International Journal of Agricultural Research, Innovation and Technology 2019-09-30T08:57:26+00:00 Mr M.S.A. Mamun Open Journal Systems <p>Official journal of the IJARIT Research Foundation. Full text articles available.</p><p>International Journal of Agricultural Research, Innovation and Technology is included on <a title="DOAJ" href="" target="_blank">DOAJ</a>.</p> Mutation determination of rice by using RAPD primers 2019-09-30T08:57:08+00:00 MSH Bhuiyan MA Malek SH Bhuiyan M Islam ABA Hassan <p>PCR is a powerful tool for the amplification of genetic sequences but sometimes, even though using an established PCR protocol that had been optimized and successful for the amplification of a particular DNA segment, use of that same protocol on a different region can result in a less than desirable outcome. Therefore, an experiment was conducted at Molecular biology laboratory of Malaysian Nuclear Agency during December 2016 to January 2017 used seeds of 6 indica rice cultivars. To conduce RAPD experiments for the rice species it was established the following reaction conditions for the final volume of 20 μl where 0.1 unit of Taq DNA polymerase, 0.4 μl of each dNTP, 2.5 mM MgCl2, 1 μl primer and 2.0 μl of DNA template. From this experiment, it is clear that after mutation the parent MR219 performed some genetic modification and produce genetically different variety namely NMR151, NMR152, ML3, ML10 and ML30. These mutant varieties have two different groups based on their mutation source and it is clear enough from their RAPD profile.</p> <p>Int. J. Agril. Res. Innov. &amp; Tech. 9 (1): 1-7, June, 2019</p> 2019-09-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Socio-economic factors influencing poverty among rural households in onicha local government area, ebonyi state, Nigeria 2019-09-30T08:57:09+00:00 VA Eze NE Odoh OE Igwe CJ Mgbanya <p>The study examined the socio-economic factors influencing poverty among rural households in Onicha Local Government Area of Ebonyi state, Nigeria. The study adopted multistage random and purposive sampling techniques to select 120 household heads. Primary data used for the study were collected using structured questionnaire. The data were analysed with the aid of means, percentage and frequency count and OLS multiple regression model. The result indicated that the households spent an average of N31,250 monthly to take care of their families and other essential personal needs. The result of the socio-economic characteristics showed that majority (53.3) of the respondents were females. The mean age was 36 years with majority (64.2%) married while an average of 6 persons per household was recorded. The predominant occupations were farming (36.0%) and civil service (35.8%). The households cultivated a mean farm size of 3.8 hectares, the mean monthly income was N19,720 while their average monthly expenditure amounted to N31,250. Moreover, 73.3% of the respondents belonged to one social organization or the other with over 90.0% of them having acquired various forms of formal education. The multiple regression result showed the coefficient of determination (R2) was 0.644 or 64.4%. The overall model was statistically significant (P&lt;0.05), signifying that the selected socio-economic characteristics of the households have significant influence on their poverty level. The coefficients of age, sex, educational attainment, household size, farm size, income and membership of social groups were statistically significant. The hypothesis tested led to the conclusion that the selected socio-economic characteristics have significant influence on the poverty level of the households. The study recommended improvement of socio-economic attributes that improve the poverty level of rural households.</p> <p>Int. J. Agril. Res. Innov. &amp; Tech. 9 (1): 8-13, June, 2019</p> 2019-09-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Interactive effects of phosphorus and potassium on biomass production and accumulation of nitrogen in field grown mungbean (Vigna radiata L.) 2019-09-30T08:57:11+00:00 GM Mohsin M Alauddin M Rahman MK Uddin FF Meem AHMZ Ali MS Rahman MK Rahman <p>A field experiment was carried out in the paddy field of Charfession Govt. College, Bhola, Bangladesh during rabi season 2017 to evaluate growth, biomass production and nitrogen accumulation in mungbean plants. The size of the plot was 60 cm x 45 cm. The distance between row to row and plant to plant was 30 cm and 10 cm, respectively. Eight plants were raised per plot. Seven treatments were P<sub>0</sub>K<sub>0</sub> (Control), P<sub>5</sub>K<sub>6</sub>, P<sub>5</sub>K<sub>12</sub>, P<sub>5</sub>K<sub>18</sub>, P<sub>10</sub>K<sub>6</sub>, P<sub>10</sub>K<sub>12</sub> and P<sub>10</sub>K<sub>18</sub> kg ha<sup>-1</sup>. Forty day old plants were harvestedas root, stem and leaf. The highest plant