https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/EMCJ/issue/feed Eastern Medical College Journal 2024-03-28T07:49:08+00:00 Prof. Dr. Musleh Uddin Ahmed dr_musleh_uddin_ahmed@yahoo.com Open Journal Systems <p>Official journal of <a href="https://www.emccomilla.com/index.php">Eastern Medical College, Comilla</a>. Full text articles available.</p> <p><a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/" rel="license"><img style="border-width: 0;" src="https://i.creativecommons.org/l/by-nc-sa/4.0/88x31.png" alt="Creative Commons Licence" /></a></p> <p><a href="https://www.emccomilla.com/journal.php">Eastern Medical College Journal (EMCJ)</a> retains the copyright of the contents of this journal but grants the readers the right to use the contents with terms and conditions under a creative common attribution licenses 4 of Attribution, Share Alike and Non commercial type(CC-BY-NC-SA) that allows copy, distribute, display, and perform the work and make derivative works based on it only for noncommercial purposes. <br />Eastern Medical College Journal is licensed under a <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License</a>.</p> https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/EMCJ/article/view/71981 Hypophosphatemia and Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Review 2024-03-17T08:59:53+00:00 Pijush Karmakar dr.pijushkk@gmail.com Mohammad Mohiuddin dr.pijushkk@gmail.com Shaheen Nargish dr.pijushkk@gmail.com Md Zakirul Islam zakirulislamcom7@gmail.com <p>Type-2 diabetes is a global public health crisis that threatens the economies of all nations, particularly developing countries. Type-2 diabetes mellitus has been suggested to be the most common endocrine disorder associated with several metabolic disturbances including changes in serum calcium, zinc, magnesium, or phosphate. Moreover, those who have poor glycemic control and longtime diabetes mellitus are more likely to decrease the blood phosphate level. Low serum phosphate level may be associated with morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease in these patients. So, the findings of this study may suggest that serum phosphate is an important screening parameter in type-2 diabetic patients especially who have poor glycemic control and longtime diabetes mellitus.</p> <p>Eastern Med Coll J. July 2023; 8 (2): 45-50</p> 2024-03-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Eastern Medical College Journal https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/EMCJ/article/view/71972 Outcome of Titanium Elastic Nailing System in Diaphyseal Femoral Fractures of Children in the Age Group of 4-12 years 2024-03-17T06:24:58+00:00 Mohammed Mahfoozur Rahman dr.badal2009@gmail.com Md Khaza Ahmed dr.badal2009@gmail.com Md Golam Sarwar dr.badal2009@gmail.com Mehedi Hasan dr.badal2009@gmail.com SM Tauhidur Rahman dr.badal2009@gmail.com <p><strong>Background:</strong> Femoral shaft fractures are the most common major pediatric injuries treated by orthopedic surgeons. Management of femoral diaphyseal fracture in the age group of 4-12 years is controversial. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the effectiveness of intramedullary fixation of femoral shaft fractures by using Titanium Elastic Nailing System (TENS). <strong>Methodology: </strong>Twenty-six (26) children in the range of 4-12 years with recent (&lt;3 days) femoral shaft fracture (24 closed, 02 Grade-I compound) were stabilized with Titanium Elastic Nail (TEN), between January 2019 and June 2022 in Eastern Medical College Hospital, Cumilla and Cumilla Trauma Centre. The diameter of the individual nail was selected as per Flynn’s formula and the results were evaluated by Flynn’s criteria. All patients were followed radiologically as well as clinically until fractures healed and for any complications. <strong>Results: </strong>Among the twenty-six (26) cases 18 were boys and 8 were girls. Twenty-three (23) cases were managed by closed reduction while three (3) cases required open reduction. The time duration of surgery ranged 20-45 minutes. The hospital stay ranged between 5 to 8 days (mean 6.5 days). The mean duration of follow-up was 21 months (range: 3 - 39 months). All fractures were radiologically united at 8-12 weeks (mean 10 weeks) and full weight bearing was possible in a meantime of 9.5 weeks. According to Flynn’s criteria, excellent results were found in 24 (92.3%) cases and satisfactory in 2 (7.7%) cases. Limb lengthening was noticed in 6 cases and rotational mal alignment was seen in 1 case. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Intramedullary fixation with Titanium Elastic Nail may be the preferred method for the treatment of femoral fractures in children aged 4-12 years. As it is a safe, minimally invasive, surgeon-friendly technique and shows very good functional and cosmetic results.</p> <p>Eastern Med Coll J. July 2023; 8 (2): 1-6</p> 2024-03-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Eastern Medical College Journal https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/EMCJ/article/view/71973 Challenges of Online Medical Education During the COVID-19 Pandemic Faced by 3rd and 4th Year Medical Students of Sir Salimullah Medical College, Dhaka 2024-03-17T07:31:35+00:00 Priyanka Das Bristi priyankabristi4@gmail.com Afshan Zareen priyankabristi4@gmail.com Rehana Sultana priyankabristi4@gmail.com Airin Salim priyankabristi4@gmail.com Md Minuddin Hoshen priyankabristi4@gmail.com Arnab Das priyankabristi4@gmail.com <p><strong>Background:</strong> Online education is a form of education where students use their home computers through the internet staying away from academic institutions. Due to the emergence of the pandemic of COVID-19, the whole world is experiencing number of huge deaths along with widespread panic and uncertainty. Countries of the world are trying to fill the gap and minimize the losses of students caused by the ongoing pandemic. <strong>Objective:</strong> This study mainly explores the challenges of online medical education during COVID-19 pandemic faced by 3rd and 4th year medical students of Sir Salimullah Medical College, Dhaka, Bangladesh. <strong>Methodology:</strong> This Descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in Sir Salimullah Medical College, Dhaka from January 2021 to December 2021. A weblink of survey was shared with 439 3rd and 4th year medical students and 309 responses were obtained. Data were collected by using pretested semi structured questionnaire by face-to-face interview and by online google form due to COVID-19 pandemic situation and sample were collected by purposive sampling. <strong>Result:</strong> Among 309 respondents, 60.2% were female and 39.8% were male, 95.8% respondents were Bangladeshi, 46.3% respondents’ family income were around 30000 taka, 64.4% respondents lived in city, 22% respondents faced some challenges regarding internet connection, 8.41% respondents faced knowledge about internet browsing, 5.18% respondents faced problem regarding time management and 3.8% respondents faced problem about the adaptation of new method of learning. Despite these challenges 59.2% of the respondents reported positive response about beneficial effect of online classes and half (52.8%) of the respondents were satisfied with online classes. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> In medical education face-to-face education is essential. But due to lockdown there was no scope of practical and face to face education during COVID-19 pandemic situation. This study showed that there were some positive and negative impacts of online education.</p> <p>Eastern Med Coll J. July 2023; 8 (2): 7-12</p> 2024-03-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Eastern Medical College Journal https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/EMCJ/article/view/71971 Evaluation of Folic Acid Deficiency Anaemia in Predialysis Chronic Kidney Disease Patients: A Hospital-based Study 2024-03-17T07:44:11+00:00 Ripon Chandra Mazumder riponchandra1975@gmail.com Supriya Sarker riponchandra1975@gmail.com Saiful Islam riponchandra1975@gmail.com ATM Faruque Ahmed riponchandra1975@gmail.com Ganesh Chandra Halder riponchandra1975@gmail.com Sadiqul Islam Khan riponchandra1975@gmail.com <p><strong>Background:</strong> Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is defined as decreasing kidney function for more than 3 months. Anemia is a common complication of CKD due to a decrease in the hormone erythropoietin related to hemoglobin levels. Folic acid helps with the process of nucleoprotein synthesis and erythropoiesis maintenance.<strong>Objectives: </strong>The aim of the study was to determine the folic acid level in predialytic anaemic chronic kidney disease patients. <strong>Methodology:</strong> It was a cross-sectional study conducted in the department of Nephrology of Eastern Medical College &amp; Hospital from September 2020 to August 2021 on predialysis CKD anaemic patient of stage-3 to stage-5. A total of 100 subjects were selected by purposive sampling. The age group was 18 to 70 years. <strong>Results: </strong>Among the 100 subjects mild, Moderate and Severe aneamia were found in 27%, 44% and 29% respectively. Maximum cases showed normocytic normochromic anaeamia (54%) and 7% cases showed macrocytic aneamia. Serum folic acid levels were found to have decreased in 1 (16.7%), 2 (8.33%) and 7 (10.0%) cases and increased in 2 (33.3%), 5 (20.83%) and 21 (30.0%) cases in stage-3, stage-4 and stage-5 respectively. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Anemia is a frequent complication of chronic kidney disease. Inadequate production of erythropoietin by the failing kidneys leads to decreased stimulation of the bone marrow to produce red blood cells. Folic acid deficiency may represent an influential factor in renal anemia.</p> <p>Eastern Med Coll J. July 2023; 8 (2): 13-18</p> 2024-03-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Eastern Medical College Journal https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/EMCJ/article/view/71974 Gastroprotective Effect of Aqueous Extract of Unripe Musa Paradisiaca (Banana) Fruit in Rats with Experimentally Induced Gastric Lesions 2024-03-17T07:59:37+00:00 Sharif Mohammad Zabir smzabir@gmail.com Md Jiaul Hasan smzabir@gmail.com Rukhsana Quadir smzabir@gmail.com Sumona Haque smzabir@gmail.com Kazi Sabiha smzabir@gmail.com Md Faizul Ahasan smzabir@gmail.com Sabrina Huda Nila smzabir@gmail.com Abu Saleh Md. Salauddin Chowdhury smzabir@gmail.com <p><strong>Background: </strong>Unripe banana fruit extract is used to relieve stomach distress in some countries. A few studies in India, China, Sudan, Nigeria and South Africa revealed protection of gastric mucosa after exposed to aggressive agent following administration of unripe banana fruit extract in experimental animals. <strong>Objective:</strong> To determine the protective effect of aqueous extract of unripe Musa paradisiaca (banana) fruit against ethanol induced gastric lesion in rats. <strong>Methodology:</strong> This was a prospective experimental study carried out in the department of Pharmacology, Dhaka Medical College, Dhaka within the period from January 2015 to June 2015. Aqueous extract of unripe banana fruit was prepared accordingly. Total 24 rats were randomly divided into 4 groups of 6 in each group. Group-A served as a control group and provided with distilled water (5 ml/kg/body weight) orally by gastric tube. Aqueous extract of Musa paradisiaca was administered orally as Group-B: 0.2 mg/kg/body weight/day, Group-C: 0.4 mg/kg/body weight/day and Group-D: 0.8 mg/kg/body weight/day for 7 days. After 7 days, 1 ml absolute ethanol (a known gastric lesion inducing agent) was orally administered to all groups by gastric tube. After 30 minutes of ethanol administration, all rats were sacrificed and dissected. After separating and opening stomachs, observed lesions were examined and measured with some morphological &amp; histological parameters. Obtained data were subjected to analysis by Student’s unpaired t-test. p-value &lt;0.05 was considered as statistically significant. <strong>Results: </strong>At the end of experiment, Group-A (control) showed a total of 33 gastric lesions. Group-B, Group-C and Group-D showed 22, 20 and 19 stomach lesions respectively. The difference between control group and experiment groups was statistically significant (p&lt;0.01). <strong>Conclusion:</strong> The unripe banana fruit extract has dose-dependent gastroprotective effect on rats. So, it may be effective in treating peptic ulcer disease.</p> <p>Eastern Med Coll J. July 2023; 8 (2): 19-23</p> 2024-03-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Eastern Medical College Journal https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/EMCJ/article/view/71975 Evaluation of Serum Triglyceride and TG/HDL-Cholesterol Ratio in Good and Poor Control Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus 2024-03-17T08:14:28+00:00 Dalia Sultana dalia.sultana2016.sa@gmail.com Manindra Nath Roy dalia.sultana2016.sa@gmail.com Pijush Karmakar dr.pijushkk@gmail.com Fatema Tuz Zohora dalia.sultana2016.sa@gmail.com Md Enamul Hoque dalia.sultana2016.sa@gmail.com Rawnok Jahan Sharna dalia.sultana2016.sa@gmail.com <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Patients with type-2 diabetes have an increased prevalence of dyslipidemia, which contributes to their high risk of cardiovascular diseases. The mortality and morbidity are increased if there is poor glycemic control. Diabetic dyslipidemia is characterized by elevated TG levels, decreased HDL-C levels and increased levels of LDL-C. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum triglyceride and TG/HDL-cholesterol ratio in good and poor control type-2 diabetes mellitus. <strong>Methodology:</strong> The present study was carried out in departments of Biochemistry, Medicine and Endocrinology of Sir Salimullah Medical College and Mitford Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh between the periods of July 2020 to June 2021. By convenient sampling, a total of 50 subjects aged between 30-59 years were enrolled in this study. Study subjects were divided into 2 groups. Group-A included subjects with good glycemic control (n=25) and group-B included subjects with poor glycemic control (n=25). <strong>Results:</strong> The mean HbA1c level was significantly higher in poor glycemic group than good glycemic group (10.9±12.02% vs. 5.98±0.95%). The mean TG was 173.16±36.9 mg/dl in good glycemic control group and 219.4±70.32 mg/dl in poor glycemic group. There was significant difference in TG/HDL-C ratio in 2 groups. Serum triglyceride and TG/HDL-C ratio had positive correlation with HbA1c but was not significant. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Poor glycemic control is associated with dyslipidemia in Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus.</p> <p>Eastern Med Coll J. July 2023; 8 (2): 24-28</p> 2024-03-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Eastern Medical College Journal https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/EMCJ/article/view/71976 Risk Factors of Cardiovascular Disease among Hypertensive Patients: A Study in A Tertiary Care Hospital in Bangladesh 2024-03-17T08:26:30+00:00 Ganesh Chandra Haldar drgch53117415@gmail.com AKM Aminul Hoque drgch53117415@gmail.com Aparna Das drgch53117415@gmail.com Ripon Chandra Mazumder riponchandra1975@gmail.com Pijush Karmakar dr.pijushkk@gmail.com <p><strong>Background: </strong>Identifying the risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in hypertensive patients is crucial in cardiovascular research and public health. Hypertension is a major CVD risk factor and uncovering additional contributors to cardiovascular risk in hypertensive individuals is vital for prevention and treatment. <strong>Aim of the study:</strong> This study aimed to assess the risk factors of cardiovascular disease among hypertensive patients. <strong>Methods:</strong> This prospective observational study was conducted at the Department of Medicine, Eastern Medical College &amp; Hospital, Cumilla, Bangladesh from July 2022 to June 2023. In this study, 95 hypertensive patients were included as the study subjects, and they were selected by purposive sampling technique. Data was collected using a semi-structured pre-designed questionnaire and data analysis was carried out using MS Office tools. <strong>Results:</strong> Among the participants, it was observed that hyperlipidemia was present in 83% of the cases as the most common risk factor. Additionally, physical inactivity (51.6%), obesity (46.3%), and smoking (44.2%) were identified as risk factors in more than 40% of cases. Some participants also had a family history of cardiovascular diseases (22.1%), diabetes mellitus (14.7%) and hypothyroidism (3.2%). <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Among hypertensive patients, the most common risk factors for cardiovascular disease include hyperlipidemia, physical inactivity, obesity and smoking. Patients in this group should also be aware of additional risk factors such as a family history of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and hypothyroidism.</p> <p>Eastern Med Coll J. July 2023; 8 (2): 29-32</p> 2024-03-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Eastern Medical College Journal https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/EMCJ/article/view/71977 Health State and Barriers to the Provision of Health Services among Forcibly Displaced Myanmar Nationals in Bangladesh 2024-03-17T08:39:48+00:00 Mohammad Nurunnabi nur.somch@gmail.com Md Amdadul Haque nur.somch@gmail.com Sadia Khanam nur.somch@gmail.com Tahsin Tasneem Tabassum nur.somch@gmail.com Farzana Akhter nur.somch@gmail.com ANM Shamsul Islam nur.somch@gmail.com <p><strong>Background: </strong>Forcibly displaced Myanmar nationals (FDMNs) are one of the most persecuted minorities groups, suffering from an abundance of health issues. They are exposed to a wide range of stressful events that are associated with adverse health consequences, which leads to decreased life expectancy due to increased morbidity and mortality. <strong>Methodology:</strong> A descriptive cross-sectional survey among conveniently selected 203 healthcare workers (HCWs) to assess