Removal of Cd<sup>2+</sup> ions from aqueous solution using live and dead <em>Bacillus Subtilis</em>
Keywords:Biosorption, Cd2 removal, Kinetics, Isotherms, Bacillus subtilis-live and dead
Biosorption of heavy metals can be an effective process for the removal of toxic heavy metals present in the wastewater. An attempt is made in the present investigation to remove Cd2+ ions from aqueous solutions using B.subtilis. Batch experiments were carried out for Cd2+ removal over a wide range of operating conditions. It has been noticed that the Cd2+ removal capacity dependent on the initial pH and the initial Cd2+ concentration. Experimental data were analysed with kinetics and isotherm models. It has been observed that the pseudo second order kinetics and Freundlich isotherm equilibrium model fit well with the present data. The FTIR analysis of bacterial biomass revealed the presence of amino, carboxyl, hydroxyl and carbonyl groups, which are responsible for biosorption of Cd2+ metal ions. The results indicated that the biomass of B.subtilis is an efficient bioaccumulant for the removal of Cd2+ ions from aqueous solutions.
Key words: Biosorption; Cd2+ removal; Kinetics; Isotherms; Bacillus subtilis-live and dead
Chemical Engineering Research Bulletin 15 (2011) 18-24
Carmichael W. The toxins of cyanobacteria. Scientific American, 1994. 170 : pp. 7886.
Der R, Yousef M, Fahim Z and Fahim M. Effects of lead and cadmium on adrenal and thyroid functions in rats, Research in Communication in Chemical Pathology and Pharmacology,1977. 17 : pp.237253. http://www.researchgate.net/publication/22278351
Sharma P, Kumari P, Srivastava M M and Srivastava S. Removal of cadmium from aqueous system by shelled Moringa Oleifera Lam. seed powder, Bioresource Technology, 2006. 97(2): pp.299305. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15949938
Isabel V, Nuria F, Maria M, Nuria M, Jordi P and Joan S, Removal of copper and nickel ions from aqueous solutions by grape stalk wastes, Water Research, 2004. 38 :pp. 9921002. doi:10.1016/j.watres.2003.10.040
Liu H, Probst A and Liao B. Metal contamination of soils and crops affected by the Chenzhou lead/zinc mine spill (Hunan, China), Science of the Total Environment, 2005. 339 : pp.153166. DOI:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2004.07.030
Rickelton WA, The removal of cadmium impurities from cobaltnickel solutions by precipitation with sodium disobutyl dithiophosphinate, Hydrometallurgy, 1998. 50: pp.339344. DOI:10.1016/S0304-386X(98)00063-2
Wombacher F, Rehkamper M and Mezger K , Determination of the mass- dependence of cadmium isotope fractionation during evaporation, Geochim Cosmochim Acta, 2004. 68:pp. 23492357. DOI:10.1016/j.gca.2003.12.013
Selatnia A, Bakhti M Z, Madani A, Kertous L and Mansouri Y, Biosorption of Cd2+ from aqueous solution by a NaOH-treated bacterial dead Streptomyces rimosus biomass. Hydrometallurgy, 2004. 75:pp. 1124. DOI:10.1016/j.hydromet.2004.06.005
Volesky B, Sorption and Biosorption. BV Sorbex, Inc, Montreal, Canada, 2003. 316pages. www.biosorption.com/order (Link »)
Madrid Y and Camara C, Biological substrates formetal preconcentration and speciation, Trends in Analytical Chemistry, 1997. 16:pp. 3644. DOI:10.1016/S0165-9936(96)00075-1
Hussein H, Ibrahim S.F and Kandeel K, Biosorption of heavy metals from waste water using Pseudomonas sp., Electronic Journal of Biotechnology, 2004. 7(1):pp. 3846. DOI: 10.2225/vol7-issue1-fulltext-2
Yan G and Virarghavan T, Effect of pretreatment on the bioadsorption of heavy metals on Mucor rouxii. Water South Africa, 2000. 26:pp.119123.
Nourbakhsh M, K?l?c S, Arslan Ilhan S and Ozdag H, Biosorption of Cr6+, Pb2+ And Cu2+ ions in industrial waste water on Bacillus sp., Chemical Engineering Journal, 2002. 85:pp. 351 55. DOI:10.1016/S1385-8947(01)00227-3
Ahluwalai S.S and Goyal D, Microbial and plant derived biomass for removal of heavy metals from wastewater. Bioresource Technology, 2007. 98: pp. 22432257. DOI:10.1016/j.biortech.2005.12.006
Rathinam A, Balaraman M, Rao JR ,Nair BU and Thirumachari R, Bioaccumulation of chromium from tannery wastewater: An approach for chrome recovery and reuse. Environmental Science & Technology, 2004. 38 :pp. 300306. DOI: 10.1021/es034427s
Ho, Y S, Ng, J C Y and McKay G, Kinetics of pollutant sorption by biosorbents: review. Separation and Purification Methods, 2000. 29 :pp. 189232. DOI: 10.1081/SPM-100100009
Kuppasamy V, Joseph R J, Kandasamy P and Manicakam V ,Copper removal from aqueous solution by marine green alga Ulva reticullata. Electronic Journal of Biotechnology, 2004. 7:pp. 6171. DOI: 10.2225/vol7-issue1-fulltext-4