2%, 36.7%, and 38.2%, respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The IMI and type of bacteria were the principal factors for SCC variation. Besides, mammary quarter location, age, and parity should be taken into consideration during the inter­pretation of SCC.</p> <p>Adv. Vet. Anim. Res., 7(2): 314-319, June 2020</p> SM Mostafizur Rahaman Sumon, Mst Sonia Parvin, Md Amimul Ehsan, Md Taohidul Islam Copyright (c) 2020 SM Mostafizur Rahaman Sumon, Mst Sonia Parvin, Md Amimul Ehsan, Md Taohidul Islam https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/JAVAR/article/view/47526 Fri, 12 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Post-natal macro- and microscopic changes of the thymus of Sonali chicken in Bangladesh https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/JAVAR/article/view/47532 <p><strong>Objectives: </strong>Avian lymphatic system plays a very significant role in immunity as well as disease control. This research aimed to investigate the histomorphological changes and involution of the thymus of Sonali chicken at different post-natal stages in Bangladesh as the age-related changes of the thymus of Sonali chicken were not described before.</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods: </strong>A gross and microscopic investigation was performed on the thymus of 25 healthy Sonali chickens representing different stages of post-natal life: days 1, 14, 28, 42, and 56. Experimental chickens were sacrificed by cervical subluxation, and the thymus was collected and subjected for both the gross and histological studies. The histological changes were examined with light microscopy after H&amp;E staining.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The thymus was located in close association of the jugular vein, having a long chain of thy­mic lobes, 5–8 lobes on each side. The statistically significant age-related changes were observed (<em>p </em>&lt; 0.05). All gross parameters (weight, length, width, and thickness) found to be increased up to day 42. On day 56, the growth was found to decline from the previous groups. The microscopic observations revealed the same pattern of changes such as gross parameters, i.e., continuously increased till day 42 and then declined (<em>p </em>&lt; 0.05). At day 56, the involutory signs such as partial loss of interlobular septa and accumulation of adipose tissue in connective tissue septa were found.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>It is well known that in chicken, after a certain period, the thymus got involuted. In Sonali chicken of Bangladesh, the age of involution was notified at day 56/8th week of the post-natal stage, which was correlated both in macro- and microscopic observations.</p> <p>Adv. Vet. Anim. Res., 7(2): 324-330, June 2020</p> Ummay Ayman, Md Rafiqul Alam, Shonkor Kumar Das Copyright (c) 2020 Ummay Ayman, Md Rafiqul Alam, Shonkor Kumar Das https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/JAVAR/article/view/47532 Fri, 12 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Growth and reproduction performances of earthworm (Perionyx excavatus) fed with different organic waste materials https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/JAVAR/article/view/47533 <p><strong>Objective: </strong>The purpose of the experiment was to examine the effect of different food sources on the growth and reproduction performances of an epigeic earthworm <em>Perionyxexcavatus</em>.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>The experiment was carried out in 18 cylindrical plastic containers for 10 weeks. The study was designed with six treatments, each having three replicates. In control treat­ment (T1), cow dung was used as the only food source for the earthworm. In another five treat­ments, water hyacinth (T2), chopped banana plant trunk (T3), vegetable scrap (T4), paddy straw (T5), and sugarcane bagasse (T6) were used as food sources with cow dung as bedding material.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The maximum weight gain of earthworm <em>P. excavatus</em>was 3,294.7 ± 4.5 mg for the food staff of vegetable scrap (T4). Earthworm <em>P. excavatus</em>fed with chopped banana plant trunk (T3) showed a very similar weight gain of 3,243.7 <em>± </em>3.8 mg. On the contrary, the minimum weight gain was 1,799.7 <em>± </em>3.5 mg for the food staff of paddy straw (T5). The maximum cocoon number of 137.33 <em>± </em>6.46 mg was observed in T3, whereas a minimum number of 36.67 <em>± </em>4.16 mg in T1. The highest number of hatchlings (12.33 <em>± </em>0.88 mg) was recorded in treatment T3, whereas the least number of hatchling (5.00 <em>± </em>0.58 mg) was observed in T1.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>It was concluded that, among the six different food sources, chopped banana plant trunk was preferable food source to the earthworm for growth and reproduction.