Journal of Advanced Veterinary and Animal Research <p>Journal of Advanced Veterinary and Animal Research is an international, peer-reviewed, quarterly, highly-indexed scientific journal publishing original research findings and reviews on all aspects of veterinary and animal sciences. Full text articles available.</p><p>JAVAR is included in the Directory of Open Access Journals (<a title="DOAJ" href="" target="_blank">DOAJ</a>)</p> Network for the Veterinarians of Bangladesh en-US Journal of Advanced Veterinary and Animal Research 2311-7710 <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</p><p>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a title="CC-BY-NC" href="" target="_blank">Creative Commons Attribution License</a> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</p><p>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</p>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See <a href="" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>). Effect of some genetic and non-genetic factors on productive and reproductive traits of Egyptian buffaloes <p><strong>Objective:</strong> The objectives of our study were to estimate the effect of some non-genetic factors on production and reproduction traits of Egyptian buffaloes and to estimate the breeding values for these traits.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> Data from 965 lactation records of 305 Egyptian buffalo cows mated by 73 sires that were raised at Mahallet Mousa Experimental farms of Animal Production Research Institute were collected. Dairy records covered the period from 2001 to 2015. The data were arranged and statistically analyzed using SAS version 9.1.3 to study the effect of non-genetic factors and the MTDFREMAL program was included in estimating the expected breeding values.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Our results showed that buffalo cows that calved in winter season recorded the highest and significant total milk yield (TMY) and daily milk yield (DMY) traits and the best reproductive performance was indicated by the lower number of services per conception and the shortest calving interval (CI) period. Moreover, age at first calving and dry period (DP) showed a highly significant effect on the TMY and DMY. A significant effect for the level of milk production on days open (DO) period was recorded in our study. The range of sires EBV was 540 kg, 295.2 days, 113.9 days, 2.8 months, and 71.1 days for TMY, LL, DO, CI, and DP, respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Buffalo’s breeders must consider the season of calving, parity, and DP in management program because they greatly affect the farm productivity and profitability and they must select animals with higher breeding values to be the parent of the next generation.</p> <p><a href=""></a></p> Sherif Ibrahim Ramadan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-29 2018-12-29 5 4 374 380 Prevalence and histopathology of Sarcocystosis in slaughtered carcasses in southeast Iran <p><strong>Objective:</strong> Sarcocystis spp. are common parasites and in terms of economics and pathogenicity in domestic animals is important. The purpose of this work was to define the rate of contamination of slaughtered carcasses of cattle to Sarcocystis using digestive and histopathological methods in southeast Iran.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> In this descriptive laboratory study for 1 year, 500 carcasses were examined and isolated bradyzoites of Sarcocystis with the digest method. Also, tissue samples from the esophagus and diaphragm were considered for pathologic studies and stained with hematoxylin and eosin of sections of histopathological.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The results showed that the highest contaminations were in imported male animals aged 2–3 years old in the spring. There was a significant difference (p &lt; 0.05) in the prevalence rate with the sex and race of cattle but no significant difference (p &gt; 0.05) in the prevalence rate with age and season.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Infection with Sarcocystis is common in oxen in this region. The imported cattle are more infected. It seems that racing and the environmental condition affect the prevalence of Sarcocystosis.</p> <p><a href=""></a></p> Mahdi Khoshsima Shahraki Abdolhakim Ghanbarzehi Mansour Dabirzadeh ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-29 2018-12-29 5 4 381 387 Detection of multi-drug resistant (MDR) Escherichia coli and tet gene prevalence at a pig farm in Kupang , Indonesia <p><strong>Objective:</strong> The purpose of this study was to detect the incidence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) and the spread of tet genes that encode tetracycline (TE) resistance in E. coli in pig farms in the city of Kupang, Indonesia.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> Samples of pig feces have been obtained from 96 pig farms in Kupang city, Indonesia. Escherichia coli bacteria were isolated and identified morphologically and biochemically, and finally confirmed by the API test. The disk diffusion method has been used to observe the antibiotic sensitivity effects and has been followed by observing resistant genes encoding TE resistance using the multiplex polymerase chain reaction (m-PCR) method to detect the presence of tet genes such as tet (A), tet (B), tet (C), tet (D), and tet (E), respectively.