Journal of Advanced Veterinary and Animal Research <p>Journal of Advanced Veterinary and Animal Research is an international, peer-reviewed, quarterly, highly-indexed scientific journal publishing original research findings and reviews on all aspects of veterinary and animal sciences. Full text articles available.</p><p>JAVAR is included in the Directory of Open Access Journals (<a title="DOAJ" href="" target="_blank">DOAJ</a>)</p> Network for the Veterinarians of Bangladesh en-US Journal of Advanced Veterinary and Animal Research 2311-7710 <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</p><p>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a title="CC-BY-NC" href="" target="_blank">Creative Commons Attribution License</a> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</p><p>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</p>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See <a href="" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>). Molecular identification, characterization, and structure analysis of house musk shrew (Suncus murinus) leptin <p><strong>Objective: </strong>House musk shrew (<em>Suncus murinus</em>), a small experimental animal with low body fat, may be a possible model for human lipodystrophy. Leptin is an adipocyte-derived hormone thought to have an important role in the pathophysiology of lipodystrophy. The objectives of this study were to clarify the structure and distribution of suncus leptin.</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods: </strong>To determine the primary structure of suncus leptin, we cloned the suncus <em>Lep </em>cDNA using the rapid amplification of cDNA ends method. The obtained amino acid (aa) sequence was compared with other mammals and the protein structure prediction was performed.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The suncus <em>Lep </em>cDNA encodes 170 aa. The putative suncus leptin precursor has a pre­dicted signal peptide of 21 aa, and the mature leptin comprises 149 aa. The mature leptin is 75%–82% homologous to that of other species. Insertion of the three aa, VPQ, not seen in other mammals was found. This VPQ insertion is thought to be due to a nucleotide insertion of nine bases by slippage-like microindels. The predicted 3D structure of suncus leptin exhibited a typi­cal four a-helix structure, however, the VPQ region protruded compared with human leptin. <em>Lep </em>mRNA expression was observed only in white and brown adipose tissues.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>This study revealed the structure and distribution of suncus leptin. Because the addi­tion of VPQ, which is not found in other mammals, was observed, suncus leptin attracts attention to its physiological action, and to the possibility of being a model of human lipodystrophy.</p> <p>J. Adv. Vet. Anim. Res., 6(1): 1-8, March 2019</p> Sayaka Saga Noriyasu Sasaki Toshiro Arai ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-31 2019-03-31 6 1 1 8 Productive performance, metabolic, and hematologic parameters of pregnant nulliparous rabbit does according to dietary protein level <p><strong>Objective: </strong>This study aims at investigating the productive performance, metabolic, and hemato­logical profiles of Algerian local rabbits does during their first pregnancy and according to dietary protein content.</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods: </strong>A total of 52 nulliparous rabbit does, 3,116 ± 72.9 g live weight, were allocated individually to three groups (17/18 females per group) being on isoenergetic diets [2,600 kcal Digestible Energy (DE)/kg] that differ in their digestible protein content by 15%, 17%, and 19%, respectively, for L, M, and H diets. All these diets were provided <em>ad libitum</em>.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The use of a high protein diet did not affect does weight and feed intake during the preg­nancy period. Statistically, no significant difference (<em>p </em>&gt; 0.05) was recorded in born or alive litter size and birth weight. There was no effect of diet and sampling time (<em>p </em>&gt; 0.05) on plasma metabo­lites but there were significant effects of sampling time (<em>p </em>&lt; 0.0001) on the metabolic parameters studied with prolificacy used as a covariate. Hematologic indices in pregnant rabbits were not affected by the diet exceeded the red blood cells rate that increased significantly (<em>p </em>&lt; 0.05) with the increase in dietary protein content during the different periods of gestation.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The use of a high protein diet has no effect on weight during the pregnancy period. No effect of diet and sampling time on plasma metabolites and hematological profiles are recorded; however, significant effects of sampling time are recorded on the metabolic parameters.</p> <p>J. Adv. Vet. Anim. Res., 6(1): 18-24, March 2019</p> Dahia Saidj Hacina Ainbaziz Imene Iles Yamina Dahmani Jean Luc Hornick Nassim Moula ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-31 2019-03-31 6 1 18 24 Pharmacokinetics of combination antiparasitic drug preparation for dogs and cats in the form of spot-on solution <p><strong>Objective: </strong>The object of the study was to examine the major pharmacokinetic parameters after a single application of a complex drug preparation for veterinary use based on fipronil, praziquan­tel, moxidectin, and pyriproxyfen in cats and dogs.