</p> <p>Adv. Vet. Anim. Res., 7(2): 331-337, June 2020</p> Masuma Akter Sadia, Md Amzad Hossain, Md Rabiul Islam, Taslima Akter, Dinesh Chandra Shaha Copyright (c) 2020 Masuma Akter Sadia, Md Amzad Hossain, Md Rabiul Islam, Taslima Akter, Dinesh Chandra Shaha https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/JAVAR/article/view/47533 Fri, 12 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Migratory birds as the potential source for the transmission of Aspergillus and other fungus to Bangladesh https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/JAVAR/article/view/47534 <p><strong>Objectives: </strong>Migratory birds play a major role in the transmission of pathogens globally, but still their role in the transmission of fungi in Bangladesh is not known. The present study was carried out for the isolation and molecular detection of fungi including <em>Aspergillus </em>from migratory birds traveling to Bangladesh.</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods: </strong>A total of 50 fecal samples were collected from BaojaniBaor, Magura, and areas close to Jahangirnagar University, Savar. The isolation of fungus was based on culture on Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA), followed by staining, morphology, and molecular detection using polymerase chain reaction (PCR).</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Among 50 samples, 40 showed positive for fungal growth on PDA, of which 30 yield only yeast-like colonies, five only molds, and five yielded both yeast and molds. The isolated molds produced various pigmented colonies, namely, black, whitish, grayish, olive green, and yellow. Among 10 molds, six were confirmed as fungi by PCR using genus-specific primers such as ITS1 and ITS4. Later, of these six fungi, five were confirmed as <em>Aspergillus </em>by PCR with primers such as ASAP1 and ASAP2 specific for <em>Aspergillus </em>genus. Therefore, the overall occurrence of <em>Aspergillus </em>was 10% (5/50). PCR specific for <em>Aspergillus fumigatus</em>and <em>Aspergillus niger</em>failed to produce specific PCR amplicon, suggesting that the isolated <em>Aspergillus </em>belongs to other groups.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>This is the first report describing the isolation and molecular detection of <em>Aspergillus </em>from fecal samples of migratory birds in Bangladesh. The present findings confirm that migratory birds are potential source for <em>Aspergillus </em>and other fungus in Bangladesh.</p> <p>Adv. Vet. Anim. Res., 7(2): 338-344, June 2020</p> Mily Akter, Md Saiful Islam, Md Amirul Islam, Md Abdus Sobur, Md Salim Jahan, Saifur Rahman, KHM Nazmul Hussain Nazir, Md Tanvir Rahman Copyright (c) 2020 Mily Akter, Md Saiful Islam, Md Amirul Islam, Md Abdus Sobur, Md Salim Jahan, Saifur Rahman, KHM Nazmul Hussain Nazir, Md Tanvir Rahman https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/JAVAR/article/view/47534 Fri, 12 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Coexistence of diverse heavy metal pollution magnitudes: Health risk assessment of affected cattle and human population in some rural regions, Qena, Egypt https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/JAVAR/article/view/47535 <p><strong>Objective: </strong>The purpose of this study was to measure the mean concentrations of heavy metals including aluminum (Al), arsenic, nickel (Ni), mercury, lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd) and to assess the health hazards due to the exposure of cattle/human population to a distinct or the mixture of heavy metals through various sources.</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods: </strong>A total of 180 samples including water sources, animal feed, and raw cows’ milk from rural regions in Qena, Egypt, were examined using the inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometer (ICP; iCAP 6200).</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The data highlighted heavy metal pollution with variable concentrations among most of the investigated regions. All concentrations of Al, Ni, and Cd detected in the feeding stuff showed a strong correlation to their respective levels in milk rather than those detected in water (<em>R</em>2= 0.072 <em>vs</em>. 0.039, 0.13 <em>vs. </em>0.10, and 0.46 <em>vs. </em>0.014, respectively) (<em>p </em>&lt; 0.05). Anisocytosis and poi­kilocytosis with a tendency to rouleaux formation were evident, and basophilic stippling was a pathognomic indicator for heavy metal toxicity, especially Pb. Leukopenia and macrocytic anemia were shown in 50% and 65% of examined cattle, respectively. The target hazard quotients values were more than one (&gt;1) for all heavy metals from water intake for both children and adults and Al and Cd in milk for children, and the hazard index values were indicated higher for noncarcino­genichealth hazards. The target cancer risk values predispose people in the surveyed villages to higher cancerous risks due to exposures to the mixture of heavy metal through the consumption of water and milk.