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> A total of 82 (85.4%) of E. coli isolates have been found in all pig feces samples obtained from 96 pig farms in Kupang city. This study has shown a high level of antibiotic resistance dominated by erythromycin (85.4%) and cephalothin (58.5%) and followed by several other antibiotics with a percentage below 34.1%. The prevalence of MDR E. coli was 57.3% by showing 39 different patterns. The most common pattern was showed by the Cephalothin-ColistinErythromycin pattern. The resistance of E. coli to TE appears to be related to the presence of tet (A) and tet (E) genes.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This study has encouraged the need for public awareness (farmers) of the wise use of antibiotics in preventing the spread of resistant bacteria that can cause health problems in animals and humans.</p> <p><a href=""></a></p> Novalino Harold Geoffrey Kallau I Wayan Teguh Wibawan Denny Widaya Lukman Mirnawati Bachrum Sudarwanto ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-29 2018-12-29 5 4 388 396 Investigation of animal anthrax outbreaks in the human–animal interface at risky districts of Bangladesh during 2016–2017 <p><strong>Objective:</strong> The objective of the study was to explore the outbreak situation in terms of animal, place, and time towards minimizing the risk of animal infection at the source in future and subsequent spillover in human in the endemic rural settings.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> An outbreak investigation team from the Department of Livestock Services visited in each of the outbreak sites to explore the event towards strengthening the control program in the future. Meat samples of the infected slaughtered animals were collected to confirm the causal agent of the animal outbreak using polychrome methylene blue microscopic examination technique. Participatory epidemiology tool such as semi-structured interview had been used in these investigations to realize the knowledge and practices of local people/cattle keepers on anthrax control and prevention in animal and human as well.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> All identified affected human cases had been confirmed as a history of contact with the animal carcasses or handling/processing with infected meat. The level of awareness at the community level was not satisfactory for the prevention and control of anthrax at the source and further spillover in human. The infected slaughtered animals found to be in non-vaccinated status during the outbreak investigation and uncontrolled animal movement is considered to be responsible for new outbreaks in a vaccinated zone where enforcement of veterinary legislation is inadequate.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> A comprehensive preparedness and response strategy is to be obligatory for prevention, control and respond on anthrax in Bangladesh. Maximum vaccination coverage in the animal, increase community awareness of animal and human anthrax are also demanded for transmission of anthrax from animal to human.</p> <p><a href=""></a></p> SK Shaheenur Islam Shovon Chakma A. H. M. Taslima Akhter Nelima Ibrahim Faisol Talukder Golam Azam Chowdhuary ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-29 2018-12-29 5 4 397 404 Salmonella infection in clinically healthy dogs in Makurdi, Benue State, North-central Nigeria: A potential source of infection to humans <p><strong>Objective:</strong> The present study was initiated to ascertain the level of shedding of salmonellae by dogs in Makurdi area and to highlight the risk of infection for dog-owners.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> Rectal swabs from 200 dogs from different locations in the study area were examined in the study. The samples were cultured for salmonellae using RappaportVassiliadis enrichment broth (Oxoid) and brilliant green agar (Oxoid). Suspected Salmonella isolates were serologically identified.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Overall, Salmonellae organisms were isolated from 11 (5.5%) of the 200 dogs sampled. Prevalence rates of 5.6% and 4.5% were recorded for apparently healthy and clinically sick dogs, respectively. Salmonella was respectively isolated from 4.1% to 9.1% of male and female dogs. Dogs aged 4 years and above recorded the highest prevalence rate. The study revealed a low prevalence rate in Nigerian local breed (mongrels) and high prevalence rates in exotic breeds of dogs.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The isolation of salmonellae in apparently healthy and clinically sick dogs in this study indicates a carrier status which may constitute a serious problem in disease control in the study area. The lower prevalence rate of Salmonella infection in mongrels could be an indication of resistance to Salmonella in local breeds of dogs and should generate interest in research in the pathogenicity and pathogenesis of salmonellae in mongrels.