height (17.2 cm) and number of leaves (14.3 no. plant<sup>-1</sup>) were recorded in P5K12 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> treatment at harvest. The maximum concentration of nitrogen in root, stem and leaf were 1.59, 2.51 and 3.82% in the treatments of P<sub>5</sub>K<sub>12</sub>, P<sub>5</sub>K<sub>12</sub> and P<sub>5</sub>K<sub>18</sub> kg ha<sup>-1</sup>, respectively. The highest amount of dry matter yield 1.88 g plant<sup>-1</sup> was observed in P<sub>5</sub>K<sub>12</sub> kg ha<sup>-1</sup> treatment. The overall better dose was P<sub>5</sub>K<sub>12</sub> kg ha<sup>-1</sup>. Thus, a considerable amount of nitrogen and organic matter might be added to paddy fields through the cultivation of mungbean in the coastal region of Bangladesh.</p> <p>Int. J. Agril. Res. Innov. &amp; Tech. 9 (1): 14-17, June, 2019</p> 2019-09-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Apple storage in ultra-low oxygen cold store 2019-09-30T08:57:12+00:00 Ahmad Khasrow Afif <p>Apple storage under lower concentration of oxygen (1.0-1.3% in some cases lower than 1%) in controlled atmosphere cold stores is described as apple storage in ultra-low oxygen cold store. Ultra-low oxygen store room is an airtight gas cold room and its atmosphere is composed of lower rate of oxygen and higher amount of CO2. It has been Investigated and recorded that ultra-low oxygen cold store extends storage life of apple varieties (Royal Gala, Red Delicious, Idared, Jonagold and Golden delicious) from 3 to 6 months under common cold stores to 7-11 months with preserving its nutritional, sensorial and biological parameters and characteristics after harvest. For storage of apples in Afghanistan, mostly simple and cold storerooms are applied but inadequately and with local methods and facilities, due to application of ultra-low oxygen cold storage both can benefitfarmers, customers and economic growth of the country.</p> <p>Int. J. Agril. Res. Innov. &amp; Tech. 9 (1): 18-22, June, 2019</p> 2019-09-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Livelihoods vulnerability of climate variability and coping mechanism: the case study of bale lowlands south eastern, Ethiopia 2019-09-30T08:57:14+00:00 Dejene Taye <p>Climate variability and vulnerability have a range of impacts on livelihood. It is likely that food insecurity will progress more rapidly with rising temperatures and variable rainfall. Hence, the aim of this study is to assess to assess climate vulnerability on livelihoods, and coping mechanism in selected three Woredas’ of Bale lowland, Sothern Western, Ethiopia. The study was conducted in Six PA’s of the Rayitu, Dawe Qachen and Guradamole Woreda in order to achieve these objectives, the study collected data from primary and secondary sources. The primary data collected by using data gathering tools such as FGDs (6), key informant interviews (50) and household survey (436). The study finding showed that the fluctuation of climate makes the on livelihood of the pastoralist community vulnerable in affecting their crop and livestock productivity of the pastoralists’ community. Furthermore, the finding of the study also showed that there have to be an appropriate adaptation mechanism to the changing and fluctuating climate as well as it increases pastoralists community awareness about mechanism by which climate variability to reduce the impact and also to increase institutional involvement with different intervention mechanism. The vulnerability of climate fluctuation exacerbated by lack of adaptation and commitment from both pastoralists and local institutions. Since pastoralists are prioritizing their immediate benefits rather than sustainable development. To cope with the vulnerability the societies use saving, migration diversification, dissemination of technology and provision of safety nets to some lowlanders and emergency aid is among the coping mechanism provided by the government institution. Based on the findings and results of the study, the following recommendations suggested minimizing the vulnerability of the pastoral communities. Improve agricultural production, build on existing people’s knowledge and practices, strengthen local capacity to manage risks through local civil society organizations, foster institutional linkages for livelihood sustainability, and improve the coverage and quality of climate data.