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>For dogs, the drug preparation was administered spot-on solution in the following dosage of active pharmaceutical substances: fipronil 27.0 mg/kg body weight (bwt), praziquantel 10.8 mg/kg bwt, moxidectin 6.75 mg/kg bwt, and pyriproxyfen 5.4 mg/kg bwt; for cats, the dosage was the following: fipronil 43.2 mg/kg bwt, praziquantel 17.28 mg/kg bwt, mox­idectin 4.32 mg/kg bwt, and pyriproxyfen 8.64 mg/kg bwt. The blood samples were taken from dogs and cats. The principle of the method for determining praziquantel, trans-4-hydroxyprazi­quantel, pyriproxyfen, and fipronil in serum samples was chromatographed in a high-pressure liquid chromatograph with detection by means of a mass-spectrometric detector. The moxidectin content of the blood was detected by high-performance liquid chromatography.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The drug preparation active substances: praziquantel, fipronil, and moxidectin are absorbed into the blood of dogs and cats. The penetration of praziquantel into the systemic cir­culation and further into organs and tissues was proved. After topical administration, moxidectin is absorbed and distributed systemically and is slowly removed from the plasma, which manifests itself in detectable concentrations of moxidectin in the blood for 1 month.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The present results of pharmacokinetic investigations may promote to the determi­nation of effective therapy strategy and prophylaxis of parasitic diseases in dogs and cats.</p> <p>J. Adv. Vet. Anim. Res., 6(1): 25-32, March 2019</p> Mikhail Vladimirovich Arisov Evgenia Nikolaevna Indyuhova Gulnara Bakitovna Arisova ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-31 2019-03-31 6 1 25 32 Investigation of biochemical blood parameters, characteristics for carcass, and mineral composition in chicken meat when feeding on coriander seed and rosemary leaves <p><strong>Objective: </strong>Investigating the antibiotic and antioxidant benefits of medicinal herbs to enrich the serum immune responses of chicken meat.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>A total of 1,080 Ross 308 broilers were reared up to 42 days. The broilers were divided randomly into nine assemblies, with each sectioned into three replicates. The first and second were supplemented with 0.25% and 0.50% of coriander seeds, respectively, while the third and fourth with 0.25% and 0.50% of rosemary leaves, respectively. A mixture of herbs from the two plants were added to fifth, sixth, seventh, and eighth treatments [(0.50% coriander seeds + 0.50% rosemary leaves), (0.25% coriander seeds + 0.50% rosemary leaves), (0.50% coriander seeds + 0.25% rosemary leaves), and (0.25% coriander seeds + 0.25% rosemary leaves)], respec­tively, whereas chicks in the ninth as a control group.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The results showed the pH for the thigh and breast of the carcass were measured. Glycogen levels, serum immunity (H, L, Hlration, Albumin, Globulin, and A/G ratio at 28 days and alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and cholesterol at 42 days). The mineral deposits in the chicken meat were measured for Mg, Fe, Ca, Na, J, and total N. The fifth treatment had a significantly higher glycogen ratio (<em>p </em>&lt; 0.05). pH measurements for the thigh and breast were done immediately, 4, 12, and 24 h after slaughter. For the thigh, the seventh treatment was highest immediately and at 12 h. For the breast, significant differences were only noted at 12 h for chickens on a coriander diet.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>It is concluded that these additives have a positive effect on some of the blood pro­files, carcass characteristics, and mineral composition of chicken meat.</p> <p>J. Adv. Vet. Anim. Res., 6(1): 33-43, March 2019</p> Firas R Jameel ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-31 2019-03-31 6 1 33 43 Anthelmintic effect of betel nut (Areca catechu) and neem (Azadirachta indica) extract against liver fluke (Fasciola spp.) <p><strong>Objective: </strong>This study aimed to measure the anthelmintic effects of betel nut (<em>Areca catechu</em>) and neem (<em>Azadirachta indica</em>) leaf extracts against <em>Fasciola </em>spp. <em>in vitro </em>in comparison with the com­mercial dewormer, Albendazole, and the negative control, nutrient broth. The study determined the extract concentration that produced the highest efficacy based on the average recorded mean motility time, gross, and microscopic changes of the flukes treated with different concentrations of plant extracts.</p> <p><strong>Material and Methods: </strong>The study consisted of eight treatments. Every treatment consisted of 10%, 20%, and 40% concentrations of both betel nut extract (BNE) and neem leaf extracts, positive control treatment (Albendazole-treated) and negative control treatment (25 ml nutrient broth). The motility of the flukes on all treatments was based on the established motility criteria scoring. The flukes subjected to all treatments were processed for histopathological analysis.