Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University Journal https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BSMMUJ <p>A quarterly, single-blinded peer-reviewed, open-access journal of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Please submit your manuscript online. Each manuscript will be published immediately after acceptance.</p> <p>The journal follows the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors’ recommendations for the conduct, reporting, editing and publication of scholarly work in medical journals.</p> <p>The online version of the journal is available in HINARI, <a href="http://bit.ly/2qgfBS3">Directory of Open Access Journals</a>, Directory of Open Access Scholarly Resources, Journals for Free, WorldCat, Ingenta Connect, University of Toronto Libraries, University of New York Health Science Library, Wageningen University and Research, Genamics Journal Seek, SafetyLit, University of Saskatchewan, University of New South Wales Sydney Library, Princeton University Library. Research articles are available in ResearchGate.</p> Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University en-US Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University Journal 2074-2908 Role of bioactive molecules and maternal immune cells in breast milk in type 2 diabetes mellitus risk reduction https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BSMMUJ/article/view/41683 <p>Inadequate breastfeeding or its total neglect has been mentioned in several studies as a contributing factor to the globally rising incidence of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, the anti-diabetic role of breast milk has not been given much attention. As such, this study was initiated to review and bring to update on the role of breastfeeding in the risk reduction of T2DM. Relevant information on the topic was retrieved from the reliable science databases, including PubMed, MedLine, Google Scholar, Researchgate, etc. The results showed that breast milk is not energy dense and contains several health-enhancing bioactive molecules, including adipokines, antimicrobial and growth factors, cytokines, nutrients, and immune cells. Adipokines interact with the central nervous system to modulate certain physiological processes involved in energy balance, thereby programming an infant to be at a reduced risk for overweight, obesity and T2DM later in life. The antimicrobial and growth factors, as well as immune cells and bioactive nutrients may stimulate the growth of beneficial bacteria and/or inhibit the growth of pathogens. Thus, strengthen neonate defense mechanisms to effectively prevent infections as well as short and long-term disorders such as obesity and T2DM. In conclusion, nursing mothers are advised to breastfeed babies adequately before introducing them to complementary foods. To cater to the need of babies who may not have access to breastfeeding, healthcare providers should formulate infant formula using breast milk components as basic constituents.</p> Tajudeen Yahaya Mutiu Sifau ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-07-01 2019-07-01 12 2 69 79 10.3329/bsmmuj.v12i2.41683 Effect of Solanum melongena peel extract in the treatment of arsenical keratosis https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BSMMUJ/article/view/41844 <p>This study was conducted to examine the effect of the ointment containing <em>Solanum melongena </em>peel extract in the treatment of arsenical keratosis. In total, 23 patients were enrolled on the basis of inclusion and exclusion criteria. The ointment was given to each patient and advised him/her to apply to the site of lesion twice daily for 12 weeks without any gap. The size of the lesion and its photograph were collected before and at the end of the study. The mean (± SD) diameter of the lesion was 3.9 ± 2.1 cm which reduced to 1.8 ± 1.3 cm (reduction 54%). The results were statistically significant.&nbsp; In conclusion, <em>S. melongena</em> peel extract is found to be effective in the treatment of arsenical keratosis.</p> Quazi Sahely Sarah Mir Misbahuddin ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-07-01 2019-07-01 12 2 80 83 10.3329/bsmmuj.v12i2.41844 Occupation-related physical activities in osteoarthritis of the knee in female https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BSMMUJ/article/view/41230 <p>The aim of this study was to determine the role of occupation-related physical activities in the osteoarthritis of the knee. The study was conducted on 87 female patients from September 2016 to August 2017. The same number of healthy females of the same age group were included as a control. Data was collected using a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire, enquiring about demographic data and details of risk factors. There were statistically significant (p&lt;0.05) changes in the occupation-related physical activities like sustained knee bending, climbing stairs (&gt;10 flights/day), kneeling (&gt;30 min/day), squatting (&gt;30 min/day), in patients when compared to the control group. However, there were no significant changes in other occupation-related physical activities. Obese (BMI ≥30 kg/m<sup>2</sup>) patients were found 29.9% in the patient and 17.2% in the control group. Patients with a positive family history of osteoarthritis of the knee were 13.8% in the case group and 3.4% in the control group. The difference was statistically significant (p&lt;0.05) between the two groups. In conclusion, occupation-related physical activities like sustained knee bending, climbing stairs, kneeling and squatting had a significant association with osteoarthritis of the knee in the female.</p> Mohammed Emran Syed Mozaffar Ahmed Md. Israt Hasan Ali Emran ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-07-01 2019-07-01 12 2 84 87 10.3329/bsmmuj.v12i2.41230 Health-related quality of life following heart surgery https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BSMMUJ/article/view/39538 <p>This study evaluates the differences in preoperative and postoperative health-related quality of life of the patients following heart surgery and observed the factors that influence quality of life changes. This prospective observational study involved two parameters from the SF-36 questionnaire before and one year after heart surgery in a single surgeon’s practice. At the baseline assessment of the study observed 140 patients, predominantly were male in both study groups. The mean age was 56.8 ± 4.2 years, 64.7 ± 7.4 years in Group of patients age ≤ 60 years and age &gt;60 year’s respectively. In elderly aged group, patients have greater risk of co-morbidity, operative complications, and low preoperative as well as postoperative quality of life score. There was an overall improvement in all majority health domains of the SF-36 questionnaire among study population. Statistical results from Logistic multivariate analysis demonstrates a greater value of preoperative mental component summary scores (p=0.08), and physical component summary scores (p=0.01) as potential risk factors for non-improvement following heart surgery. Although, elderly patients (age &gt;60 year’s) with greater operative risk have low preoperative quality of life score, but demonstrate an equal improvement in most of the health domains following heart surgery as like as younger study population.