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The bioaccumulation and transmission of heavy metal mixtures from water sources and feeding material have detrimental influences on milk pollution and cattle health which seem to be a serious issue affecting public health in those rural communities.</p> <p>Adv. Vet. Anim. Res., 7(2): 345-359, June 2020</p> Hassan M Diab, Mohammed A Alkahtani, Ahmed S Ahmed, Atef M Khalil, Mohmmed A Alshehri, Mohamed AA Ahmed, Ibrahim F Rehan, Ahmed A Elmansi, Ahmed E Ahmed Copyright (c) 2020 Hassan M Diab, Mohammed A Alkahtani, Ahmed S Ahmed, Atef M Khalil, Mohmmed A Alshehri, Mohamed AA Ahmed, Ibrahim F Rehan, Ahmed A Elmansi, Ahmed E Ahmed https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/JAVAR/article/view/47535 Fri, 12 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The emergence of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype O PanAsia-02 sub-lineage of Middle East–South Asian topotype in Bangladesh https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/JAVAR/article/view/47536 <p><strong>Objective: </strong>This research work was conducted for the molecular characterization of the circulating foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus in Bangladesh and revealed out their serotype.</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods: </strong>The <em>VP1 </em>gene of six field isolates of FMD virus (FMDV) serotypes (two serotypes O, two serotypes A, and two serotypes Asia 1) was subjected for sequencing and phy­logenetic analysis. Neighbor-joining trees were constructed by using the Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis 6, having the field nucleotide sequences of FMDV and related sequences avail­able in the GenBank.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The nucleotide sequences of the <em>VP1 </em>genes of serotypes O, A, and Asia-1 of the isolates revealed that overall isolates were 91%–100% similar to the isolates reported from Bangladesh and other neighboring countries. Among the isolates reported from Bangladesh, serotype O had 98%–100% identity, serotype A had 91%–100% identity, and serotype Asia-1 had 94%–100% iden­tity. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that the FMDV serotype O PanAsia-02 sub-lineage was con­firmed in Bangladesh under the Middle East–South Asian (ME-SA) topotype. On the other hand, we identified genotype VII (18) of Asia topotype (serotype A) and lineage C (serotype Asia-1).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The FMDV serotype O PanAsia-02 sub-lineage was confirmed in Bangladesh under the ME-SA topotype for the first time. The extensive cross-border animal movement from neigh­boring countries may act as the source of diversified FMDV serotypes in Bangladesh.</p> <p>Adv. Vet. Anim. Res., 7(2): 360-366, June 2020</p> Md Liakot Hossen, Sultan Ahmed, Mohammad Ferdousur Rahman Khan, KHM Nazmul Hussain Nazir, Sukumar Saha, Md Ariful Islam, Md Tanvir Rahma, Sheikh Mohammad Sayem, Md Bahanur Rahman Copyright (c) 2020 Md Liakot Hossen, Sultan Ahmed, Mohammad Ferdousur Rahman Khan, KHM Nazmul Hussain Nazir, Sukumar Saha, Md Ariful Islam, Md Tanvir Rahma, Sheikh Mohammad Sayem, Md Bahanur Rahman https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/JAVAR/article/view/47536 Fri, 12 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Matrix metallopeptidases regulate granulosa cell remodeling through the hormone signaling pathway https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/JAVAR/article/view/47537 <p><strong>Objective: </strong>Granulosa cells (GCs) play a very important role in reproductive physiology due to their effect on developmental and functional changes. However, there are differing views regard­ing the mechanism by which hormones stimulate GCs. Therefore, our study aims to determine whether GCs, in the absence of initial stimulation (17β-estradiol), select specific types of MMPs that reconstitute cells by stimulation of major hormones [follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) or/ and luteinizing hormone (LH)].</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods: </strong>Early GCs were extracted from immature follicles of the porcine ovary to analyze the MMPs levels. Using early GCs in pigs, the cell development rate was evaluated by add­ing 17β-estradiol, FSH, LH, or FSH + LH, respectively, to the DMEM containing 10% FBS. Real-time PCR, zymography, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, western blot, and immunofluorescence analysis were also performed to determine the MMPs activation in the GCs.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Our results confirm that FSH or LH stimulation regulates cell development and intracel­lular MMPs. In particular, FSH activity kept the MMP-2 and MMP-9 expressions constant in GCs. Conversely, LH activity initially led to rapid increases in the MMP-9 expression, which 96 h later was similar to the MMP-2 expression. Simultaneous utilization of FSH + LH maintained a steady MMP-9 expression and the development of GCs increased. Additionally, when FSH and LH were processed simultaneously, the number of cells increased without changes in cell size, while the cell size changed when LH alone was used.