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The result of the study revealed that after exposure of <em>Fasciola </em>spp. under 10%, 20%, and 40% extract concentrations, betel nut showed higher efficacy having the recorded mean motility time of 0.22, 0.07 min, and no movement upon contact, respectively, than Albendazole which pro­duced mean motility time of 0.38 min. Nevertheless, the flukes treated with 10%, 20%, and 40% neem leaf extracts obtained the average mean motility time of 220, 151, and 98 min, respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>The results gathered showed that 40% BNE concentration showed the highest efficacy based on the recorded mean motility time. All treatments of betel nut extract evidently showed marked changes in the gross and microscopic morphology of the flukes. However, the neem extract was ineffective in all concentrations although changes were observed microscopi­cally. Furthermore, the nutrient broth was proven to be effective as a culture medium since the flukes remained active until 8 h of exposure.</p> <p>J. Adv. Vet. Anim. Res., 6(1): 44-49, March 2019</p> Elnalyn C Yamson Gabriel Alexis SP Tubalinal Victoria V Viloria Claro N Mingala ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-31 2019-03-31 6 1 44 49 Emergence of colistin-resistant Escherichia coli in poultry, house flies, and pond water in Mymensingh, Bangladesh <p><strong>Objective: </strong>Emergence of colistin-resistant <em>Escherichia coli </em>(CREC) has generated a sense of public alarm. The objective of this study was to detect the CREC and identification of the gene responsi­ble for such resistance.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>A total of 150 samples comprising poultry cloacal swab, house flies (<em>Musca domestica</em>), and pond water were collected randomly from Mymensingh, Bangladesh and analyzed. Isolation and identification of <em>E. coli </em>were done based on culture and <em>E. coli </em>16S rRNA gene-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Phenotypic detection of CREC was done by disk diffusion method. Finally, colistin resistance genes were detected by PCR by using colistin resistant gene <em>mcr3 </em>specific primers.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Among the 150 samples, phenotypically 18.00% (<em>n </em>= 27/150) isolates were found as colis­tin resistant<em>. </em>By PCR, 8.00% of the <em>E. coli </em>isolates were found positive for the presence of <em>mcr3 </em>gene.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>Colistin resistant <em>E. coli </em>carrying <em>mcr3 </em>are detected in poultry, house flies and water that are of great public health concern.</p> <p>J. Adv. Vet. Anim. Res., 6(1): 50-53, March 2019</p> Md Abdus Sobur Samina Ievy Zobayda Farzana Haque Ashrafun Nahar Sumaiya Binte Zaman Md Tanvir Rahman ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-31 2019-03-31 6 1 50 53 Isolation and molecular detection of Avipoxvirus from field outbreaks in Mymensingh, Bangladesh <p><strong>Objective: </strong>The present study was performed for isolation, identification, and molecular detection of <em>Avipoxvirus </em>[<em>Turkeypox virus </em>(TPV), <em>Fowlpox virus </em>(FPV), and <em>Pigeonpox virus </em>(PPV)] from field outbreaks in some selected areas of Mymensingh division, Bangladesh.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>A total of 60 suspected cutaneous nodular samples (10 TPV, 20 PPV, and 30 FPV) were collected. The samples were then subjected to isolation and identification by chicken embryo propagation followed by confirmation using polymerase chain reaction (PCR).</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The TPV, FPV, and PPV were successfully isolated and identified from the nodular samples using embryo propagation and PCR technique targeting pox virus <em>p4b </em>gene. Out of 10 Turkeypox suspected field samples, five (50%) were positive for TPV. Similarly, among 30 Fowl pox suspected field samples, 12 (40%), and out of 20 Pigeonpox suspected field samples, eight (40%) were found to be positive for FPV and PPV, respectively. The overall prevalence of avipox (TPV, FPV, and PPV) virus infections in Mymensingh division was 41.67% (<em>n </em>= 25/60).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>This study has shown that TPV, FPV, and PPV are circulating in Mymensingh division. The isolated TPV, FPV, and PPV field isolates can be used as vaccine candidates to develop an effective vaccine for effective controlling of the avipox in Mymensingh division and surrounding areas.</p> <p>J. Adv. Vet. Anim. Res., 6(1): 54-59, March 2019</p> Saifur Rahman Md Ariful Islam Md Shafiqul Islam KHM Nazmul Hussain Nazir Md Shahidur Rahman Khan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-31 2019-03-31 6 1 54 59 Bovine herpesvirus 1 in the northeast of Algiers, Algeria: Seroprevalence and associated risk factors in dairy herd <p><strong>Objective: </strong>The present study was conducted to estimate the seroprevalence and associated risk factors of bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) in a dairy herd in the northeast of Algiers, Algeria.