</p> <p>Int. J. Agril. Res. Innov. &amp; Tech. 9 (1): 23-34, June, 2019</p> 2019-09-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of NPK on growth, yield and seed quality of hybrid Chilli 2019-09-30T08:57:15+00:00 M Hasan M Robbani R Parvin MNH Mehedi I Hossain <p>An experiment was carried out at Germplasm Centre and Plant Biotechnology Lab, Department of Horticulture, PSTU to evaluate the growth, seed yield and quality of hybrid F1 chilli (cv. Sonic) crossing male line (LTSL-004-M) and female line (LTSL-004-F) along the viability of productive seeds influenced by NPK fertilizers during the period from November 2015 to October 2016. Ten different treatments of NPK fertilizers were used. Result showed that all the characteristics except primary branches and1000 seed weight were influenced significantly due to the application of NPK fertilizers. The tallest plant (69.88 cm), more leaves plant<sup>–1</sup> (2491.33), highest number of secondary branches plant<sup>-1</sup>, tertiary branches plant-1 (5.00 and 88.00, respectively), number of flowers and hybrid fruits plant<sup>–1</sup> (1533.00 and 12.33, respectively) and weight of seeds (4.03 g plant<sup>–1</sup>) along with required more time (54.67 days) for flowering were obtained from the application of 145 kg N ha<sup>–1</sup>, 175 kg P ha<sup>–1</sup> and 96 kg K ha<sup>–1</sup> (T4) which produced the highest final seed yield of chilli (4.03 kg ha<sup>–1</sup>). Application of T5 and T9 showed the highest number of primary branches (2.33). In seed viability characteristics T9 treated seeds showed the highest germination (100, 97.33 and 94.97%) at 1<sup>st</sup>, (1 MAH - Month After Harvest), 2<sup>nd</sup> (2 MAH) and 3<sup>rd</sup> (4 MAH) observations, respectively. The T3 treated seeds performed well in respect of Seed Vigour Index (SVI) at 1<sup>st</sup> and 2<sup>nd </sup>observations (8.00 and 7.48, respectively) but T9 treated seeds showed the highest SVI (6.32) at 3<sup>rd</sup> observation. Above indicating all characteristics were lowest under only recommended doses of NPK T1 as control treatment except days to first flowering. The observations suggested that production of hybrid chilli seeds could be enhanced by applying T4. While seeds of chilli treated by T9 in field level showed long time viable. Application of 145 kg N ha<sup>–1</sup>, 175 kg P ha<sup>–1</sup> and 96 kg K ha<sup>–1</sup> may be suggested for seed production of chilli and 110 kg N ha<sup>–1</sup>, + 175 kg P ha<sup>–1</sup> + 115 kg K ha<sup>–1</sup> for keeping the long time seed viability.</p> <p>Int. J. Agril. Res. Innov. &amp; Tech. 9 (1): 35-41, June, 2019</p> 2019-09-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Toxicity bioassay of chlorpyrifos on some local fish species of northern Bangladesh 2019-09-30T08:57:17+00:00 MN Zahan MJ Islam T Mahajebin MS Rahman AKMM Hossain <p>Four fish species namely, stinging catfish (<em>Heteropneustes fossilis), </em>spotted snakehead (<em>Channa punctatus</em>), climbing perch (<em>Anabas testudineus</em>) and tangra (<em>Batasio tengana</em>) were exposed to various concentrations of chlorpyrifos (Expert 20 EC) to investigate the mortality rate of fish species and the toxicity level of the pesticide. The LC50 values of chlorpyrifos on these fish species were 23.10, 20.32, 16.61 and 13.94 ppm, respectively at 96 hours of exposure. Among these results, it is clear that the lethal concentration is varying species to species because their strengths are different. During the experiments, some water quality parameters such as temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, total dissolved solids and electrical conductivity were also analyzed. The temperature values remained within the ranges of 17-20°C and the pH was 6.64-7.30. Fish behaved irregular and erratic movements followed by hyper excitability, loss of balance and settling to the bottom of the test chamber. At higher concentration of chlorpyrifos, alterations in physiological and behavioural responses especially erratic swimming, gulping, mucus secretion, increased opercular movement and profuse emission of mucus all above the body were observed during the primary stages of contact after which it became occasional.</p> <p>Int. J. Agril. Res. Innov. &amp; Tech. 9 (1): 42-47, June, 2019</p> 2019-09-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Productivity of boro ratoon rice under different levels of nitrogen 2019-09-30T08:57:18+00:00 AFM Mamun SK Mazumder TP Suvo S Akter <p>An experiment was carried out at the Agronomy Field, Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Dhaka during November 2009 to July 2010 to study the effect of variety and varying levels of nitrogen application to ratoon crop of boro rice. Four varieties (BRRI hybrid dhan2, BRRI dhan29, BRRI dhan35 and BRRI dhan47) and four doses of nitrogen (0%, 25%, 50% and 75% N of recommended dose) were tested. These doses of N fertilizer were applied to the ratoon crop just after harvesting of the main crop leaving 15 cm stuble height above the ground level. Among the main crop BRRI hybrid dhan2 produced significantly highest grain yield (7.037 t ha<sup>-1</sup>). In the ratoon crop grain yield of BRRI hybrid dhan2 and BRRI dhan29 with all levels of N application produced significantly higher grain yield (710-917 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>). So, BRRI hybrid dhan2 and BRRI dhan29 with 25% extra N application could be considered for ratoon cropping.