</p> Redoy Ranjan Dipannita Adhikary Sanjoy Kumar Saha Asit Baran Adhikary ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-07-01 2019-07-01 12 2 88 93 10.3329/bsmmuj.v12i2.39538 Nanohybrid and microfilled composite resin in Class II restoration of permanent molar teeth https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BSMMUJ/article/view/40932 <p>The aim of this study was to compare the clinical performance of nanohybrid composite resin in Class II restorations placed with a one-step self-etch adhesive with that of microfilled composite resin of permanent posterior molar teeth. A total of 100 participants who received Class II restorations either with nanohybrid composite resin bonded with a single step self-etch adhesive or conventional microfilled composite bonded with a single step self-etch adhesive. All restorations were evaluated by using slightly modified USPHS criteria at baseline and after 3, 6 and 12 months. The results revealed that nanohybrid composite resin showed better clinical outcome than that of the conventional microfilled composite resin restorations in respect to retention and marginal adaptation at 12 months observation period. It can be concluded that nanohybrid is superior to conventional microfilled composite resin in respect to retention, and marginal adaptation of Class II restorations of permanent molar teeth.</p> Hasan Ali Md. Joynal Abdin Noor Jahan Akhter Mozammal Hossain ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-07-01 2019-07-01 12 2 94 98 10.3329/bsmmuj.v12i2.40932 Stressors perceived by the clinical undergraduate medical students towards the end of course https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BSMMUJ/article/view/41149 <p>Response or reaction of the mind to the pressure of life is stress. Medical students of Bangladesh are in stress to meet the demands of the curriculum. This study was conducted on the regularly passed final year students of a medical college to find out the nature of stresses perceived by them. The response was collected on a validated structured set of questionnaire, 3 weeks prior to the University level summative examination and 63 students (33 male and 30 female) participated in the study. Stress was expressed in five levels and scored as 0 to 4. Academic related factors were identified as maximum stress provoking (2.5 ± 1.3) than group activity (1.6 ± 1.4), drive (1.4 ± 1.5), teaching-learning (2.3 ± 1.3), personnel (1.8 ± 1.6) or social (1.9 ± 1.5) related factors. Of that group of stress, ‘falling behind reading schedule’ and ‘large amount of content to be learned’ were revealed as heavy stressors. Examination was identified as a severe stressor in 42.4% male, but was marked less (16.7%) in the female. ‘Too much restriction in the campus’ was observed as heavy stressors among the factors other than the academic related stressors. Students may be motivated to develop a coping strategy for academic and teaching-learning related stress.</p> Md. Ahsan Habib Md. Azizur Rahman Amju Manara Mahmuda Ayub Nasrin Begum Sharmin Hossain ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-07-02 2019-07-02 12 2 99 104 10.3329/bsmmuj.v12i2.41149 Conventional pap’s test and liquid-based cytology for the screening of cervical cancer with back up colposcopy directed biopsy https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BSMMUJ/article/view/41229 <p>The aim of this study was to screen the suspected cervical cancer patients (n=100) by liquid-based cytology and conventional pap’s smear followed by colposcopic biopsy from July 2016 to June 2017. In conventional pap’s test, 73 cases were true negative whereas 25 cases were false negative. However, in liquid-based cytology, 68 cases were true negative and 23 cases were false negative. Finally when colposcopic examinations were done, 61 cases were true negative and 15 cases were false negative. The sensitivity of liquid-based cytology was 11.5% for cervical cancer screening which was more than the conventional pap’s smear (3.8%). In conclusion, liquid-based cytology should be more preferable method than the than conventional pap’s smear for the diagnosis of precancerous lesion of the cervix.</p> Sabera Khatun Sayada Fatema Khatun ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-07-02 2019-07-02 12 2 105 108 10.3329/bsmmuj.v12i2.41229 A 32-year-old male with pain and discomfort during biting https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BSMMUJ/article/view/40914 <p>This article has no abstract. The first 100 words appear below:</p> <p>A 32-year-old male patient reported to the Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Military Dental Center, Dhaka with the complaints of mild to moderate pain and discomfort during eating in his upper left posterior region. His medical history was non-contributory. On extra oral examination, no abnormality was detected. On intraoral examination, clinically there was a dislodged restoration involving the upper left first molar tooth.&nbsp;On vitality test, the offending tooth showed no response to heat or cold. On percussion, ten-derness and dull percussion note were present. There was no mobility of the associated tooth.</p> Md. Abdul Hannan Sheikh Taib Bin Badsha Md. Joynal Abdin Mozammal Hossain ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-07-02 2019-07-02 12 2 109 112 10.3329/bsmmuj.v12i2.40914 A 6-month-old boy presented with progressive jaundice, dark urine and generalized pruritus for one month https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BSMMUJ/article/view/41228 <p>This article has no abstract. The first 100 words appear below:</p> <p>A 6-month-old boy of non-consanguineous parents admitted to the Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology with the complaints of progressive jaundice, dark urine and generalized pruritus for one month. The boy was well up to five months of age. Then he developed jaundice which was progressive in nature with intermittent pale colored stool along with dark urine. His mother also complaints for generalized pruritus which was severe in intensity (disturbing sleep and daily activities) without any diurnal variations. There was no history of sib death or family history of a similar type of illness.</p> Hazera Akter Md. Wahiduzzaman Mojumder A. S. M. Bazlul Karim Mohammed Kamal Kamrun Nahar Md. Benzamin ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-07-02 2019-07-02 12 2 113 117 10.3329/bsmmuj.v12i2.41228