</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods: </strong>The target area is in the northeast of Algiers with humid to semi-dry climate and known for its economically important production of cattle. A total of 1,066 randomly selected individual blood samples of dairy herd collected at 120 dairy farms from rural districts of northeast of Algiers were evaluated with antibodies against BoHV-1 using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits, to determine the BoHV-1 infection status of the herds. A ques­tionnaire submitted to the farmers during collection of the blood samples was used to collect data on potential BoHV-1 associated risk factors.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>In the present study, the estimated farm and individual animal BoHV-1 seroprevalence levels were 58.33% and 14.16%, respectively. A logistic regression analysis of the random-effects model revealed that the significant associated risk factors for the present farm and individual ani­mal seroprevalence levels were rural district, cattle introduced to the farm, region, and hygiene.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>This study found higher seroprevalence of BoHV-1 in the northeast of Algiers. The results could be used in designing the prevention and control strategy of BoHV-1 in the northeast­ern part of Algeria.</p> <p>J. Adv. Vet. Anim. Res., 6(1): 60-65, March 2019</p> Abdenour Kaddour Abdallah Bouyoucef Gonzalo Fernandez Alberto Prieto Fikremariam Geda Nassim Moula ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-31 2019-03-31 6 1 60 65 Comparative effects of inorganic and three forms of organic trace minerals on growth performance, carcass traits, immunity, and profitability of broilers <p><strong>Objective: </strong>The experiment was conducted to investigate the comparative effects of inorganic trace minerals (ITM) and three forms of organic trace minerals (OTM) (propionate, metho-chelated, and proteinate) on growth performance, edible meat yield, immunity, and profitability of commercial broilers.</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods: </strong>A corn-soya based mash diet comprising four treatments each of 10 replicates were fed to 720 day-old Cobb 500 broiler chicks for 35 days (starter diet 0–21 days and grower diet 22–35 days). The diets for comparison were as follows: diet 1: control diet with ITM premix at 1 kg/ton of feed (T1); diet 2: control diet supplemented with propionate trace minerals at 600 gm/ton (T2); diet 3: control diet supplemented with metho-chelated trace minerals at 500 gm/ton by reducing 225 gm methionine/ton of feed (T3); and diet 4: control diet supplemented with proteinate trace minerals at 500 gm/ton of feed (T4). Growth performance, carcass yield, and antibody titer (AT) data were recorded. Data were analyzed and interpreted using SAS Computer Package Program version 9.1.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Feeding propionate and proteinate OTM showed similar performance. Birds fed these two types (propionate and proteinate) or OTM had better performance in comparison with those receiving ITM and metho-chelated one. Proteinate group produced more wing meat and propio­nate group showed higher breast and drumstick meat yield as compared with those received the metho-chelated trace mineral and ITM. The birds belonging to OTM groups showed significantly higher AT level against infectious bursal disease. Proteinate minerals groups showed higher prof­itability followed by propionate fed broilers.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Two forms of OTM, propionate and proteinate improved performance of commercial broilers over those of ITM and metho-chelated one.</p> <p>J. Adv. Vet. Anim. Res., 6(1): 66-73, March 2019</p> Anguara Khatun Sachchidananda Das Chowdhury Bibek Chandra Roy Bapon Dey Azimul Haque Bakthavachalam Chandran ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-31 2019-03-31 6 1 66 73 Histomorphological study on the tongue of the duck in the Caribbean with relation to feeding habit <p><strong>Objective: </strong>The objective of this study was to give detailed descriptions of the morphological and histological structures of the tongue of the Muscovy duck as it relates to their feeding habit.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>Ten adult Muscovy ducks weighing 2–4 kg were used. The ducks were slaughtered and their oral cavities were opened to detect <em>in situ </em>position of the tongues. Each tongue was dissected and examined grossly. Samples of various parts of the tongue were taken for routine histological examination.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The tongue of the Muscovy ducks was distinguished grossly as the apex, body, and root. A dorsal median sulcus, conical papillae, and lingual prominence were observed grossly. Microscopic observations showed the tongue of the Muscovy duck was covered by stratified squamous epithelium; keratinized and non-keratinized. The lamina propria of the tongue con­tained lingual glands, entoglossum cartilage, lymphoid nodules, as well as blood vessels and nerves.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The morphological and histological variations of the tongue of the Muscovy duck may infer that its unique structures are related to their feeding habits.