the health state and barriers to the provision of health services to FDMNs in the Kutupalong and Balukhali camps at Ukhiya Upazilla, Cox's Bazar. Data were collected by face-to-face interviews by using a semi-structured questionnaire. <strong>Results:</strong> The mean age of the HCW was 29.2±3.6 years and mean service duration was 5.8±4.1 months. Most of the health facilities provided treatment for CDs (62.5%) and NCDs (80.0%). About one-third of the facilities had no laboratory facilities for diagnosing CDs (32.2%) and NCDs (40.0%). More than half of HCCs (55.0%) were maintain sterilization processes, such as boiling (90.9%), chemical components (45.5%) and an autoclave machine (13.6%). One-fourth of the HCWs (25.6%) get training during their joining times and above two-thirds of the HCWs (69.5%) received training after joining their service. The most frequently cited challenges faced during the provision of health services were transportation barriers (96.4%), language barriers (87.2%), scarcity of drugs (67.5%), vague disease histories (60.9%), unfavorable weather (59.4%) and electricity problems (44.7%). <strong>Conclusion:</strong> This study suggests that an organized primary healthcare service, specially designed for communicable and non-communicable disease prevention and management is necessary to improve health condition of FDMNs.</p> <p>Eastern Med Coll J. July 2023; 8 (2): 33-39</p> 2024-03-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Eastern Medical College Journal https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/EMCJ/article/view/71980 Hand Washing Practice among Secondary School Students in a Rural Area of Bangladesh 2024-03-17T08:52:47+00:00 Rehana Sultana rehanahossain189@gmail.com Hosneara Akhter rehanahossain189@gmail.com Airin Salim rehanahossain189@gmail.com Md Minudddin Hoshen rehanahossain189@gmail.com Priyanka Das Bristi priyankabristi4@gmail.com Taslima Sultana rehanahossain189@gmail.com Mahmuda Khandaker rehanahossain189@gmail.com <p><strong>Background: </strong>Human hands play a significant role in the spread of diseases, especially respiratory and diarrheal diseases, which continue to be the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among children worldwide. Hand washing is the most widely used preventive measure to lessen the spread of infectious diseases. It involves washing hands with ordinary or antimicrobial soap and water. This is especially important for school-age children, since they may be more susceptible to diseases associated with poor hygiene than adults’ age. There is evidence linking the promotion of hand washing habits through health education to a lower incidence of communicable diseases in school-age children. <strong>Objectives:</strong> To determine the socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents and to find out the practice of hand washing among the secondary school children. <strong>Materials &amp; Methods: </strong>A cross sectional study was conducted on 340 school students from 1<sup>st</sup> June 2022 to 30<sup>th</sup> November 2022 in Alekjan Memorial High School and College, Durgapur, Adarsha Sadar, Cumilla. Purposive sampling was used to gather all pertinent data using a structured questionnaire. <strong>Results: </strong>In schools, 69.7% of the respondents washed their hands properly. 96.7% of them used soap to wash their hands. About 98.2%, 95%, 86.8%, 82.9% and 80.3% of school children reported that they wash their hands before eating, after using the restroom, after eating, after playing and after working. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> According to the study, having access to soap and water is necessary for good hand washing technique as the majority of the students used soap during hand washing. By installing hand washing stations in schools, the regional government, that is, the education and health bureaus-should enhance the hand washing practices in schools. It is important for parents and other family members to focus more on behavior guidance related to hand washing.</p> <p>Eastern Med Coll J. July 2023; 8 (2): 40-44</p> 2024-03-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Eastern Medical College Journal https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/EMCJ/article/view/71964 More Health Risks in Fatty and Fried Meals 2024-03-17T02:10:32+00:00 Musleh Uddin Ahmed drmuslehuddinahmed23@gmail.com <p>Abstract not available.</p> <p>Eastern Med Coll J. July 2023; 8 (2): viii-ix</p> 2024-03-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Eastern Medical College Journal