Bangladesh Veterinarian Published by the Bangladesh Animal Health Society. Full text articles available. Bangladesh Animal Health Society en-US Bangladesh Veterinarian 1012-5949 Prevalence of lameness in cattle in selected areas of Bangladesh <p>Prevalence of lameness was investigated in 1000 randomly selected cattle in Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU) and different dairy farms in Boira Union, Mymensingh during January to December 2015. The aetiology, age [Cal≤f 1 year, 1 - 3 years, 3 - 5 years and &gt;5 years], sex (male, female), different stages of cattle [Calves, Heifers, Pregnant cows, Lactating cows, Dry cows, and Bulls] and floor type (concrete, muddy floor, pavement, straw yard) were studied. Out of 1000 cattle examined, 111 (11.1%) showed lameness in different grades, with 82.0% slightly, 14.4% moderately and 3.6% severely lame. The aetiologies of lameness are upward fixation of patella, traumatic injury, foot and mouth disease (FMD) complications, arthritis, interdigital hyperplasia, interdigital dermatitis and interdigital necrobacillosis. Higher percentages of lameness were in hind limbs than fore limbs. Left hind limbs were more frequently affected than right hind limbs. Animals over 5 years of age were most vulnerable to lameness. Female especially high yielding cows were at higher risk (69.4%) than the male cattle (30.6%). Prevalence of lameness was higher when cattle were confided to the concrete floor than the muddy floor. Pregnant cows were the most vulnerable to lameness. It is suggested that aetiology, age, sex, different stages of cattle and floor type could be considered as risk factors causing lameness in cattle.</p><p><em>Bangl. vet</em>. 2017. Vol. 34, No. 1, 1-8</p> ML Ali M Hasan MAH Miah SM Hanif NS Juyena MA Hashim ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-28 2018-10-28 34 1 1 8 10.3329/bvet.v34i1.38707 Clinical and haematological changes upon administration of Xylazine-Ketamine and Xylazine-Thiopentoneanaesthetic combinations in ewes <p>The study was done to evaluate the effect of Xylazine-Ketamine and Xylazine- Thiopentone combinations for general anaesthesia in sheep. Six healthy sheep were divided into two groups: Group XK (n = 3), anaesthetized with Xylazine-Ketamine and Group XT (n = 3), anaesthetized with xylazine-thiopentone. Anaesthesia was induced using 1.1 mg/kg xylazine with 10 mg/kg ketamine or 20 mg/kg thiopentone as a single intravenous injection. Induction, duration and recovery from anaesthesia were monitored. Respiratory rate, heart rate and rectal temperature were recorded 15 min before and 5 min after induction, and 15 and 30 min and 24 hours after recovery. Packed Cell Volume (PCV) (%), Haemoglobin (Hb) (g/dL), Total Leucocyte Count (TLC) (millions per cubic millimetre) and Total Erythrocyte Count (TEC; Thousands per cubic millimetre) were measured before anaesthesia, one hour after induction and 24 hours after recovery. Heart rate increased significantly in both XT and XK groups and returned to control value 24 hours after recovery. Respiration rate decreased at 15 min after induction, then highly increased at 30 min and then returned to control value 24 hours after recovery in XK group. Rectal temperature decreased significantly in both groups. Hb, TLC, and TEC decreased, but PCV increased significantly in both groups. The mean time of induction of anaesthesia was less in XT group (0.2 ± 0.0 min) than in group XK (2.7 ± 0.1 min). The duration of anaesthesia and its recovery was less in Group XK than in Group XT. A combination of Xylazine-Ketamine and Xylazine-Thiopentone can be used to induce short term anaesthesia in sheep with negligible effects on clinical and haematological parameters.</p><p><em>Bangl. vet</em>. 2017. Vol. 34, No. 1, 9-19</p> DS Biswas M Hasan S Mallick NS Juyena M Shoriotullah MR Alam ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-28 2018-10-28 34 1 9 19 10.3329/bvet.v34i1.38708 Bacterial contamination of ram semen used for artificial insemination in indigenous ewes <p>Ram semen was assessed for quality and presence of bacteria. Four ejaculates were collected from each of four rams twice a week using artificial vagina. The volume varied from 0.4 - 1.3 mL, colour from 2 - 4 (creamy to creamy-grey), mass activity from 3 - 5, sperm motility from 75 - 85%, viability from 80 - 95%, and concentration from, 2500 - 5000 × 10<sup>6</sup>/mL. The mass activity of ram R6 was significantly (P&lt;0.05) higher (5.0 ± 0.0) compared with ram R1 (4.4 ± 0.5), R2 (3.9 ± 0.0) and R5 (4.7 ± 0.5). The mean motility was 81.7 ± 4.0, viability 90.0 ± 4.0 and concentration 3519.0 ± 545.6 x 10<sup>6</sup>/ml. <em>E. coli </em>and <em>Staphylococcus spp. </em>were found in all four rams’ fresh semen confirmed by culture, staining and biochemical tests. However, Bacillus spp. was found only in ram R5. When the semen samples were treated with antibiotics there was no growth of bacteria after three days of incubation. It is suggested antibiotics control the transmission of microorganisms through AI in ewes.<em></em></p><p><em>Bangl. vet</em>. 2017. Vol. 34, No. 1, 20-26</p> E Ahmed MS Islam MGS Alam PK Jha S Ghosh N Naher FY Bari ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-28 2018-10-28 34 1 20 26 10.3329/bvet.v34i1.38709 Pregnancy rate in indigenous ewes by direct transfer of vitrified embryos <p>The effects of PMSG on superovulation, quality of embryos, and pregnancy rate were studied following transfer of vitrified embryos into indigenous ewes. Three donor and nine recipient ewes were synchronized using two intramuscular doses of Cloprostenol (PGF2α) equivalent to 125 μg Prostaglandin F2α (Ovoprost® Bayer, New Zealand) at an interval of nine days. To ensure ovulation donor and recipient ewes were treated with 600 iu and 250 iu Pregnant Mare Serum Gonadotrophin (PMSG; Folligon®, Intervet, Boxmeer, The Netherlands) at the time of 2nd injection of Prostaglandin F2α. All donor ewes were mated by fertile rams. Embryos were collected from donor ewes on day six after mating by inguinal laparotomy. Grade 1 embryos were vitrified using standard procedure. After thawing the embryos were transferred into the exteriorized uterine horn of the recipient by inguinal laparotomy. Pregnancy diagnosis was performed by trans-abdominal ultrasonography on Day 40 of transfer. Oestrus occurred 31.3 ± 8.1 hours after second injection of prostaglandin and 32.6 ± 8.7 hours in recipients. Oestrus lasted 24.7 ± 9.9 hours in donors and 32.8 ± 12.8 hours in recipients. The mean numbers of corpora lutea and embryos of donor ewes were 11.7 ± 4.0 and 8 ± 2.6, respectively. Total embryo recovery rate of donor ewes was 68.6%. The mean values of qualities of embryo yield of donor ewes were 6 ± 1.7 grade 1, 0.3 ± 0.6 grade 2, 1.3 ± 1.2 grade 3, and 0.3 ± 0.6 grade 4. Twenty embryos were vitrified, 16 embryos were transferred and four recipient ewes were found pregnant. The pregnancy rate of recipient ewes was 44.4%.<em></em></p><p><em>Bangl. vet</em>. 2017. Vol. 34, No. 1, 27-33</p> S Ghosh MRI Talukder PK Jha MGS Alam NS Juyena FY Bari ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-28 2018-10-28 34 1 27 33 10.3329/bvet.v34i1.38710