</p> <p>J. Adv. Vet. Anim. Res., 6(1): 74-81, March 2019</p> Reda Mohamed ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-31 2019-03-31 6 1 74 81 Polymorphism of prolactin, growth differentiation factor 9, and calpastatin genes and their effects on weight traits in Awassi lambs <p><strong>Objectives: </strong>This study was conducted to determine the correlation among prolactin gene (PRG), growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF-9), and calpastatin (CAG) genes polymorphism with growth traits in Awassi lambs.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>Records of 779 Awassi lambs from 264 dams and 15 sires were used. The sex, type of birth (single <em>versus </em>twins), weight at birth, average daily gain (ADG), and the adjusted weight at 60 days of age were determined for each animal. Blood samples were collected from all lambs to determine PRG, GDF-9, and CAG polymorphism using polymerase chain reaction-Restric­tion fragment length polymorphism.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Three PRG genotypes (AA, AB, and BB) were determined with a frequency of 0.88, 0.05, and 0.07, respectively. The frequency of each allele was 0.84 and 0.16 for A and B alleles, respec­tively. For GDF-9, there were only two genotypes detected (AB and BB) with a frequency of 0.96 and 0.04, respectively. The frequency of each allele was 0.92 and 0.08 for A and B alleles, respec­tively. For CAG, two genotypes were also detected (AB and BB) with a frequency of 0.92 and 0.08, respectively. The frequency of each allele was 0.96 and 0.04 for A and B alleles, respectively. A significant (<em>p </em>≤ 0.04) effect of PRG genotype on birth weight was detected but this effect was not significant on ADG and weight at weaning. There were no associations between any of the pre-weaning growth traits and GDF-9 and CAG variants.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The results of this study show that PRG could be used to select dams with a high frequency of dystocia to reduce birth weight of newborn lambs and therefore conserve the dam’s reproductive functions and improve lamb survivability.</p> <p>J. Adv. Vet. Anim. Res., 6(1): 86-91, March 2019</p> Khaleel Ibrahem Jawasreh Zuhair Bani Ismail ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-31 2019-03-31 6 1 86 91 Seroprevalence of some Infectious transboundry diseases in cattle imported from Sudan to Egypt <p><strong>Objective: </strong>Animal trade has an important role in the economy but in contrast, it causes the spread of infectious diseases overall the world, in particular, the trans-boundary animal diseases. Therefore, the aim of this study is to report the prevalence rate of some transboundary infectious diseases to assess the effectiveness of quarantine measure in the detection of exotic disease and clarify the role of live animal trade in infectious transboundary diseases spread.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>The study was done on 176 serum samples obtained from cattle imported from Sudan in order to determine the prevalence of foot and mouth disease (FMD), Peste Des Petits Ruminants (PPR), and Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR). Three serological tests were used; Serum neutralization test for FMD, Indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (i-ELISA) for PPR, and Competitive ELISA for IBR.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The seroprevalence of FMD in tested sera was; 77.27% in the serotype A (A-Iran), 68.18% in the serotype A (A-Africa), 93.82% in the serotype O (O-Pan Asia), and 35.227% in the serotype South African Territories-2 (SAT-2) SAT-2. While the overall seroprevalence of PPR was 49.431% and the IBR was 93.75%.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The result indicates the serious role of live animal trade as “hubs” for infectious dis­eases spread. Subsequently, the common control measures must be taken to avoid the spread of the diseases through the animal trade; which include screening, surveillance, precautions at borders, and vaccination.</p> <p>J. Adv. Vet. Anim. Res., 6(1): 92-99, March 2019</p> Sahar Hussein Abdalla Hekal Magdy Hassanein Al Gaabary Magdy Mahmoud El Sayed Hassan Mohamed Sobhy Adel Abdul Azim Fayed ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-31 2019-03-31 6 1 92 99 Alkaline treatment for preventing acidosis in the rumen culture fermenting carbohydrates: An experimental study in vitro <p><strong>Objective: </strong>The current research was carried out to evaluate the use of magnesium hydroxide as buffer to control acidosis in rumen culture fermenting carbohydrates <em>in vitro</em>.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>The experiments were carried out in the chemostat system in which the reactor used was a 200 ml of working volume. A series of fed-batch trials were carried out in fed-batch system with hydraulic retention time of 4 days. All digesters were completely mixed with the rotation of 55 rpm, and the temperature was controlled at 39°C ± 0.5°C.