</p> <p><a href=""></a></p> Chinedu Adive Akwuobu Joseph Odeh Agbo Raphael Agbo-Peters Ofukwu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-29 2018-12-29 5 4 405 409 Comparative morphological interpretations on the bones of the pelvic limb of New Zealand rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and domestic cat (Felis domestica) <p><strong>Objective:</strong> Regarding the displaying of the main differences between the pelvic limb of rabbit and cat.</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods:</strong> Our work was performed on 10 New Zealand rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and domestic cats (Felis domestica) with variable ages and of both sexes. After weighing of the animals, sedation, and anesthesia, the animals were examined radiographically. The bones of the pelvic limb were prepared, measured for its length/cm then described and compared.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The iliac tuberosity and the conversion of the acetabular notch into foramen were characteristics of Os coxae of the rabbit. The intertrochanteric crest was detected on the femur of the cat. In the rabbit, the leg interosseous space was located in the proximal third of this region while in the cat, it was extended along its length. The first metatarsal was undeveloped in the cat but was absent in the rabbit so metatarsal were four in the rabbit and five in the cat. The digits of the pelvic limbs in both animals were four in number. The distal sesamoid was single, transversely situated, and shuttle-shaped in rabbit but it was absent in cat.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> So, the chief points of variation between the pelvic limb bones of rabbit and cat enabled us to keep away the commercial fraud and facilitated their use as an animal model for education purposes.</p> <p><a href=""></a></p> Hanaa Mohamed El-Ghazali Eman Ismail El-behery ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-29 2018-12-29 5 4 410 419 Seroprevalence, geographical distribution, and risk factors of peste des petits ruminants in the Republic of Chad <p><strong>Objective:</strong> The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, geographical distribution, and main risk factors for peste des petits ruminants (PPR) in the Republic of Chad.</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods:</strong> A total of 3,546 sera collected from unvaccinated small ruminants including 1,699 goats and 1,847 sheep in 19 of the 23 regions in Chad were randomly sampled. The competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technics were used for serological analysis.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The overall seroprevalence at the individual level was 52.9%±1.6% (48.9% for goats and 56.2% for sheep). Seroprevalence observed in the Chari Baguirmi, Ouaddaï, and N’Djamena regions was significantly higher than those in the other regions. Transhumant herds are the most exposed than the sedentary ones. Older animals were more affected than the young ones. Kababich sheep are the most affected than other breeds.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This study has shown that the PPR virus is circulating in the Republic of Chad. In view of the results obtained, the disease is enzootic in the country. Epidemiological information obtained including seroprevalence rate, risk factors (sex, breed, age, and mode of rearing), and geographical distribution will help to define an appropriate strategy for PPR control in the Republic of Chad.</p> <p><a href=""></a></p> Ouagal Mahamat Tchari Doungous Bidjeh Kebkiba Hadjé Arabié Oumar Assandi Oussiguéré Adam Hassan Yacoub Adoum Goudja Mahamat Guindé Ahmat Hassan Moussa ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-29 2018-12-29 5 4 420 425 Effectiveness of mosquito magnets for reducing mosquito (Diptera) populations in coastal areas of Samut Songkhram province, Thailand <p><strong>Objective:</strong> The aim of this research is to study the effectiveness of mosquito magnet (MM) for reducing mosquitoes (Diptera) populations in coastal areas.</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods:</strong> The study sites are in the coastal area of Samut Songkhram province, Thailand, which is divided into two locations; one that is 2 km and another that is 4 km in distance from the sea. We used the Mosquito Magnet® Independence (MMI) trap for effective field testing in Samut Songkhram Province, Thailand. Traps were placed 100 m away from the house (one trap per location) and mosquitoes were collected at night from 6 PM to 6 AM during September and October 2017 (30 days).