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Therefore, the results of this study confirm that even without the initial stimulation of GCs, physiological changes occur according to hormonal changes in the environment, and there is variability in the expression of MMPs.</p> <p>Adv. Vet. Anim. Res., 7(2): 367-373, June 2020</p> Sang Hwan Kim, Jong Taek Yoon Copyright (c) 2020 Sang Hwan Kim, Jong Taek Yoon https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/JAVAR/article/view/47537 Fri, 12 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effects of feeding rumen–protected amino acids on the performance of feedlot calves https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/JAVAR/article/view/47516 <p><strong>Objective: </strong>This study was conducted to produce and evaluate protected amino acids (AAs) against degradation in the rumen with greater bioavalibility and without the problems associated with polymer coating and the effect this has on calf performance.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>In the first step, essential AAs methionine and lysine were reacted with two chemical compounds (Benzaldehyde and Glutaraldehyde) in an attempt to make ligands for producing protected AAs. The physico-chemical characterization, melting point, and mass spec­trometric of products were estimated. These products were fed to 36 Holstein dairy calves with 110 ± 0.50 kg of average body weight and an age of 110 ± 10 days. Calves were randomly assigned to six treatments. This study was done with six treatments as a completely randomized one-way design.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Feed consumption and average daily gain were less for control animals and those fed methionine and lysine glutaraldehyde compared to other treatments. The largest chewing time was observed for methionine and lysine glutaraldehyde, respectively, and the least was control. There was no difference for energy consumption, dry matter intake, or blood metabolites among the six treatments. The greatest total protein content was related to methionine and lysine glutar­aldehyde treatment and the least total protein was observed in control treatment.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>It can be concluded that the use of chemical methods to protect AAs can be applied and may have some beneficial effects.</p> <p>Adv. Vet. Anim. Res., 7(2): 229-233, June 2020</p> Mitra Mazinani, Abbas Ali Naserian, Brian J Rude, Abdol Mansour Tahmasbi, Reza Valizadeh Copyright (c) 2020 Mitra Mazinani, Abbas Ali Naserian, Brian J Rude, Abdol Mansour Tahmasbi, Reza Valizadeh https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/JAVAR/article/view/47516 Fri, 12 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0000 In silico analysis of PirA- and PirB-like toxin genes of Vibrio spp., present in Asia and Costa Rica https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/JAVAR/article/view/47531 <p><strong>Objective: </strong>Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease is an emerging infectious disease of <em>Penaeus</em>species. The causative agent is <em>Vibrio </em>species, which dispels binary toxin similar to <em>pir</em>A and <em>pir</em>B, which causes mortality in infected shrimp. The aim of this research was to investigate the evolu­tionary relationship of <em>pir</em>A and <em>pir</em>B homologous genes present in this Asia and Costa Rica <em>in silico</em>.</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods: </strong>The sequences for <em>in silico</em>analysis were all retrieved from the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool Nucleotide (BLASTN) tool of the National Center for Biotechnology Center. For <em>pir</em>A, a total of 25 sequences submitted from different Asian countries and Costa Rica were retrieved for analysis. Meanwhile, for <em>pir</em>B, a total of 11 sequences submitted from five Asian countries were retrieved. Sequences were aligned using the CLUSTAL W alignment tool under Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (MEGA) 7 software. The evolutionary history was then estimated using the Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic mean (UPGMA) method, whereas the evolutionary distances were determined using the maximum composite likelihood model with 1,000 bootstrap replications.</p> <p><strong>Results and Discussion: </strong>The results show that, among 27 DNA sequences analyzed for <em>pir</em>A gene, three groups were generated, while for <em>pir</em>B, 13 DNA sequences yielded only one group. The anal­ysis revealed low genetic variation among isolates for both <em>pir</em>A and <em>pir</em>B genes.