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Results showed that the supplementation of magnesium hydroxide (50 mM/day) to the corn starch feed (12.5 gm/l per day) for the rumen culture could prevent acidosis while at the same concentration of sodium bicarbonate addition to rumen culture, acidosis cannot be prevented in which lactic acid accumulated up to 200 mM. Supplementing magnesium hydroxide to the mixture of starch and sugar feeds prevented acidosis in which the major fermentation end product formed was acetate. A daily feeding with the ratio of 4.5:1 [starch: Mg(OH)2] was feasible to prevent rumen acidosis.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Magnesium hydroxide added to the rumen culture could prevent lactic acid accumulation while sodium bicarbonate supplementation did not prevent acidosis and had lactic acid accumulation.</p> <p>J. Adv. Vet. Anim. Res., 6(1): 100-107, March 2019</p> - Darwin David Blignaut ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-31 2019-03-31 6 1 100 107 Gastrointestinal parasites of different avian species in Ilorin, North Central Nigeria <p><strong>Objective: </strong>The current study aimed to determine the prevalence, infection burden, and risk fac­tors associated with the occurrence of gastrointestinal (GI) parasites in different avian species in Ilorin, Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>This study was conducted in Ilorin, involving 597 fecal samples and GI tracts from a variety of sold and slaughtered avian species. The study was conducted between September 2017 and February 2018. Fecal samples were examined using floatation technique, while the GI tracts were examined for gross helminths and its content were subjected to the direct wet mount examination. Data were analyzed using percentages (descriptive) and the <em>Chi</em>-square (χ2) test (inferential). <em>p </em>&lt; 0.05 was considered significant for all analysis.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Ten GI parasites were detected with <em>Eimeria </em>species (32.83%), <em>Ascaridia galli </em>(30.15%) and <em>Heterakis gallinarum </em>(24.79%) as the most prevalent ones. Multiple parasites co-infection was recorded in all the avian species: broilers (77.78%), layers (33.33%), cockerels (45.16%), indigenous chickens (17.91%), ducks (69.70%), pigeons (94.12%), turkeys (47.83%), and guinea fowls (77.36%). Pigeons (100.00%) and turkeys (95.65%) were the most infected avian species. Age, sex, and avian types were significantly (<em>p </em>&lt; 0.05) associated with the occurrence of GI parasites infection.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>This study gives a reflection of the GI parasites fauna of avian species in Nigeria. The GI parasites are endemic among different avian species in Ilorin, North Central Nigeria. Knowledge on the epidemiology of these parasites is important in instituting a good preventive and control measures against GI parasites, so as to have maximum production and reproduction effects in the poultry industry.</p> <p>J. Adv. Vet. Anim. Res., 6(1): 108-116, March 2019</p> Shola David Ola Fadunsin Isau Aremu Ganiyu Musa Rabiu Karimat Hussain Idiat Modupe Sanda Salamat Ayinke Musa Patricia Isioma Uwabujo Nathan Adamu Furo ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-31 2019-03-31 6 1 108 116 Landmark-based morphometric and meristic variations of freshwater garfish, Xenentodon cancila from four natural stocks of South-Western Bangladesh <p><strong>Objective: </strong>The morphometric and meristic variations of <em>Xenentodon cancila </em>was studied based on the landmark-based truss network system to assess their phenotypic variations among four different freshwater stocks, <em>viz</em>. Boluhorpur <em>baor</em>, Jhenaidah (BBJ) (<em>n </em>= 29); Bhairab River, Jashore (BRJ) (<em>n </em>= 34); Arial Khan River, Madaripur (AKRM) (<em>n </em>= 28), and Bohnni baor, Gopalganj (BBG) (<em>n </em>= 25) in Bangladesh.</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods: </strong>Seven meristic characters were counted by using a needle. Eight mor­phometrics and 28 truss measurements were measured by using tpsDigV.2.1 software. In meristic characters, Kruskal–Wallis test was performed to determine any significant differences, whereas, in morphometrics and truss measurements, univariate statistics and discriminant function analy­ses were carried out by using SPSS 22 version.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Significant differences were observed in four meristic characters among seven meristic characters in the Kruskal–Wallis test. In univariate statistics, only nine characters were observed significantly different among eight morphometrics and 28 truss measurements. The contribu­tion of three discriminant function analyses (DFA), in which first DFA showed 49.2%, second DFA showed 33%, and third DFA showed 17.8% on behalf of both morphometric and truss measure­ments. In discriminant space, the four stocks were clearly separated. Two clusters were formed among four stocks, where BBG formed a single cluster, whereas BBJ and BRJ aggregately formed another cluster. Additionally, AKRM formed a sub-cluster with BBJ.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The preliminary information generated from the current study would be beneficial for further genetic studies and in the assessment of ecological impacts on <em>X. cancila </em>stocks in Bangladesh.