</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> A total of 2,561 adult mosquitoes, including Anopheles epiroticus Linton &amp; Harbach, Culex quinquefasciatus Say, Cx. sitiens Wiedmann, and Cx. gelidus Theobald were collected by MMI. At a 2-km distance from the sea were captured more mosquitoes per night more than at a 4-km distance (63.63 ± 42.30 vs. 21.70 ± 12.42). The comparison of effectiveness of MMI in two locations of the coastal area was shown to have a statistically significant difference (p &lt; 0.05) and analysis of the correlation between the number of mosquitoes caught in coastal areas, including at a 2- and 4-km distance from the sea, accounting for weather factors, we found that the effectiveness of MMI was not correlated with weather (p &gt; 0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Overall, this study demonstrated that MM can be used to control mosquitoes in coastal areas with high efficiency, especially 2 km away from the sea.</p> <p><a href=""></a></p> Tanawat Chaiphongpachara Sedthapong Laojun Chaekki Kunphichayadecha ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-29 2018-12-29 5 4 426 431 Impact of rice gruel on rumen metabolites and growth performance of sheep <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> We investigated the impact of rice gruel as an alternative energy source of molasses as well as measured the effectiveness of rice gruel on the physiology of the rumen environment and the growth performance of growing lamb.</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods:</strong> A number of 18 sheep with an average age of 7 months and mean body weight of 5.9 kg were selected and divided into three groups for 60 days long feeding trial with urea molasses straw (UMS), urea rice gruel straw (URS), and concentrate feed. Every fortnight interval, live weight was recorded and rumen liquor from every group was collected four times before and after feeding at 4-h interval to examine the rumen environment.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Color, odor, consistency, and protozoal motility remain unchanged in all three groups. The pH of the rumen liquor was highest at 8 h of post feeding among three groups. The bacterial count (6.1 × 1010) was higher in the group that consuming UMS than URS and concentrate feed. The rumen protozoa also showed a similar growth pattern in proportion to a number of rumen bacteria. At the end of the 60 days feeding trial, no significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) were found among the three groups in contrast to body weight gain.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> In the current feeding trial, the close similar effectiveness of rice gruel and molasses was found as a fermentable energy source. However, we suggest that rice gruel can be supplemented as a substitute for molasses under the situation when molasses are not available or expensive in field condition.</p> <p><a href=""></a></p> Tridip Das Md. Hasanuzzaman Eaftekhar Ahmed Rana Probir Deb Sri Rajiv Kumar Roy Md. Saiful Bari ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-29 2018-12-29 5 4 432 438 Isolation, identification of pathogenic Acanthamoeba from drinking and recreational water sources in Saudi Arabia <p><strong>Objective:</strong> The present study was conducted to isolate and identify the Acanthamoeba species from various water sources such as drinking water, tap water, swimming pool, and other recreational water.</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods:</strong> During the study period, 57 water samples were collected from various sources such as tap water, drinking water, swimming pool, and recreational water. All samples were processed and cultured on non-nutrient agar medium (NNA) with Escherichia coli overlay for the isolation of Acanthamoeba species. Organism identified based on the microscopic morphology of cyst and trophozoites forms. The pathogenicity of Acanthamoeba was analyzed by thermotolerance and osmotolerance assays.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Acanthamoeba were detected in 10 out of 57 (17.5%) examined water samples. The high percentage of positivity was observed in bore well water stored in tanks (37.5%) and in recreational water samples (26.7%). All processed drinking water samples were free from Acanthamoeba. Based on pathogenicity test assays, four (40%) were pathogenic and three (30%) were non-pathogenic. The observed frequency of Acanthamoeba spp. was compared with available literature worldwide.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This study is the first report showing the distribution of Acanthamoeba in various water sources in the central region of Saudi Arabia and confirms that the high percentage presence of pathogenic strains in recreational water could threat contact lens wearers. Further research works are required to identify the prevalence of pathogenic Acanthamoeba from various water sources in Saudi Arabia.</p> <p><a href=""></a></p> Rajendran Vijayakumar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-29 2018-12-29 5 4 439 444 Anatomical and histological changes of uterine horn of Aceh cattle with repeat breeding <p><strong>Objective:</strong> This study aimed to observe the changes in anatomical pathology, histopathology, and histomorphometry of uterine horn in Aceh cattle with repeat breeding (RB).</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods:</strong> In this study, five uterine horns were collected from fertile Aceh cattle (N1, N2, N3, N4, and N5) and Aceh cattle with RB (RB1, RB2, RB3, RB4, and RB5). Changes in the anatomical pathology of uterine horn were observed prior to histopathological preparations. The results were analyzed descriptively.