</p> <p>Int. J. Agril. Res. Innov. &amp; Tech. 9 (1): 48-57, June, 2019</p> 2019-09-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## How video attributes influence farmer learning about maize postharvest handling practices and technologies in kakumiro district, Uganda 2019-09-30T08:57:20+00:00 G Asasira G Karubanga F Okry P Kibwika JG Agea <p>In Sub-Saharan Africa, video has been earmarked as an important tool to enhance learning among smallholder farmers. The study evaluated how the inherent video attributes influence learning about postharvest handling practices and technologies from the perspective of maize farmers in Kakumiro district of Uganda; using the case of Access Agriculture maize videos. An action-oriented research involving showing of four videos, on-site participant observation, six key informant and 50 exit individual interviews were conducted in February 2019. While thematic-content analysis was applied for qualitative data, quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS 18.0 version. Our results clearly illustrate that the video’s ability to influence farmer learning depends on the complementarity of its positive attributes including: demonstration ability, attractiveness and clarity of images, ability to arouse interest and curiosity; thus, fostering interactions among viewers. The nature of video content in terms of clarity, practicability, relevance, applicability and content sequencing are also perceived to be key attributes of video in enhancing learning among the viewers. However, the effectiveness of video is likely to be compromised by the socio-economic and cultural factors more especially if such factors are not well taken care of during the filming process. If possible, when developing videos for farmer learning, focus should be on creating local content that is context specific, which farmers can enjoy and relate to for easy adaptation and eventual application.</p> <p>Int. J. Agril. Res. Innov. &amp; Tech. 9 (1): 58-65, June, 2019</p> 2019-09-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Reinforcing social learning beyond video: lessons from the sasakawa global 2000 rice videos in kamwenge district, Uganda 2019-09-30T08:57:21+00:00 G Karubanga F Okry P Kibwika JG Agea H Sseguya <p>The study assesses how social learning was triggered and reinforced through video-mediated extension as used by Sasakawa Global 2000 (SG 2000) from 2007 to 2010 among rice farmers in Kamwenge district, Uganda. A longitudinal study involving six focus group discussions and 100 semi-structured interviews were conducted in August 2015 to February 2016, and later 21 key informant interviews in June 2018 to generate data from farmers. While thematic-content analysis was used for the qualitative data, SPSS v.18 was used for quantitative data analysis. Results indicate that video-complementary extension methods were non-discriminative as evidenced by the diversity of farmers who participated in the demonstration sites, field days and exchange visits in terms of age mix and level of education attained. Furthermore, use of videos in extension is more effective when combined with other complementary follow-up extension methods; thus, deepening social learning among farmers. For effective scaling-up of the impact of video-mediated extension messages, use of complementary extension methods such as demonstration plots, exchange visit and field days offer greater opportunities for developing more localized videos for farmer learning. However, this requires pragmatic retooling of extension workers to effectively document local videos on the interactive learning that occurs in these complementary extension methods.</p> <p>Int. J. Agril. Res. Innov. &amp; Tech. 9 (1): 66-72, June, 2019</p> 2019-09-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of use of duckweed powder as a fish feed on monoculture of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) 2019-09-30T08:57:23+00:00 K Hasan MS Rahman S Sultana M Shahjahan <p>An experiment on the use of duckweed powder as a fish feed on monoculture of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) was conducted in 6 ponds for a period of 75 days. The area of the each pond was one decimal. The experiment was carried out under two treatments, each with 3 replications. A combination of duckweed powder and rice bran at the ratio of 3:1 was supplied at the rate of 4% of total body weight in the ponds under treatment-I. On the other hand, the ponds under treatment-II were without supplying of feed. Each of the ponds under both treatments were stocked with 45 fingerlings of silver carp (H. molitrix). The average initial length and weight of the