</p> <p>J. Adv. Vet. Anim. Res., 6(1): 117-124, March 2019</p> Md Sarower E Mahfuj Md Motiur Rahman Monirul Islam Md Abdus Samad Alok Kumar Paul Ripon Kumar Adhikary ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-31 2019-03-31 6 1 117 124 In vitro studies on gastrointestinal monogastric and avian models to evaluate the binding efficacy of mycotoxin adsorbents by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry <p><strong>Objective: </strong>The objective of this study is evaluating the efficacies of 11 mycotoxin adsorbent prod­ucts, marketed in South East Asia. Three prominently occurring mycotoxins; aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), deoxynivalenol (DON), and zearalenone (ZEN) were simultaneously spiked into the samples.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>Samples were simultaneously tested in vitro in phosphate buffer and simulated at different pH conditions in the gastrointestinal tracts of the porcine and avian model, analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS).</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>All mycotoxin adsorbent products had high efficacy at over 90% for AFB1 adsorption in both GI porcine and avian models. AFB1 could be adsorbed more in acidic condition than the basic condition. ZEN adsorption was determined to be more stable at pH 3 than pH 6.5 or 8.4, in which pH condition might influence on ZEN desorption rate. DON was poorly adsorbed by all tested agents.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>The finding showed that the adsorption rate varied depending on the type of adsorbent. Our results might provide useful information regarding the efficacy of mycotoxin adsorbents commercially marketed in the region.</p> <p>J. Adv. Vet. Anim. Res., 6(1): 125-132, March 2019</p> Jutamas Prapapanpong Pareeya Udomkusonsri Wiratchanee Mahavorasirikul Sasiprapa Choochuay Natthasit Tansakul ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-31 2019-03-31 6 1 125 132 Influence of mechanochemical technology on anthelmintic efficacy of the supramolecular complex of fenbendazole with polyvinylpyrrolidone <p><strong>Objective: </strong>The purpose of our research was to evaluate the effect of mechanochemical technol­ogy on the efficacy of supramolecular complex of fenbendazole (SMCF) with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) polymer against some helminthosis of animals.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>The SMCF samples with PVP were synthesized using a solid-state mech­anochemical technology in activators of impact-abrading type and their physicochemical prop­erties were analyzed. The efficacy of SMCF was studied on the laboratory model of <em>Hymenolepis nana </em>and <em>Trichinella spiralis </em>infection of mice and helminthosis of sheep.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>In the trials conducted on laboratory models, the supramolecular complex showed 93.94% and 98.56 % efficacy at the dose of 1 mg/kg of body weight (b/w), while the substance of fenbendazole showed 7.97% and 8.33% efficacy at the same dose. A high efficacy (&gt;94%) of the SMCF was revealed at the dose of 2.0 mg/kg of b/w at oral administration against nematodes in naturally infected sheep by the results of the fecal examination, while the substance of fenben­dazole was active at the dose of 5.0 mg/kg at single oral administration. Moreover, the SMCF demonstrated 97.37% efficacy at the dose of 2 mg/kg against <em>Moniezia </em>spp. infection of sheep. Physicochemical studies confirmed the increase in solubility of the complex, reducing of particle sizes, amorphization of fenbendazole substance, and incorporating it with micelles of PVP.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>According to the results, supramolecular complex of fenbendazole with PVP was more active than the basic substance of fenbendazole and its anthelmintic properties were expanded.</p> <p>J. Adv. Vet. Anim. Res., 6(1): 133-141, March 2019</p> Ivan A Arkhipov Salavat S Khalikov Konstantin M Sadov Alexander V Dushkin Elizaveta S Meteleva Anastasiya I Varlamova Irina M Odoevskaya Nataliya V Danilevskaya ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-31 2019-03-31 6 1 133 141 Serum glucose, urea nitrogen, cholesterol, and total proteins in crossbred repeat breeder and normally cyclic cows <p><strong>Objective: </strong>This study was designed to determine and compare the serum glucose, urea nitrogen, cholesterol, and total protein (TP) level in crossbred repeat breeder (RB) and normally cyclic cows to find out the relationship of these metabolic factors with repeat breeding syndrome (RBS).</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>A total of 592 breedable cows from 34 farms were examined from Mymensingh and Chittagong districts. Seventy cows were identified as RB cows and another 10 cows were randomly selected as normally cyclic control cows for this study. Blood sample from each cow was collected and the serum was separated. The serum samples were analyzed by auto blood analyzer.