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The observation of anatomical pathology revealed that the uterus of fertile cattle was yellowish white with horn-like shape consisting of hollow muscles, while RB cattle were reddish-pale. Furthermore, uterine horn swelling with purulent exudate was observed in the uterine horn of RB1 and RB4, while swelling with serous exudates was found in RB2, RB3, and RB5. Thin-walled uterine horn with caruncular atrophy was observed only in RB3. Histopathological observations showed erosion and hyperplasia of endometrial columnar epithelial and uterine glands in RB1, RB2, RB4, and RB5. Atrophy of uterine gland was found in RB3 and edema of caruncular was observed in RB1 and RB4. In addition, hemorrhage and inflammatory cell infiltration (neutrophils, lymphocytes, and macrophages) were found in all RB cattle. Histologically, cow uterus is divided into three layers, endometrium, myometrium, and perimetrium with the uterine gland found in the endometrium. Histomorphometric measurements found that the uterine horn wall (endometrial, myometrial, and perimetrium) of RB cattle were thicker than of fertile Aceh cattle, 208.06 ± 39.90 vs. 187.39 ± 29.09 μm, 400.138 ± 51.96 vs. 277.91 ± 42.88 μm, and 23.59 ± 9.67 vs. 18.53 ± 4.40 μm. However, the endometrial gland diameter of RB cattle is smaller than that of fertile Aceh cattle, 4.04 ± 0.88 vs. 4.99 ± 1.37 μm.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The changes in anatomical pathology and histopathology of the uterine horn of Aceh cattle with RB indicate endometritis which caused by subacute and chronic bacterial infections. Endometritis causes disrupted blood circulation, which is characterized by hemorrhage, edema, and thickening of the endometrium, myometrium, and perimetrium, resulting in an increased diameter of the endometrial gland in RB Aceh cattle.</p> <p><a href=""></a></p> Cut Nila Thasmi Tongku Nizwan Siregar Sri Wahyuni Dwinna Aliza Budianto Panjaitan Nazaruddin Nazaruddin Firschilia Nurul Sabila Miranda Fallatanza ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-29 2018-12-29 5 4 445 453 Economic benefit in repeat breeder cows using intrauterine infusion of penicillin and estrus synchronization followed by timed artificial insemination <p><strong>Objective:</strong> Until recently, management of repeat breeding in cattle remains a major problem to dairy farmers. This study was carried out to improve the fertility in cows, those did not conceive after three or more consecutive services.</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods:</strong> Twenty-three repeat breeding cows were selected from the Central Cattle Breeding Station and Dairy Farm (CCBS &amp; DF), Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Data of another 23 repeat breeding cows that conceived after four or more services were collected from the same farm as controls. The repeat breeders were synchronized for estrus with two injections of PGF2α 11 days apart and timed AI (TAI) was performed.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Seventeen of 23 cows had uterine infections. Intrauterine infusion of penicillin daily for three successive days from the following day of the first PGF2α injection resulted in 94.1% (16/17) recovery. Of 23 treated cows, four with estrus synchronization and TAI, and one with only AI after hormone treatment were detected pregnant by per rectal examination of the genital tract. By this pregnancy, the treated cows have advanced average of 131.6 days calving interval and days open, and thereby saved neat US $3,045.3 in comparison to control cows. Control group cows incurred losses of US $15,134.0 compared with average days open of the treated pregnant cows.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Intrauterine infusion of penicillin can successfully recover the uterine infections, and estrus synchronization followed by TAI resulted in pregnancy in a proportion of repeat breeder cows with economic benefit that had a uterine infection.</p> <p><a href=""></a></p> Abul Khair Md. Asaduzzaman Zinat Sultana Anup Kumar Talukder Ziban Chandra Das Md. Golam Shahi Alam Mohammed Shamsuddin ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-29 2018-12-29 5 4 454 458 Evaluation of LAMP for detection and/or screening of Leptospira spp. infection among domestic animals in the Philippines <p><strong>Objective:</strong> This study assessed the applicability of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) for the detection of leptospirosis among domesticated animals and sewage rats. Specifically, it evaluated the ability of LAMP to amplify Leptospira spp. targeting the 16s rRNA gene in boiled urine samples.</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods:</strong> A total of 140 samples from different domestic animals were tested for the presence of the antigen. A nested-polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) protocol was used to compare and determine the sensitivity of LAMP in detecting Leptospira spp. The LAMP was also evaluated by comparing its amplification result using agarose gel electrophoresis and color change using dye.