fingerlings were 14.60 cm and 33.48 g, respectively. The ponds were fertilized fortnightly with poultry droppings at the rate of 2 kg, urea 60 g and TSP 90 g decimal<sup>-1</sup>. During the experimental period the ranges of physico-chemical parameters viz. water depth (0.82 to 0.90 m), water temperature (17.80 to 26.7 °C), air temperature (19.11 to 28.29 °C), transparency (28.00 to 34.00 cm), dissolved oxygen (6.70 to 8.20 mg L<sup>-1</sup>), pH (6.70 to 8.00), total alkalinity (170 to 210 mg L<sup>-1</sup>), free CO<sub>2</sub> (0.0 to 3.50 mg L<sup>-1</sup>), phosphate-phosphorus (1.2 to 2.9 mg L<sup>-1</sup>), and nitrate-nitrogen (3.1 to 4.5 mg L<sup>-1</sup>) were within the productive limit and more or less similar in all the ponds under treatments I and II. There were 25 genera of phytoplankton under four major groups and 10 genera of zooplankton under three major groups in the experimental ponds. Mean survival rates under treatment-I and treatment-II were 97.78% and 95.56%, respectively. The specific growth rates (SGR % per day) of the fish found under treatment-I and treatment-II were 0.98% and 0.49%. The calculated net production of the ponds under treatment-I was 1.87 ton ha<sup>-1</sup> yr<sup>-1</sup> and that of the ponds under treatment-II, was 0.74 ton ha<sup>-1</sup> yr<sup>-1</sup>. By 't' test, it was found that the net fish production of treatment-I was significantly (p&lt;0.01) higher than that of treatment-II, and cost return relationship was found that the net profit of treatment-I and treatment-II were more or less similar. Finally, it can be concluded that duckweed powder as an ingredient of fish feed had significant impacts on production of silver carp, which do not consume duckweed as fresh and raw condition. Thus, duckweed powder can be used as feed for most fishes.</p> <p>Int. J. Agril. Res. Innov. &amp; Tech. 9 (1): 73-83, June, 2019</p> 2019-09-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Histopathological and environmental effects of the insecticide, sumithion on the fish, tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in pond condition 2019-09-30T08:57:25+00:00 M Kabir M Shahjahan P Chowdhury MS Rahman <p>The present research work was conducted to evaluate the effects of organophosphate insecticide, sumithion on water quality parameters, density of plankton population and histological changes of kidney and liver of the fish, tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in aquaculture ponds during July to December 2016. The experiment was conducted with four treatments, each with two replications. Treatment T0 was used as control (no sumithion) and other three treatments with 0.025 ppm (T<sub>1</sub>), 0.050 ppm (T<sub>2</sub>) and 0.100 ppm sumithion (T<sub>3</sub>). The water quality parameters such as dissolved oxygen, free carbon dioxide, pH, total alkalinity, NO<sub>3</sub>-N and PO<sub>4</sub>-P fluctuated significantly under four treatments during the experimental period but they were not affected by sumithion application. The phytoplankton densities (×105 cells L<sup>-1</sup>) was not affected by sumithion. Six genera of phytoplankton populations were found in the experimental ponds. On the other hand, zooplankton population densities (×103 cells L<sup>-1</sup>) were significantly reduced with increasing doses of sumithion (T<sub>2</sub> and T<sub>3</sub>) in comparison with that of control (T<sub>0</sub>). Histological changes of kidney were observed after application of sumithion. The renal corpuscle, collecting duct, hematopoietic cells and other cells of the kidney in control (T<sub>0</sub>) were normal and systematically arranged. Abnormal collecting duct, Intra-cellular space, degenerated renal corpuscle, irregular shaped blood vessel, ruptured membrane large vacuole and necrosis were found in T<sub>1</sub>, T<sub>2</sub> and T<sub>3</sub>.Normal structure of liver cells such as hepato-pancreas, hepatic cell and blood vessel were observed in T<sub>0</sub> (control). Sumithion exposed liver sections showed rupturedhepato-pancreas, necrosis, hemorrhage, intra-cellular space, degenerated hepatopancreas and large vacuole were found in T<sub>1</sub>, T<sub>2</sub> and T<sub>3</sub>. Therefore, it reveals that sumithion has adverse effects on kidney and liver of the test fish. So, sumithion should not be used indiscriminately in agriculture and aquaculture practices. It may be concluded from the research finding that dissolved oxygen, free carbon dioxide, pH, total alkalinity, PO<sub>4</sub>-P, NO<sub>3</sub>-N, phytoplankton and zooplankton values under treatment, T<sub>0</sub>, are significantly different from treatments T<sub>1</sub>, T<sub>2</sub>, and T<sub>3</sub> in most cases.</p> <p>Int. J. Agril. Res. Innov. &amp; Tech. 9 (1): 84-95, June, 2019</p> 2019-09-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##