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>This result suggests that the low frequency of polymorphism and geographic location cannot be attributed to the differences in <em>V. parahaemolyticus</em>isolates in Asian countries relative to Costa Rican isolates in <em>pir</em>A and <em>pir</em>B genes.</p> <p>Adv. Vet. Anim. Res., 7(2): 320-323, June 2020</p> Arren Christian M De Guia, Jaypee S Samson, Mary Rose D Uy Copyright (c) 2020 Arren Christian M De Guia, Jaypee S Samson, Mary Rose D Uy https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/JAVAR/article/view/47531 Fri, 12 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The emergence of novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in Bangladesh: Present status, challenges, and future management https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/JAVAR/article/view/47505 <p>Immediate after the official declaration of COVID-19 in Bangladesh on 8 March 2020, it has created public panic which results in price plummeting of the capital market and price hike of many essen­tial commodities. Worldwide, the outbreak of COVID-19 has declared a pandemic. In response, the Government of Bangladesh has initiated some strict measures such as stopping the entry of passengers from Europe, stopping on-arrival visas and self-quarantine for 2 weeks for all passen­gers return from abroad. Still, many loopholes exist at the entry points of Bangladesh. Most of the people of Bangladesh are yet to aware of the consequences of COVID-19. In this backdrop, this article has attempted to create public awareness about COVID-19, providing some guidelines to restrict this deadly disease, enlisting current challenges of this disease in Bangladesh. This review would be helpful to undertake future management practices against the fearsome COVID-19 in Bangladesh.</p> <p>Adv. Vet. Anim. Res., 7(2): 198-208, June 2020</p> Mohammad Shah Alam, Mohammad Zahangeer Alam, KHM Nazmul Hussain Nazir, Md Abdullahil Baki Bhuiyan Copyright (c) 2020 Mohammad Shah Alam, Mohammad Zahangeer Alam, KHM Nazmul Hussain Nazir, Md Abdullahil Baki Bhuiyan https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/JAVAR/article/view/47505 Thu, 11 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, lessons to be learned! https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/JAVAR/article/view/47519 <p>Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been reported as a worldwide emergency. Due to the extensiveness of spread and death, it has been declared as a pandemic. This review focused on the current pandemic situ­ation and understanding the prevention and control strategies of COVID-19. Data presented here was by April 3, 2020. A total of 1,016,399 cases of COVID-19 with 53,238 deaths was reported from 204 countries and territories including two international conveyances over the world. After China, most of the new cases were from Europe, particularly Italy acting as the source of impor­tation to many of the other countries around the world. China has obtained success by ascribing control strategies against COVID-19. The implementation of China’s strategy, as well as the devel­opment of a vaccine, may control the pandemic of COVID-19. Further robust studies are required for a clear understanding of transmission parameters, prevention, and control strategies of SARS-CoV-2. This review paper describes the nature of COVID-19 and the possible ways for the effective controlling of the COVID-19 or similar viral diseases that may come in the future.</p> <p>Adv. Vet. Anim. Res., 7(2): 260-280, June 2020</p> Md Saiful Islam, Md Abdus Sobur, Mily Akter, KHM Nazmul Hussain Nazir, Antonio Toniolo, Md Tanvir Rahman Copyright (c) 2020 Md Saiful Islam, Md Abdus Sobur, Mily Akter, KHM Nazmul Hussain Nazir, Antonio Toniolo, Md Tanvir Rahman https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/JAVAR/article/view/47519 Fri, 12 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Is the COVID-19 pandemic masking dengue epidemic in Bangladesh? https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/JAVAR/article/view/47508 <p>COVID-19 is now a pandemic. Like other countries, Bangladesh is putting all its efforts to combat this pandemic. Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral infection causing a severe flu-like illness and, sometimes causing a potentially lethal complication called severe dengue. At this very crisis moment, there are reports on new cases of dengue in Bangladesh. More efforts now need to be taken for the control of dengue along with COVID-19 control measures.</p> <p>Adv. Vet. Anim. Res., 7(2): 218-219, June 2020</p> Md Tanvir Rahman, Md Abdus Sobur, Md Saiful Islam, Antonio Toniolo, KHM Nazmul Hussain Nazir Copyright (c) 2020 Md Tanvir Rahman, Md Abdus Sobur, Md Saiful Islam, Antonio Toniolo, KHM Nazmul Hussain Nazir https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/JAVAR/article/view/47508 Thu, 11 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0000