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Positivity rate of Leptospira spp. antigen was 29.0% (40/140) for LAMP and 9.3% (13/140) for nPCR. Also, LAMP results for gel electrophoresis and dye color change varied in some samples that may be due to the interpretation of the result in dye color change.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Overall, LAMP is a rapid, sensitive, and cost-effective diagnostic method compared with nPCR. Also, LAMP has a potential application as pen-side screening, surveillance, and clinical diagnostic kits of infectious diseases without requiring advance equipment and skilled personnel.</p> <p><a href=""></a></p> Gabriel Alexis SP. Tubalinal Michelle M. Balbin Marvin A. Villanueva Clarissa Yvonne J. Domingo Claro N. Mingala ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-29 2018-12-29 5 4 459 465 Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from chicken and quail eggshell <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> This study was conducted to assess the prevalence and characterization of Staphylococcus aureus from chicken and quail eggshells and to study the antibiogram of the isolates.</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods:</strong> A total of 300 eggs (220 chicken eggs and 80 quail eggs) were collected from different retail shops and farms in Mymensingh district. Swabs taken from the egg surfaces were cultured on Mannitol Salt Agar for the isolation of S. aureus. Polymerase chain reaction was conducted for confirmatory identification of the bacterial species targeting nuc gene, followed by confirmation of methicillin-resistant S. aureus by targeting the mecA gene. Antibiotic sensitivity test of the isolated bacteria was done against commonly used antibiotics by the disk diffusion method.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The prevalence of Staphylococcus spp. and S. aureus in the chicken eggshell surface was 20.45% and 10.45%, respectively. Similarly, the prevalence of Staphylococcus spp. and S. aureus in quail eggshell surface was 16.25% and 5%, respectively. Overall, 27 isolates were identified as S. aureus, of which 23 were from the chicken eggshell surface and four from quail eggshell surface. Among the seven isolates tested, overall four (57.14%) were positive for the nuc gene. On the other hand, the mecA gene could be detected in three (50%) S. aureus out of six oxacillin resistant isolates. The antibiogram study indicated that most of the isolates were resistant to the antibiotics under β-lactam group.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The present study concludes that chicken and quail egg surface harbor multidrug- resistant bacteria which may cause public health hazards, if these antibiotic-resistant bacteria are transferred to a human.</p> <p><a href=""></a></p> Amrita Pondit Zobayda Farzana Haque Abdullah Al Momen Sabuj Md. Shahidur Rahman Khan Sukumar Saha ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-29 2018-12-29 5 4 466 471 Effect of two-step fermentation by Chrysonilia crassa and Bacillus subtilis on nutritional values and antioxidative properties of agro-industrial by-products as poultry feed ingredients <p><strong>Objective:</strong> This current study was subjected to investigate the influence of two-stage fermentation by Chrysonilia crassa and Bacillus subtilis on nutritional values and antioxidative properties of agro-industrial by-products.</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods:</strong> Two-stage fermentation with Ch. crassa (inoculated in advance; single-step fermentation) and B. subtilis (inoculated later; two-step fermentation) was conducted on agro-industrial by-products, i.e., banana peel meals, cassava pulp, and rice bran. The pH measurement, microbial enumeration, proximate, and antioxidant analyses were conducted following 4- and 2-days aerobic incubation with Ch. crassa and B. subtilis, respectively.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The pH of banana peels and cassava pulp increased with Ch. crassa-fermentation, but then decreased following B. subtilis-fermentation. Chrysonilia crassa-fermentation did not change, but B. subtilis-fermentation decreased pH of rice bran. The number of lactic acid bacteria was higher in two-stage than in single-stage fermented by-products. Crude protein and fat were higher in fermented than in unfermented banana peels. Crude protein was higher in single- and two-stage fermented, while fat higher in single-stage fermented than in unfermented cassava pulp. Crude fat and ash contents increased with fermentation in rice bran. Single-stage fermentation increased some of amino acids contents in banana peels and cassava pulp. The concentration of polyphenols, tannins, and antioxidant potential of banana peels reduced with fermentation. Total polyphenols and tannins were higher, whereas antioxidant activity was lower in fermented than in unfermented cassava pulp. Total polyphenols, tannins, and antioxidant activity were lower in two-stage than in single-stage fermented and unfermented rice bran.