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Cows affected with RBS had significant variation in their glucose, urea, and cholesterol levels. Serum glucose (43.00 gm/dl) level was significantly lower than in normally cyclic cows. On the other hand, serum urea and cholesterol levels were significantly higher than in normally cyclic cows. However, the TP concentrations did not differ between RB and cyclic cows. RB cows had a lower trend (6.815 mg/dl) of serum TP than in normally cyclic cows. &nbsp;<strong>Conclusion: </strong>This research might help scientists and veterinarians to understand that the high serum urea and cholesterol level along with low glucose and TP level could have some effect in the development of RBS in crossbred cows. It will potentially help veterinary practitioners and farmers to take preventive measures against RBS of crossbred cows.</p> <p>J. Adv. Vet. Anim. Res., 6(1): 82-85, March 2019</p> Rashed Khan Barson Shasthi Padder Abu Sadath Md Sayam Mohammad Moshiur Rahman Mohammad Musharraf Uddin Bhuiyan Jayonta Bhattacharjee ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-31 2019-03-31 6 1 82 85 Diversity and prevalence of parasitic infestation with zoonotic potential in dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius) and fat-tailed sheep (dhumba) in Bangladesh <p><strong>Objective: </strong>Parasitic infestation is a major cause of losses in livestock production in tropical regions. A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Gastro-intestinal (GI) parasites of dromedary camel (<em>Camelus dromedarius</em>) and fat-tailed sheep (dhumba), and the prevalence of hemoparasites in camel from Dhaka, Bangladesh.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>A total of 87 fecal samples (32 dhumba and 55 camel) and 55 camel blood samples were collected during September–October 2015. Fecal samples were examined by direct smear, sedimentation method, flotation technique, and McMaster technique for GI parasite. Giemsa stained blood smears were examined under microscope for hemoparasite detection.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>62% camel (<em>n </em>= 34; 95% confidence interval (CI): 47.7–74.6) were infected with at least one genus of parasite. 15% camel were harboring more than one genus of parasite. The prevalence of GI parasite and hemoparasite in camel were recorded as <em>Trichuris </em>spp. (<em>n </em>= 16; 29%; 95% CI: 17.6–42.9), <em>Balantidium coli </em>(<em>n </em>= 12; 22%; 95% CI: 11.8–35.0), <em>Trichostrongylus </em>spp<em>. </em>(<em>n </em>= 7; 13%; 95% CI: 5.3–24.5), <em>Strongyloides </em>spp<em>. </em>(<em>n </em>= 5; 9%; 95% CI: 3.0–20.0), <em>Anaplasma </em>spp. (<em>n </em>= 5; 9%; 95% CI: 3.02–20.0), <em>Paragonimus </em>spp. (<em>n </em>= 1; 2%; 95% CI: 0.05– 9.7), <em>Schistosoma </em>spp<em>. </em>(<em>n </em>= 1; 2%; 95% CI: 0.05–9.7), <em>Hymenolepis </em>spp<em>. </em>(<em>n </em>= 1; 2%; 95% CI: 0.05–9.7), <em>Moniezia </em>spp. (<em>n </em>= 1; 2%; 95% CI: 0.05–9.7), and <em>Babesia </em>spp. (<em>n </em>= 1; 2%; 95% CI: 0.05–9.7). Mean EPG feces of camel was 291.76 ± 42.03 with a range of 0–1,400. Total 59.4% dhumba (<em>n </em>= 19; 95% CI: 41–76) were positive for GI parasite, including <em>Trichostrongylus </em>spp. (<em>n </em>= 10; 31.3%; 95% CI: 16.1–50), <em>Strongyloides </em>spp<em>. </em>(<em>n </em>= 9; 28%; 95% CI: 13.8–46.8), <em>B. coli </em>(<em>n </em>= 5; 15.6%; 95% CI: 5.3–32.8), and <em>Trichuris </em>spp<em>. </em>(<em>n </em>= 4; 12.5%; 95% CI: 3.5–28.9).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>High percentage of parasitic infestation in camel and dhumba in the present study refers to the necessity of use of anthelmintic for health and production improvement and to prevent zoonotic parasite transmission to animal handler and workers.</p> <p>J. Adv. Vet. Anim. Res., 6(1): 142-147, March 2019</p> Ariful Islam Shariful Islam Jinnat Ferdous Md Kaisar Rahman Md Helal Uddin Sazeda Akter Md Hafizar Rahman Mohammad Mahmudul Hassan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-31 2019-03-31 6 1 142 147 The employment of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy coupled with chemometrics techniques for traceability and authentication of meat and meat products <p>Meat-based food such as meatball and sausages are important sources of protein needed for the human body. Due to different prices, some unethical producers try to adulterate high-price meat such as beef with lower priced meat like pork and rat meat to gain economical profits, therefore, reliable and fast analytical techniques should be developed, validated, and applied for meat traceability and authenticity. Some instrumental techniques have been applied for the detection of meat adul­teration, mainly relied on DNA and protein using polymerase chain reaction and chromatographic methods, respectively. But, this method is time-consuming, needs a sophisticated instrument, involves complex sample preparation which make the method is not suitable for routine analysis. As a consequence, a simpler method based on spectroscopic principles should be continuously developed. Food samples are sometimes complex which resulted in complex chemical responses. Fortunately, a statistical method called with chemometrics could solve the problems related to complex chemical data. This mini-review highlights the application of Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy coupled with numerous chemometrics techniques for authenticity and traceability of meat and meat-based products.</p> <p>J. Adv. Vet. Anim. Res., 6(1): 9-17, March 2019</p> Abdul Rohman ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-31 2019-03-31 6 1 9 17