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Single-stage fermentation with Ch. crassa improved nutritional characteristics of agro-industrial by-products.</p> <p><a href=""></a></p> Sugiharto Sugiharto Isroli Isroli Turrini Yudiarti Endang Widiastuti Hanny Indrat Wahyuni Tri Agus Sartono ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-29 2018-12-29 5 4 472 480 Hematological reference values for healthy fat-tailed sheep (Dhumba) in Bangladesh <p><strong>Objective:</strong> There is scarce literature regarding hematology profile of fat-tailed sheep (Dhumba). The study was conducted to determine reference intervals for their hematology profile in the context of Bangladesh.</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods:</strong> Blood samples were collected from 32 healthy fat-tailed sheep from Dhaka, Bangladesh, during September–October, 2015. Hemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), total leukocyte count (TLC), total erythrocyte count (TEC), lymphocyte, monocyte, eosinophil, basophil, and neutrophil counts were measured.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The levels showed a wide range and variation based on age and sex. Adult sheep had significantly (p = 0.01) higher Hb level than that of juvenile (&lt;6 months of age). Other parameter values were almost similar for both adult and juvenile. The only two hematological parameters, showing noteworthy differences between male and female, were TLC and Basophil level (p &lt; 0.05) in blood.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The study sets baseline for future research and diagnosis of diseases in fat-tailed sheep. It also helps for profitable production of fat-tailed sheep in Bangladesh.</p> <p><a href=""></a></p> Shariful Islam Md Kaisar Rahman Jinnat Ferdous Muhammad Belal Hossain Mohammad Mahmudul Hassan Ariful Islam ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-29 2018-12-29 5 4 481 484 The effects of anesthetic drug choice on heart rate variability in dogs <p><strong>Objective:</strong> The objective of this study was to assess the effects of anesthetic drugs on heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) in dogs.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> Twelve healthy client-owned dogs of various breeds, including five females and seven males were used for elective surgery in this study. The dogs were pre-medicated with four protocols; (1) alfaxalone [at 3 mg/kg body weight (bwt)], (2) zolazepam + tiletamine (Zoletil) (at 5 mg/kg bwt), (3) diazepam (at 0.3 mg/kg bwt) + ketamine (at 5 mg/kg bwt), and (4) diazepam (at 0.3 mg/kg bwt) + propofol (at 5 mg/kg bwt). The HR and HRV of 12 dogs were recorded 20 min before and after the administration of the anesthetic drugs. Doppler was used to obtain systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressures.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> After anesthetic drug administration, the dogs pre-medicated and inducted with alfaxalone had the lowest HR values as compared with those of other protocols. The HRV low frequency and high frequency power ratio decreased in the dogs pre-medicated and intubated with alfaxalone.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This study demonstrates that alfaxalone preserves the cardiovascular function; and hence, is considered as safe to use for the surgical applicability in dogs.</p> <p><a href=""></a></p> Nakrob Pattanapon Ratikorn Bootcha Soontaree Petchdee ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-29 2018-12-29 5 4 485 489 Feline hemotropic mycoplasmosis concurrent with bacterial cystitis in a domestic shorthair cat <p><strong>Objective:</strong> The main aim of this case report is to present a case of feline hemotropic mycoplasmosis that occurred concurrently with bacterial cystitis following the bite.</p> <p><strong>Material and methods:</strong> A 3-year-old intact male domestic shorthair cat weighing 3.7 kg was referred to the Universiti Malaysia Kelantan Veterinary Clinic with clinical signs of hematuria and dysuria. History revealed that it was managed outdoor, fed with kibbles and wet food, but with no vaccination and deworming. Upon physical examination, the cat had a dull appearance, pale mucous membrane, normal respiratory rate, hypothermia, and bradycardia. Upon the examination of the urogenital system, there were urine burns at the anal region, necrotized penile tip, and presence of bite wound observed at the perineal region. Turgid and enlarged urinary bladder was identified upon palpation.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Diagnostic investigation revealed the hemotropic mycoplasmosis via microscopy, while urine culture was positive for Escherichia coli infection. The cat was successfully treated symptomatically.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> However, the prognosis of this cat was guarded given that the anemia was unresolved at the point of discharge.</p> <p><a href=""></a></p> Sukumaran Hemasri Ibrahim Abdul-Azeez Okene Mohammed Dauda Goni ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-15 2018-12-15 5 4 490 495